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H  StuoE  of  tbe  Settlement  of  Englano  ano  tbe 
Uribal  Origin  7of  tbe  ©lo  JEnglfsb  people 








T.  W.  SHORE  AND  L.  E.  SHORE 





THIS  book,  which  is  the  outcome  of  many  years  of 
close  research  and  careful  study,  was  practically 
complete  at  the  time  of  the  author's  death,  and 
he  had  intended  its  early  publication.  Some  portions  of 
the  manuscript  had  been  revised  for  printing,  some  of  the 
chapters  had  received  numerous  additions  and  alterations 
in  arrangement  even  until  within  a  few  days  of  his  death, 
and  others  still  needed  their  final  revision.  From  time 
to  time  portions  of  the  subject-matter  of  this  work  had 
formed  the  text  for  papers  read  before  various  archaeo- 
logical societies,  notably  the  series  of  three  papers  on 
Anglo-Saxon  London  and  its  neighbourhood,  published 
by  the  London  and  Middlesex  Archaeological  Society. 
The  editors'  task  has  been  that  of  revising  and  editing 
the  manuscript,  and  seeing  the  work  through  the  press. 
The  order  of  the  chapters  and  the  general  scope  and  plan 
of  the  book  are  as  the  author  left  them.  In  discharging 
their  task,  the  editors  have  made  as  few  alterations  as 
possible,  and  only  such  as  they  felt  sure  the  author  would 
have  himself  carried  out ;  but  the  work  necessarily  suffers 



from  the  lack  of  that  final  revision  which  the  author  alone 
could  have  given  it.  Every  endeavour  has  been  made  to 
see  that  the  information  is  as  exact  as  possible,  and  most 
of  the  references  have  been  verified.  The  index  of  place- 
names  and  the  general  index  have  been  made  by  Blanche 
Shore,  the  author's  daughter. 

T.  W.  SHORE,  M.D., 
Kingswood  Road, 

Upper  Norwood. 

APRIL,  1906. 

L.  E.  SHORE,  M.D., 

St.  Johris  College, 



I.    INTRODUCTION         -  I 

II.    THE   SAXONS   AND   THEIR   TRIBES  -         1 8 

III.  THE  ANGLES  AND  THEIR   ALLIES  -        34 

IV.  THE   JUTES,    GOTHS,   AND   NORTHMEN        -  49 
V.    FRISIANS:   THEIR   TRIBES   AND   ALLIES     -  66 


VII.   OUR  DARKER   FOREFATHERS           -  103 

BALTIC   COASTS   -  -      121 



XI.  THE  JUTISH   SETTLERS   IN   KENT  -      l8l 


xiv.  WESSEX  (continued),  WILTS,  AND  DORSET  -    226 



XVII.   SETTLERS   IN   ESSEX  AND  EAST  ANGLIA  -  -      279 


XIX.   SETTLERS   IN   NORTHUMBRIA          -  -      307 

XX.   SETTLERS   IN  NORTHUMBRIA   (continued}  -      322 

XXI.   SETTLEMENTS   IN   MERCIA  -      335 



XXIV.   CONCLUSION  -      391 






IF  we  had  no  contemporary  information  of  the  settle- 
ment, for  instance,  of  the  State  of  Massachusetts, 
and  nothing  but  traditions,  more  or  less  probable, 
concerning  it  until  the  middle  of  the  nineteenth  century, 
when  an  account  of  that  settlement  was  first  written, 
we  should  scarcely  be  warranted  in  regarding  such  a 
narrative    as   veritable  history.     Its  traditionary  value 
would  be  considerable,  and  there  its  value  would  end. 

This  supposed  case  is  parallel  with  that  of  the  early 
account  of  the  Anglo-Saxons  and  the  settlement  of  Eng- 
land as  it  went  on  from  the  middle  of  the  fifth  to  the  middle 
of  the  seventh  century.  That  which  Bede  wrote  con- 
cerning his  own  time  must  be  accepted  as  contemporary 
history,  and  for  this  historical  information  we  venerate 
his  memory ;  but  the  early  settlements  in  England  were 
made  six  or  eight  generations  before  his  day,  and  he  had 
nothing  but  tradition  to  assist  him  in  his  narrative  con- 
cerning them.  We  may  feel  quite  sure  that  he  wrote 
his  best.  Many  of  the  old  chroniclers  who  copied  from 

2  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

him,  and  some  of  the  historians  who  followed  them,  have, 
however,  assigned  a  greater  value  to  Bede's  early  narrative 
than  he  himself  would  probably  have  given  to  it.  In  this 
work  it  will  be  our  aim  to  gather  what  supplementary 
information  we  can  from  all  available  sources,  and  among 
the  more  important  subjects  that  will  be  dealt  with  are 
the  evidence  of  ancient  customs  and  the  influence  of 
family  organization  as  shown  by  the  survival  of  many 
ancient  place-names. 

Anyone  who  departs  from  the  beaten  track,  and 
attempts  to  obtain  some  new  information  from  archaeo- 
logical and  other  research  bearing  on  the  circumstances 
of  the  Anglo-Saxon  settlement,  will  find  many  difficulties 
in  his  way,  and  that  much  time  is  required  to  make  even 
small  progress.  Here  and  there,  however,  by  the  com- 
parison of  customs,  old  laws,  the  ancient  names  of  places, 
and  other  archaeological  circumstances,  with  those  of  a 
similar  kind  in  Scandinavia  or  Germany,  some  advance 
may  be  made. 

It  is  to  tribal  organization  and  tribal  customs  that  we 
must  look  for  explanation  of  much  that  would  otherwise 
be  difficult  to  understand  in  the  Anglo-Saxon  settlement 
and  the  origin  of  the  Old  English  race.  Many  of  the 
ancient  place-names  can  be  traced  to  tribal  origins. 
Others,  whose  sources  we  cannot  trace,  probably  had 
their  origin  in  tribal  or  clan  names  that  have  been  lost. 
Many  of  the  old  manorial  and  other  customs,  especially 
those  of  inheritance,  that  survive,  or  are  known  to  have 
prevailed,  and  the  variations  they  exhibited  in  different 
English  localities,  were  probably  tribal  in  their  origin. 
The  three  national  names,  Angles,  Saxons,  and  Jutes, 
denoting  the  people  by  whom  England  was  occupied, 
were  not  the  names  of  nations,  as  nations  are  now  under- 
stood, but  convenient  names  for  confederations  of  tribes. 
The  dialects  that  were  spoken  by  the  English  settlers 
were  probably  mutually  intelligible,  but  were  not,  until 
the  lapse  of  centuries,  one  speech.  Their  variations  have 


not  yet  wholly  passed  away,  as  the  differences  in  grammar, 
vocabulary,  intonation,  and  pronunciation  of  English 
dialects  still  show.  It  is  to  the  ancient  tribes  of  North 
Germany  and  Scandinavia  that  we  must  look  if  we  would 
understand  who  were  the  real  ancestors  of  the  Old  English 
people,  and  in  comparison  with  the  Germanic  element, 
the  Scandinavian  has  probably  not  received  the  attention 
to  which  it  is  entitled.  The  old  place-names  in  England, 
except  along  the  Welsh  border  and  in  Cornwall,  are  almost 
all  of  Teutonic  origin,  but  we  cannot  say  what  they  all 
mean.  It  is  easy  to  guess,  but  not  easy  to  guess  rightly, 
for  the  Northumbrian  and  Mercian  speech  of  the  earliest 
periods  have  been  almost  lost,1  and  the  early  West 
Saxon  dialect  during  the  later  period  was  not  what  it 
was  during  the  earlier.  The  names  of  places  appear  in 
perhaps  the  majority  of  cases  to  have  been  given  them 
from  topographical  considerations.  Some  of  these, 
derived  from  hills,  fords,  woods,  and  the  like,  may  be  of 
very  early  date,  but  most  of  them  are  probably  later. 
The  place-names  derived  from  tribes  or  clans  are,  how- 
ever, as  old  as  the  settlement,  whether  they  arose  from 
a  kindred  of  people  or  from  one  man  of  a  particular  race. 
In  considering  this  subject  the  earliest  forms  of  local 
government  must  not  be  ignored.  In  the  primitive 
settlements  the  customary  law  was  administered  by 
families  or  kindreds.  It  at  first  was  tribal,  and  not 
territorial.  The  communities  must  have  been  known  by 
names  they  gave  themselves,  or  those  by  which  the 
neighbouring  communities  commonly  called  them.  Prob- 
ably in  most  cases  the  names  which  survived  were  those 
by  which  their  neighbours  designated  them.  As  regards 
the  disappearance  of  Anglo-Saxon  names,  nothing  is 
more  striking  in  one  county  of  Wessex  alone — Hamp- 
shire,  the  original  Wessex — than  the  large  number  of 
boundary  names  and  names  of  places  mentioned  in  the 
Saxon  charters  that  now  are  lost  or  are  beyond  identifi- 
1  Skeat,  W.  W.,  '  Principles  of  English  Etymology,'  p.  490. 

I — 2 

4  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

cation.1  There  are,  however,  mixed  with  the  Teutonic 
names  of  places  all  over  England,  others  denoting  natural 
features,  which  must  be  ascribed  to  an  earlier  period 
even  than  the  Anglo-Saxon.  In  the  work  of  reading  the 
great  palimpsest  exhibited  by  the  map  of  England  the 
philologist  claims  to  have  the  last  word.  He  tells  us 
of  declensions  and  conjugations,  of  vowel  changes  and 
consonant  shif tings,  and  much  more  that  is  valuable, 
assuming  to  give  authoritative  interpretations ;  but,  as 
Ripley  says,2  '  Because  a  people  early  hit  upon  the 
knowledge  of  bronze,  and  learned  how  to  tame  horses 
and  milk  cows,  it  does  not  follow  that  they  also  invented 
the  declensions  of  nouns  or  the  conjugations  of  verbs.' 

As  regards  the  names  of  places  that  were  called  after 
the  names  of  their  occupants  or  the  descendants  of 
some  early  settler,  those  in  which  the  Anglo-Saxon 
patronymic  termination  -ing  —  denoting  son  of,  or 
descendants  of — occurs  are  the  most  important.  This 
patronymical  word  -ing  has  been  shown  by  Kemble3 
to  have  been  used  in  place-names  in  several  ways.  In  its 
simplest  form  at  the  end  of  a  name  it  denotes  the  son 
or  other  descendant  of  the  person  who  bore  that  name. 
Another  use  of  it,  as  part  of  a  plural  termination,  was  to 
denote  the  persons  who  lived  in  a  particular  place  or 
district,  as  Brytfordingas  for  the  inhabitants  of  Brytford. 
It  is  also  sometimes  used  in  another  form,  as  in  Cystaninga 
mearc,  the  mark  or  boundary  of  the  Cystanings  or  people 
of  Keston  in  Kent,4  and  in  Besinga  hearh,  the  temple 
of  the  Besingas,  probably  in  Sussex.5 

The  word  ing  in  combination  was  also  sometimes 
used  as  practically  an  equivalent  of  the  genitive  singular. 
Examples  of  this  usage  occur  in  such  names  as  ^Ethel- 
wulfing-land  and  Swithraeding-den,  now  Surrenden  in 

1  '  Codex  Diplomaticus  ^Evi  Saxonici,'  edited  by  Kemble,  Index. 

2  Ripley,  W.  Z.,  '  The  Races  of  Europe,'  p.  456. 

3  Kemble,  J.  M.,  Philological  Soc.  Proc.,  iv. 

*  '  Codex  Dipl.,'  No.  994.  6  Ibid.,  No.  1,163. 


Kent,  which  are  equivalent  in  meaning  to  ^Ethelwulfes 
land  and  Swithrsedes  den,  or  wood.1 

In  the  Anglo-Saxon  charters,  or  copies  of  them  which 
have  been  preserved,  many  names  ending  in  the  word 
-ingas,  denoting  people  of  a  certain  clan  or  ga,  are 
mentioned.  Of  these,  about  24  are  in  Kent,  n  in  Sussex, 
5  in  Essex,  7  in  Berks,  8  in  Norfolk,  4  in  Suffolk,  12 
in  Hants,  and  3  in  Middlesex.2  Many  more  clans  no 
doubt  existed,  whose  names  may  probably  be  inferred 
from  existing  place-names.  On  this,  however,  I  lay 
no  stress.  The  termination  -ingahem  in  place-names 
occurs  in  a  large  group  in  the  North-East  of  France,  where 
an  early  Teutonic  colony  can  be  traced.  Local  names 
ending  in  -ingen  are  scattered  over  Germany,  most 
numerously  in  South  Baden,  Wurtemberg,  and  along  the 
north  of  the  upper  course  of  the  Danube,  and  it  was  to 
these  parts  of  Germany  that  people  closely  allied  to  the 
Old  Saxons  migrated.  They  moved  south-west,  while 
many  who  were  kindred  to  them  in  race  passed  over  into 
England,  and  hence  the  similarity  in  the  endings  of  their 

Anglo-Saxon  names  of  places  are  almost  universally 
feminine  nouns  ending  in  -e,  and  forming  the  genitive 
case  in  -an.  When  connected  with  other  words  they 
generally  appear  as  genitives,  but  sometimes  combine 
with  these  words,  and  form  simple  compounds  without 
inflection.3  Of  these  many  examples  will  appear. 

The  Old  English  place-names  of  which  the  words 
men  or  man  form  part,  and  which  do  not  appear  to 
be  names  derived  from  inflected  words,  are  somewhat 
numerous,  and  most  of  them  may  probably  be  regarded 
as  the  tribal  names  by  which  the  settlers  at  these  places 
were  first  known.  Of  such  names,  Normanton,  East- 

1  Kemble,  J.  M.,  loc.  cit. 

2  Kemble,  J.  M.,  '  Saxons  in  England.' 

3  Guest,  E.,   '  The  English  Conquest  of  the  Severn  Valley,' 
Journal  Arch.  Institute,  xix.  197. 

6  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

manton,  Blackemanstone,  Hunmanbie,  Osmenton,  Ocke- 
mentone,  Sevamantone,  Salemanesberie,  Galmentone, 
Walementone,  Elmenham,  Godmanston,  are  examples. 
It  is  hardly  possible  that  such  names  as  these  could  attach 
themselves  to  places,  except  as  the  abodes  of  men 
described.  These,  or  nearly  all  of  them,  are  Old  English, 
and  occur  in  the  Charters  or  in  Domesday  Book.  Broc- 
manton  is  also  met  with  in  the  thirteenth  century,1 
and  may  probably  be  traced  to  a  tribal  Brocman. 

The  philological  evidence  bearing  on  the  subject  of 
this  inquiry  is  of  two  kinds  :  (i)  The  evidence  of  the  old 
names  in  use  during  the  Saxon  period  ;  (2)  the  evidence 
of  the  old  dialects. 

The  anthropological  ^vidence  is  also  of  two  kinds, 
viz. :  (i)  The  evidence  of  human  remains,  chiefly  skulls 
from  Anglo-Saxon  burial-places,  and  that  of  similar 
remains  of  the  same  period  from  old  cemeteries  on  the 
Continent ;  (2)  the  racial  characters  of  people  in  various 
parts  of  Northern  Europe  and  in  parts  of  England  at  the 
present  time. 

The  archaeological  evidence  that  will  appear  is  not  only 
that  relating  to  objects  found,  but  also  to  customs  that 
prevailed,  especially  those  relating  to  inheritance,  which 
are  among  the  most  persistent  of  early  institutions.  In 
several  parts  of  England  accounts  have  come  down  to 
us  in  the  folk-lore  or  traditions  and  in  historical  refer- 
ences of  a  clan-like  feeling  between  people  of  adjoining 
villages  or  districts.  Traces  of  dislike  or  jealousy 
between  village  and  village  have  been  reported  in  several 
counties,  notably  in  Hampshire  and  Cambridgeshire.2 
In  the  latter  county  Conybeare  mentions  the  rivalry 
between  the  men  of  Barrington  on  the  Mercian  side  of 
the  Cam  and  those  of  Foxton  on  the  East  Anglian  side. 
He  shows  that  this  rivalry  was  of  ancient  date,  and  quotes 
a  reference  to  a  faction  fight  between  the  two  villages  in 

1  '  Testa  de  Nevill,'  626,  68. 

2  Conybeare,  E.,  '  History  of  Cambridgeshire,'  139. 


July,  1327.  Even  in  that  great  district  which  forms 
the  borderland  between  Yorkshire  and  Lancashire  stories 
are  still  current  of  the  reception  which  the  inhabitants 
of  the  Yorkshire  valleys  sometimes  met  with  when  they 
crossed  the  moorlands  into  Rossendale  in  Lancashire. 
The  traditional  reception  of  such  a  stranger  was  to  call 
him  a  foreigner,  and  to  '  heave  a  sod  at  him.'  Such  an 
old  local  tale  conveys  to  us  an  idea  of  the  isolation  that 
must  have  prevailed  among  some  at  least  of  the  neigh- 
bouring settlements  of  the  Old  English,  especially  when 
inhabited  by  people  descended  from  different  tribes,  and 
not  comprised  within  the  same  hundred  or  area  of  local 
administration.  Thorold  Rogers  tells  us  that  in  the 
Hampshire  Meon  country  the  peasantry  in  one  village, 
West  Meon,  had  an  open  and  hearty  contempt  for  the 
inhabitants  of  the  two  neighbouring  villages  which,  in  the 
case  of  one,  was  almost  like  the  dislike  of  the  Southern 
French  for  the  Cagots.  There  was,  he  says,  a  theory 
that  the  inhabitants  were  descended  from  the  ancient 
Britons,  whom  the  Jute  settlers  had  failed  to  drive  out 
of  their  morasses.1 

On  this  subject  of  strangers  in  race  settled  near  each 
other  Seebohm  says  :  '  The  tribal  feeling  which  allowed 
tribesmen  and  strangers  to  live  side  by  side  under  their 
own  laws  (as  with  the  Salic  and  Ripuarian  Franks)  was, 
it  would  seem,  brought  with  the  invading  tribes  into 
Britain.'2  In  the  cases  in  which  strangers  in  race  lived 
near  each  other  there  was  little  under  ordinary  circum- 
stances to  bring  them  into  social  intercourse,  and  the 
sense  of  estrangement  was  not  altogether  removed  after 
many  generations.  It  is  difficult  to  see  the  occasions  on 
which  the  people  of  different  primitive  settlements  some 
miles  apart  would  have  opportunities  of  meeting  if  they 
were  not  included  within  the  same  hundreds  or  wapen- 

1  Rogers,  Thorold,  '  Economic  Interpretation  of  History,'  284. 

2  Seebohm,  F.,  '  Tribal  Custom  in  Anglo-Saxon  Law,'  498. 

8  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

Bearing  in  mind  these  circumstances,  we  cannot  wonder 
if  it  should  appear  that  the  original  Anglo-Saxon  settlers 
in  some  instances  called  their  neighbours  in  the  next 
settlement,  if  they  were  of  a  different  tribe,  by  the  tribal 
name  to  which  they  belonged,  or  one  expressive  of  the 
sense  of  strangers  or  foreigners.  Such  a  meaning  is 
apparently  conveyed  by  the  use  of  the  Anglo-Saxon 
prefix  el,  other,  strange  or  foreign.1  Angles,  Saxons, 
Jutes,  Frisians,-  Danes,  Norse,  and  Wends,  comprised 
people  of  many  various  tribes,-  speaking  many  various 
dialects,  some  of  which  must  have  been  less  intelligible 
to  people  who  as  English  settlers  lived  near  them  than 
their  own  vernacular  speech.  In  this  sense  they  would 
be  more  or  less  strangers  to  each  other,  and  such  a  line 
of  cleavage  would  be  more  marked  in  those  cases  in  which 
different  local  customs  prevailed  in  neighbouring  town- 
ships. In  some  parts  of  England  we  may  still  find  here 
and  there  traces  of  old  place-names  denoting,  apparently, 
the  idea  of  other,  or  strange,  people.  Such  Anglo-Saxon 
names  as  Elmanstede,2  now  Elmstead,  in  Kent,  and 
Elmenham,3  now  Elmham,  in  Norfolk,  probably  had 
this  original  signification.  They  can  hardly  be  words 
derived  from  inflected  names.  These  and  other  similar 
names  express  the  sense  that  the  inhabitants  in  these 
hams,  steds,  worths,  beorhs,  and  tons,  were  other  men 
or  strangers  to  the  people  living  near  them,  who  probably 
gave  the  places  these  names.  It  is  difficult  to  see  what 
other  meaning  can  be  attached  to  such  names  as  Elman- 
stede and  Elmenham.  They  apparently  point  to  con- 
ditions of  early  settlement  somewhat  similar  to  those 
under  which  townships  are  formed  in  many  instances  in 
the  western  parts  of  the  United  States  and  Canada. 
There  emigrants  of  various  European  nations  are  forming 
their  new  homes  in  separate  communities  of  their  own 
people,  while  others  in  neighbouring  townships  who  are 

1  Bosworth  and  Toller,  <  Anglo-Saxon  Dictionary.' 

2  '  Codex  Dipl.,'  Index.  3  Ibid. 


doing  the  same  are  of  other  races,  and  are  strangers  to 
them.  The  newer  Anglo-Saxon  race  is  being  reju- 
venated on  American  soil,  as  the  older  stock  was  by  similar 
conditions  formed  in  England.  The  isolation  of  many  of 
the  earliest  villages  in  England  may  probably  be  seen  in 
the  traces  we  find  of  the  primitive  meeting-places  for 
exchange  of  commodities — i.e.,  the  earliest  markets. 
These  are  not  in  the  towns,  but  on  the  borders  or  marks 
of  the  early  settlements,  where  people  of  neighbouring 
places  appear  to  have  met  on  what  was  perhaps  regarded 
as  neutral  ground.  Some  of  these  old  border  places  may 
still  be  recognised  by  the  name  staple,  although  by  the 
rise  of  newer  villages  they  may  be  border  places  no  longer. 
Thus,  in  Hampshire  we  have  Stapler's  Down,  south  of 
Odiham  ;  Stapeley  Row,  Ropley  ;  Staple  Ash,  Froxfield  ; 
Stapleford,  Durley  ;  Staple  Cross,  Boarhunt ;  and  Stapole 
Thorn,  a  name  that  occurs  in  a  Saxon  charter  on  the 
south  of  Micheldever.1  An  example  on  the  border  of 
two  counties  is  that  of  Dunstable,  and  another  is  the 
Domesday  place  Stanestaple,  in  Middlesex. 

Even  as  late  as  the  time  of  Henry  I.  there  are  orders 
that  neighbours  are  to  meet  and  settle  their  differences 
at  the  boundaries  of  their  land,  and  there  are  many  traces 
of  the  meeting-places  of  courts  having  been  at  the  boun- 
daries of  ancient  settlements. 

The  settlers  who  became  the  ancestors  of  the  Old 
English  race  were  people  of  many  tribes,  all  included 
within  the  later  designation  Anglo-Saxon.  They  were 
not  exclusively  Teutonic,  for  among  them  was  a  small 
minority  of  people  of  various  Wendish  tribes,  the  evidence 
of  whose  immigration  will  appear  in  subsequent  pages. 
In  regard  to  speech,  there  must  have  been  many  dialects 
at  first,  and  we  can  trace,  more  or  less,  the  use  in  England 
of  three  classes  of  them — viz.,  the  old  Germanic,  whether 
Old  Frisian  or  Old  Saxon  ;  the  Old  Norrena,  now  repre- 
sented by  the  Icelandic  ;  and  the  Old  Slavic  speech  of 
1  '  Liber  de  Hyda/  pp.  86,  87,  A.D.  1026. 

io  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

the  Wends — the  Wendish,  of  course,  only  to  a  very  limited 
extent.  The  oldest  examples  of  the  Old  Northern  lan- 
guage are  not,  however,  to  be  found  in  the  Icelandic,  but 
in  the  names  and  words  graven  on  stones  in  runic  char- 
acters in  Scandinavia,  Denmark,  and  Britain.  This 
method  of  attempting  to  read  some  of  our  disguised  or 
altered  place-names  appears  to  be  reasonable  to  the 
archaeologist,  who  looks  not  merely  to  the  historical 
statements  of  the  old  chroniclers  and  the  names  for  his 
evidence,  but  also  to  the  surviving  customs,  to  anthro- 
pological and  archaeological  discoveries,  to  folk-lore,  and 
all  other  sources  from  which  information  bearing  on  the 
settlement  may  be  gleaned.  The  value  of  the  informa- 
tion that  may  be  gathered  from  these  sources  to  the  his- 
torian or  philologist  is  great.  We  can  see  on  the  Ordnance 
map  of  England  many  names  whose  origin  goes  back  only 
to  recent  centuries,  but  we  find  also  in  every  county  many 
others  of  extreme  antiquity.  If  we  could  fully  under- 
stand them  we  should  know  much  relating  to  the  Anglo- 
Saxon  period  of  our  history  of  which  we  are  now  ignorant. 
Even  the  different  ways  in  which  the  homesteads  in 
different  parishes  or  townships  are  arranged,  whether 
they  are  scattered  or  clustered  in  groups,  give  informa- 
tion by  which  the  archaeologist  is  able  to  assist  the  his- 
torian. The  scattered  homesteads  may  in  some  districts 
be  as  old  as  the  British  period,  or  in  others  may  have  been 
formed  first  by  emigrants  who  came  from  some  old  Con- 
tinental areas  where  the  Celtic  arrangement  survived. 
There  are  many  other  and  more  numerous  areas  where 
nucleated  villages  exist,  in  which  the  homesteads  are  col- 
lected, some  arranged  on  the  plan  of  having  roads  radiat- 
ing from  them — i.e.,  the  star-like  way,  similar  to  the 
German  type  common  between  the  Elbe  and  the  Weser. 
In  other  instances  we  find  collected  homesteads  of  an 
elongated,  rounded,  or  fan-shaped  form  enclosing  a  small 
space,  around  which  the  original  houses  were  built. 
These  resemble  the  village  types  east  of  the  Elbe,  in  the 

Introduction.  1 1 

old  Slavonic  parts  of  Germany,  and  the  type  was  in  all 
probability  brought  to  this  country  by  some  Wends  or 
Germanized  Slavs.  '  If  a  few  villages  here  and  there  are 
of  a  Wendish  rather  than  of  a  purely  Germanic  type,  we 
may  reasonably  look  for  traces  of  Slavonic  influence  in 
the  customs,  folk-lore,  and  in  some  at  least  of  the  names 
of  the  district. 

From  the  circumstance  that  various  old  dialects  were 
spoken  in  England  during  the  Anglo-Saxon  period,  it 
follows  that  we  may  look  for  the  origin  of  some  of  our 
place-names  in  the  Old  Norrena  of  the  northern  runic 
writing,  or  in  the  Icelandic  tongue,  as  well  as  in  those  of 
old  Germanic  origin,  and  perhaps  in  some  few  instances 
in  the  Old  Slavic  dialect  that  was  spoken  by  the  Wends, 
of  whose  settlement  in  England  evidence  will  appear. 
It  was  from  these  elements,  with  some  admixture  of 
the  Celtic,  that  the  Anglo-Saxon  language  was  formed 
on  English  soil.1 

In  the  Hundred  Rolls  of  A.D.  1271  there  are  many 
people  mentioned  who  bore  the  surname  of  Scot,  which 
was  no  doubt  originally  given  to  them  or  their  forefathers 
because  they  were  Scots  who  had  settled  in  England. 
Unless  we  are  to  believe  the  existence  of  the  mythological 
ancestors  of  various  tribes,  such  as  Angul,  the  eponymous 
ancestor  of  the  Angles  ;  Saxnote,  of  the  Saxons  ;  Dan,  of 
the  Danes  ;  Gewis,  of  the  Gewissas,  and  so  on,  we  must 
allow  that  the  earliest  individuals  who  were  called  by  a 
tribal  name  derived  it  in  some  way  or  other  from  that 
of  the  tribe,  as  those  first  called  Scot  did  from  the  early 
Scots.  Such  names  as  Scot,  Welsh,  Breton,  Cornish, 
Frank,  Fleming,  and  others,  were  apparently  given  to 
the  individuals  who  bore  them  by  people  of  other  descent 
near  whom  they  lived,  because  those  so  designated  were 
people  of  the  nations  or  tribes  denoted  by  these  names. 
We  may  also  trace  such  mediaeval  names  as  Pickard, 

1  Marsh,  G.  P.,  '  Lectures  on  the  English  Language,'  First 
Series,  42,  43. 

1 2  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

Artis,  and  Gascon,  to  natives  of  Picardy,  Artois,  and 

It  is  not  easy  to  see  how  such  a  personal  name  as 
Westorwalening,  which  occurs  in  Anglo-Saxon  literature,1 
could  have  arisen  except  as  the  designation  of  a  man 
belonging  to  the  tribe  of  Westorwealena,;  or  Western 

The  older  names,  Goding,  Godman,  Waring,  Quen,  Fin, 
Hune,  Osman,  Osgood,  Eastman,  Norman,  Saleman, 
Alman,  Mone,  Wendel,  Winter,  and  others,  may  also  be 
traced  to  the  names  of  the  corresponding  ancient  tribal 
people,  or  to  the  countries  whence  they  came.  It  is  very 
difficult,  for  example,  to  see  how  the  name  Osgood  was 
applied  to  a  person,  except  that,  having  migrated  from 
the  homeland  of  the  tribe  to  which  he  belonged,  his 
neighbours,  finding  it  necessary  to  designate  him  among 
themselves  by  some  name,  called  him  Osgood  or  Ostro- 
goth, because  he  came  from  Ostergotland  in  Sweden. 
These  tribal  settlers  were  all  included  under  the  general 
designations  of  Angles,  Saxons,  and  Jutes,  but  have  in 
many  instances  transmitted  their  tribal  names  to  us  in 
those  of  the  places  they  occupied. 

In  considering  this  part  of  our  subject,  it  is  important 
to  remember  that  the  nations  and  tribes  of  Germany  and 
Scandinavia  were  in  many  instances  known  by  more  than 
one  name.  The  people  sometimes  mentioned  as  Sassi  and 
Swaefas  were  Saxons,  or  very  closely  connected  with 
them.  Those  known  as  Hunsings,  Brocmen,  and 
Chaukians,  were  Frisians,  or  their  close  allies.  The 
Dacians  were  Danes,  and  the  Geats  and  Gutae  were  Jutes. 
The  Rugians  and  Wilte  were  tribal  people  among  the 
Wends,  and  these,  by  Scandinavians,  were  called  Windr 
or  Wintr. 

Some  of  the  Danes  were  called  after  the  names  of  their 
islands,  and  some  of  the  Goths  after  the  names  of  por- 
tions of  ancient  Gothland.  In  looking  for  traces  of  these 
1  Sweet,  H.,  '  The  Earliest  English  Texts,'  489. 

Introduction.  1 3 

races  among  our  ancient  place-names,  it  is  clear,  there- 
fore, that  the  old  tribal  designations  cannot  be  disregarded. 
Another  important  consideration  is  that,  for  one  man 
who  bore  a  tribal  name  which  has  survived,  there  may 
have  been  many  others  of  the  same  race  called  by  other 
names,  or  whose  names  did  not  become  attached  to  any 
place,  and  so  have  not  come  down  to  us.  The  testimony 
which  names  afford  must,  however,  be  considered  with 
caution,  for  it  is  certain  that  they  do  not  always  imply 
what  they  seem  to  imply.  From  the  archaeologist's 
point  of  view,  modern  place-names,  without  their  most 
ancient  forms  as  a  guide,  or  without  circumstantial 
evidence  showing  a  reasonable  probability  what  their 
most  ancient  forms  were,  are  almost  valueless.  The 
Anglo-Saxon  names,  however,  are  of  great  value.  Many 
instances  are  known  of  places  which  have  two  names, 
both  of  them  apparently  old,  and  it  is  probable  that 
instances  of  this  double  nomenclature  which  have  not 
been  recorded,  or  which  have  not  come  down  to  our 
time,  were  much  more  numerous.  As  already  men- 
tioned, many  places  must  originally  have  got  their  names 
from  the  people  who  lived  in  them,  or  from  people  who 
were  their  neighbours.  Possibly,  in  some  cases,  people 
in  neighbouring  settlements  some  miles  away  in  one 
direction  called  a  place  by  one  name,  and  those  some 
miles  away  in  another  direction  called  it  by  another. 
If  these  neighbours  spoke  different  dialects,  as  they 
may  have  done  on  the  borders  of  the  primitive  districts 
or  States,  the  use  of  such  double  names  would  be  more 
likely,  and  perhaps  in  some  cases  probable.  The  tendency 
to  give  nicknames,  or  ekenames,  to  both  people  and  places 
has  also  to  be  taken  into  account.  The  tendency  of 
people  to  turn  names  the  meaning  of  which  they  did 
not  understand,  or  which  had  become  lost  as  the  language 
became  modified  or  changed,  into  familiar  animal  or  other 
names,  such  as  Camelford  from  Gavelford,  when  the 
meaning  of  the  primitive  name  had  ceased  to  be  remem- 

14  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

bered,  must  also  be  recognised.  The  alteration  in  some 
place-names  may  be  traced  also  to  another  cause — the 
influence  of  humour.  Of  such  names,  whatever  may  be 
the  exact  date  of  its  origin,  is  that  of  the  vale  of  Cat- 
mouse  in  Rutland.  It  occurs  on  some  old  maps  as 
Catmose,  and  whatever  may  have  been  its  ancient  signifi- 
cance, it  is  certain  that  it  could  have  had  no  reference 
to  cat  and  mouse.  In  some  parts  of  England  the  old 
local  name  Mousehole  occurs.  This  is  probably  also  a 
humorous  name,  derived  in  some  instances  at  least  from 
mosshole — i.e.,  the  place  where  moss  or  peat  was  formerly 
dug.  Such  names  as  Sawbridgeworth,  the  Domesday 
name  of  which  was  Sabrixte-worde,  and  Hungriweniton 
are  examples  of  the  same  kind.  Market  Jew,  the 
popular  name  for  Marazion,  is  said  to  have  come  from 
the  old  name  Marghaisewe,  meaning  a  Thursday  market.1 
Ekenames  or  nicknames  were  also  used  by  the  Anglo- 
Saxons,  and  were  often  those  of  animals.  Such  a  name 
is  that  of  Barrington  in  Cambridgeshire,  as  cited  by 
Skeat,  the  name  denoting  the  ton  of  the  sons  of  Bera 
(bear).2  Barrington,  as  already  mentioned,  was  a  frontier 
village.  The  use  of  ekenames  or  nicknames  is  certainly 
as  old  in  this  country  as  the  period  of  the  Anglo-Saxons. 
Our  earliest  literature  affords  evidence  of  it.  They  were 
not  only  applied  to  individuals,  but  to  communities  or 
places.  It  is  perhaps  impossible  to  say  at  the  present 
time,  in  regard  to  numerous  old  place-names  that  still 
remain,  which  are  original  names  or  survivals  of  them, 
and  which  are  ancient  nicknames  or  survivals  of  them  ; 
but  it  is  probable  that  there  are  many  ancient  eke-  or 
nicknames  the  meanings  of  which  we  cannot  interpret. 
A  philologist  who  undertakes  to  explain  English  place- 
names  by  the  rigid  rules  of  modern  philology,  without 
taking  into  account  the  human  element  connected  with 

1  Courtney,  M.  A.,  Folk-Lore  Journal,  v.  15. 

2  Skeat,  W.  W.,  Cambridge  Antiq.  Soc.,  Oct.  pub.,  xxxvi., 
p.  1 8. 

Introduction.  1 5 

the  subject,  the  tendency  of  people  to  modify  names  into 
more  familiar  forms,  or  to  modify  their  sound  for  the 
sake  of  change  and  variety  alone,  will  find  himself  in 
difficulties  with  a  considerable  number  of  them.  The 
oldest  forms  of  those  place-names  that  are  also  tribal 
names  are  important  evidence,  which  will  not  be  invali- 
dated if  in  many  instances  the  name  has  been  derived 
from  the  personal  name  of  the  head  of  a  family  rather 
than  from  the  people  of  a  community.  The  early  cus- 
tomary ties  of  kindred  among  the  Anglo-Saxons  were 
very  strong.  With  a  chieftain,  some  of  his  kindred 
commonly  lived  under  a  primitive  form  of  family  law. 
A  chief  or  headman  named  Hundeman  or  Huneman 
by  his  neighbours  around  the  Anglo-Saxon  place  Hunde- 
manebi,  now  Hunmanby  in  Yorkshire,  may  reason- 
ably be  considered  to  have  been  a  Frisian  of  the  Hunni 
or  Hunsing  tribe,  and  the  people  who  settled  with 
him  to  have  been  of  his  family  or  kindred.  Similarly, 
where  we  find  a  place  named  after  the  Wends  or  Vandals, 
it  may  have  derived  its  name  from  the  Vandal  chief  alone, 
or  from  the  community  of  kindred  people  under  him. 
Such  an  Anglo-Saxon  name  as  Wendelesworth  in  Surrey 
could  hardly  have  been  derived  from  any  other  circum- 
stance than  the  settlement  on  the  south  bank  of  the 
Thames  of  a  man  named  Wendel,  because  he  was  of  the 
Vandal  or  Wendish  race,  or  from  a  kindred  of  Vandals. 
The  name  of  this  place  appears  much  earlier  than  that 
of  the  stream  of  the  same  name.  It  matters  little  whether 
the  name  arose  from  the  Wendish  chief  or  from  his  people. 
The  name  Wendel  was  probably  given  to  him  or  them, 
because  of  his  or  their  Wendish  or  Vandal  origin,  by  the 
people  of  adjoining  settlements  in  Surrey  or  Middlesex, 
who  were  of  another  tribal  origin. 

This  case  of  Wandsworth  is  interesting,  not  only  be- 
cause its  old  name  points  to  a  Wendish  origin,  but  also 
on  account  of  its  custom  of  junior  inheritance,  which  was 
of  immemorial  usage  and  came  down  to  modern  times. 

1 6  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

On  the  manor  of  Wandsworth  the  youngest  son  inherited 
his  father's  land,  a  custom  of  peculiar  interest  in  reference 
to  Wendish  researches.  The  Wends  who  took  part  in 
the  Anglo-Saxon  settlement  were  Slavs  of  such  a  mixed 
Slav  descent  that  they  had  retained  a  custom,  that  of 
junior  right,  which  was  the  ancient  law  of  inheritance 
among  the  Slavs,  and  it  is  very  difficult  to  avoid  the 
conclusion  that  the  Wendish  origin  of  the  name  is  con- 
firmed by  the  survival  of  the  custom.  We  are  not  now, 
however,  considering  the  settlement  in  any  one  district, 
but  the  general  evidence  of  a  mixture  of  people  of  many 
tribes  in  different  parts  of  the  country,  by  the  formation 
of  communities  of  people  of  various  races  near  each  other. 
In  connection  with  this  inquiry  the  survival  of  names  of 
places  derived  from  the  names  of  well-known  tribes  among 
the.  ancient  Germans  and  Scandinavians,  and  the  sur- 
vival here  and  there,  notwithstanding  the  changes  likely 
to  have  occurred  in  the  course  of  many  centuries,  of 
manorial  customs  which  are  known  to  have  been  ancient 
customs,  or  to  closely  resemble  customs  which  in  ancient 
time  prevailed  in  parts  of  Germany  and  Scandinavia,  are 
most  important  considerations.  Customs  of  family  in- 
heritance, where  they  can  be  traced,  are  in  many  instances 
of  as  much  value  as  contemporary  historical  information. 
It  does  not  appear  that  there  is  any  county  in  England 
where  the  surviving  place-names  are  exclusively  of  Saxon, 
Anglian,  Jutish,  Danish,  or  Norse  origin.  If,  for  example, 
we  consider  those  in  the  great  areas  to  which  the  natural 
entrances  from  the  sea  are  by  the  Humber,  the  Wash,  the 
Thames,  and  the  Southampton  Water,  with  its  adjoining 
estuaries,  we  shall  find  evidence  of  names  of  various 
origins,  pointing  to  settlements  of  people  of  distinct 
races  or  tribes.  In  all  parts  of  our  country  we  find  that 
during  the  last  thousand  years  men  have  left  in  their 
architecture  survivals  of  the  period  in  which  they  lived. 
Tribal  customs  among  our  forefathers  had  an  earlier 
origin  than  their  arts,  and  we  may  recognise  in  their 

Introduction.  17 

survival  proof  of  the  settlement  of  people  of  several 
different  tribes. 

Like  a  stream  which  can  be  followed  up  to  many 
sources,  the  Anglo-Saxon  race  may  be  traced  to  many 
tribal  origins.  It  is  not  the  purpose  of  this  book  to 
describe  the  conquest  of  England,  but  rather  its  settle- 
ment by  the  conquering  tribes  and  races.  With  this 
object  in  view,  it  is  necessary  to  give  attention  rather  to 
the  sites  of  settlements  than  the  sites  of  battles,  to  the 
arrangements  of  villages  rather  than  the  campaigns  by 
which  the  districts  in  which  those  villages  are  situated 
were  opened  to  settlement.  It  is  not  within  its  scope  to 
ascertain  the  number  of  conquered  British  people  slain 
on  any  occasion,  but  rather  to  find  the  evidence  which 
indicates  that  some  of  them  must  have  been  spared  in 
parts  of  the  country,  and  lived  side  by  side  with  their 
conquerors,  to  become  in  the  end  blended  with  them  as 
part  of  a  new  race.  It  is  within  its  scope  to  show  that 
in  various  parts  of  England  people  of  diverse  tribes 
became  settled  near  to  each  other,  in  some  districts  one 
tribe  preponderating,  and  in  some  another,  a  preponder- 
ance which  has  produced  ethnological  differences  that 
have  survived  to  the  present  time,  and  has  left  differences 
in  dialects  that  bear  witness  to  diversities  in  their  origin. 



WE  have  so  long  been  accustomed  to  call  some  of 
the  English  settlers  Saxons  that  it  is  with  some 
surprise  we  learn  none  of  them  called  themselves 
by  this  name.  As  far  as  England  was  concerned,  this  was 
the  name  by  which  they  were  commonly  called  by  the 
Britons,  and  it  was  not  generally  used  by  the  people  them- 
selves until  some  centuries  later.  Nations  and  tribes,  as 
well  as  individuals,  must  always  be  known  either  by  their 
native  names  or  by  the  names  which  other  people  give 
them.  They  may,  consequently,  have  more  than  one  name. 
The  name  Saxon,  although  not  used  by  the  tribes  that 
invaded  England  in  the  fifth  and  sixth  centuries  as  their 
own  designation  for  themselves,  is  more  ancient  than  this 
invasion.  Before  the  end  of  the  Roman  rule  in  Britain 
it  was  used  to  denote  the  part  of  the  English  coast  from 
the  Wash  to  the  Solent  and  the  Continental  coast  of 
North-Eastern  France  and  Belgium,  both  of  which  were 
known  as  the  Saxon  Shore.  This  name  apparently  arose 
from  the  descent  of  pirates  who  were  called  Saxons.  On 
the  other  hand,  there  is  evidence  leading  to  the  con- 
clusion that  there  were  early  settlements  of  people  known 
as  Saxons  on  these  coasts.  Both  these  views  may  be 
right,  for  the  piratical  Saxons,  like  the  Northmen  of  later 
centuries,  may  first  have  plundered  the  coasts  and  sub- 
sequently settled  along  them.  In  any  case,  a  Roman 


The  Saxons  and  their  Tribes.  19 

official  or  admiral,  known  as  Comes  litoris  Saxonici,1 
Count  of  the  Saxon  Shore,  was  appointed  to  look  after 
these  shores.  After  the  departure  of  the  Roman  legions 
the  partly  Romanized  Britons  naturally  gave  the  name 
Saxon  to  invaders  from  Germany,  as  this  name  had 
come  down  to  them  from  the  Roman  period,  for  after 
the  time  of  Constantine  the  Great  all  the  inhabitants 
of  the  coasts  of  Germany  who  practised  piracy  were 
included  under  the  Saxon  name.2  It  is  a  curious  cir- 
cumstance that  the  parts  of  England  in  which  the  Saxon 
place-names,  such  as  Sexebi  and  Sextone,  survived  at 
the  time  of  Domesday  survey  are  not  in  those  counties 
which  were  comprised  within  either  of  the  Saxon  king- 
doms of  England.  In  considering  the  settlement,  the 
name  Saxons  comes  before  us  in  a  wider  sense  than  that 
of  a  tribe,  as  denoting  tribes  acting  together,  practically 
a  confederacy.  In  this  sense  it  was  used  by  the  early 
British  writers,  Angles,  Jutes,  and  people  of  other  tribes, 
all  being  Saxons  to  them,  and  the  settlers  in  all  parts  of 
England  were  known  as  Saxons  by  them,  as  well  as  the 
people  of  Sussex,  Essex,  and  Wessex.  In  this  wider 
sense  the  name  Saxonia  was  used  by  Bede,  for  though 
an  Anglian,  he  described  himself  as  an  office-bearer  in 
Saxonia.  The  settlers  in  Hampshire,  who  after  a  time 
were  known  in  common  with  those  in  neighbouring 
counties  as  West  Saxons,  did  not  call  themselves  Saxons, 
but  Gewissas,  and  the  most  probable  meaning  of  that 
name  is  confederates,  or  those  acting  together  in  some 
assured  bond  of  union.3  Their  later'  name  of  West 
Saxons  was  apparently  a  geographical  one. 

The  name  Saxon  was  no  doubt  found  a  convenient  one 
to  describe  the  tribal  people  who  migrated  to  England 
from  the  north  coasts  of  Germany,  extending  from  the 
mouth  of  the  Rhine  to  that  of  the  Vistula,  but  among 

'  Notitia  Utriusque  Imperil.,'  '  Mon.  Hist.  Brit.,'  xxiv. 

2  Camden,  W.,  '  Britannia,'  i.,  ci. 

3  Stevenson,  W.  H.,  English  Hist.  Review,  xiv.  36. 


2O  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

themselves  these  Saxons  were  certainly  known  by  their 
tribal  names.  Saxons  from  older  Saxony  were  no  doubt 
largely  represented  among  them,  but  the  singular  fact 
remains  that  in  England  the  name  Saxon  was  used,  at 
first,  only  by  the  British  chroniclers  as  a  general  designa- 
tion for  their  enemies,  while  the  incoming  people  were 
clearly  known  among  themselves  by  their  tribal  names. 
At  various  periods  people  called  Saxons  in  Germany 
colonized  other  lands  besides  England.  Some  migrated 
eastward  across  the  Elbe  into  the  country  of  the  Wends, 
and  began  that  process  of  gradual  absorption  under 
which  the  Wendish  people  and  their  language  have 
now  been  completely  merged  into  the  German.  Others 
migrated  to  the  south. 

The  early  reference  by  Caesar  to  a  German  nation  he 
calls  the  Cherusci  probably  refers  to  the  people  after- 
wards called  Saxons.  Some  German  scholars  identify 
the  god  of  these  people,  called  Heru  or  Cheru,  as  identical 
with  the  eponymous  god  of  the  Saxons,  called  Saxnot, 
who  corresponded  to  the  northern  Tyr,  or  Tius,  after 
whom  our  Tuesday  has  been  named.1  The  Saxon  name 
was  at  one  time  applied  to  the  islands  off  the  west  coast 
of  Schleswig,  now  known  as  the  North  Frisian  Islands,  and 
the  country  called  by  the  later  name  Saxland  extended 
from  the  lower  course  of  the  Elbe  to  the  Baltic  coast  near 
Rugen.  The  earlier  Saxony,  however,  from  which 
settlers  in  England  came  was  both  westward  and  north- 
ward of  the  Elbe.  There  were  some  Saxons  who  at  an 
early  period  migrated  as  far  west  as  the  country  near  the 
mouth  of  the  Rhine,  and  it  was  probably  from  this  colony 
that  some  of  their  descendants  migrated  centuries  later 
into  Transylvania,  where  their  posterity  still  preserve 
the  ancient  name  among  the  Hungarians  or  Magyars. 

As  regards  the  Saxons  in  England,  it  is  also  a  singular 
circumstance  that  they  were  not  known  to  the  North- 

1  Wagner,  W.,  '  Asgard  and  the  Gods,'  translated  by  Anson, 
9,  10. 

The  Saxons  and  their  Tribes.  21 

men  by  that  name,  for  throughout  the  Sagas  no  instance 
occurs  in  which  the  Northmen  are  said  to  have  come 
into  contact  in  England  with  people  called  Saxons.1  One 
of  the  names  by  which  they  were  known  to  the  Scandi- 
navians appears  to  have  been  Swaefas. 

The  Saxons  are  not  mentioned  by  Tacitus,  who  wrote 
about  the  end  of  the  first  century,  but  are  mentioned  by 
Ptolemy  in  the  second  century  as  inhabiting  the  country 
north  of  the  Lower  Elbe.2  Wherever  they  may  have 
been  at  first  located  in  Germany,  it  is  certain  that  people 
of  this  nation  migrated  to  other  districts  from  that 
occupied  by  the  main  body.  We  know  of  the  Saxon 
migration  to  the  coast  of  Belgium  and  North-Eastern 
France,  and  of  the  special  official  appointed  by  the 
Romans  to  protect  these  coasts  and  the  south-eastern 
coasts  of  Britain.  On  the  Continental  side  of  the  Channel 
there  certainly  were  early  settlements  of  Saxons,  and  it 
is  probable  there  were  some  on  the  British  side.  These 
historical  references  show  that  the  name  is  a  very  old  one; 
which  was  used  in  ancient  Germany  for  a  race  of  people, 
while  in  England  it  was  used  both  in  reference  to  the  Old 
Saxons  and  also  in  a  wider  sense  by  both  Welsh  and 
English  chroniclers.  In  Germany  the  name  was  prob- 
ably applied  to  the  inhabitants  of  the  sea-coast  and  water 
systems  of  the  Lower  Rhine,  Weser,  Lower  Elbe  and 
Eyder,  to  Low  Germans  on  the  Rhine,  to  Frisians  and 
Saxons  on  the  Elbe,  and  to  North  Frisians  on  the 

In  considering  the  subject  of  the  alliances  of  various 
nations  and  tribes  in  the  Anglo-Saxon  conquests,  it  is 
desirable  to  remember  how  great  a  part  confederacies 
played  in  the  wanderings  and  conquests  of  the  northern 
races  of  Europe  during  and  after  the  decline  of  the 
Roman  Empire.  The  name  Frank  supplies  a  good 

1  du  Chaillu,  '  The  Viking  Age,'  i.  20. 

8  Ptolemy,  '  Geography,'  lib.  ii.,  chap.  x. 

3  Latham,  R.  G.,  '  Ger  mania  of  Tacitus,'  cxv. 

22  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

example.  This  was  the  name  of  a  great  confederation, 
all  the  members  of  it  agreeing  in  calling  themselves  free.1 
Hence,  instead  of  assuming  migrations  (some  historically 
improbable)  to  account  for  the  Franks  of  France,  the 
Franks  of  Franche-comte,  and  the  Franks  of  Franconia, 
we  may  simply  suppose  them  to  be  Franks  of  different 
divisions  of  the  Frank  confederation  —  i.e.,  people  of 
various  great  tribes  united  under  a  common  designation. 
Again,  the  Angli  are  grouped  with  the  Varini,  not  only 
as  neighbouring  nations  on  the  east  coast  of  Schleswig, 
but  in  the  matter  of  laws  under  their  later  names,  Angles 
and  Warings.  Similarly,  we  read  of  Goths  and  Vandals,2 
of  Frisians  and  Chaucians,  of  Goths  and  Burgundians,  of 
Engles  and  Swaifas,  of  Franks  and  Batavians,  of  Wends 
and  Saxons,  of  Frisians  and  Hunsings ;  and  as  we  read  of 
a  Frank  confederation,  there  was  practically  a  Saxon 
one.  In  later  centuries,  under  the  general  name  of 
Danes,  we  are  told  by  Henry  of  Huntingdon  of  Danes 
and  Goths,  Norwegians  and  Swedes,  Vandals  and  Frisians, 
as  the  names  of  those  people  who  desolated  England  for 
230  years.3  The  later  Saxon  confederation  is  that  which 
was  opposed  to  Charlemagne,  but  there  was  certainly  an 
earlier  alliance,  or  there  were  common  expeditions  of 
Saxons  and  people  of  other  tribes  acting  together  in  the 
invasion  of  England  under  the  Saxon  name. 

In  view  of  a  supposed  Saxon  alliance  during  the  in- 
vasion and  settlement  of  England,  the  question  arises, 
with  which  nations  the  Saxon  people  who  took  part  in 
the  attacks  on  Britain  could  have  formed  a  confederacy. 
Northward,  their  territory  joined  that  of  the  Angles  ;  on 
the  north  and  west  it  touched. that  of  the  Frisians,  and 
on  the  east  the  country  of  the  Wendish  people  known 
as  the  Wilte  or  Wilzi.  Not  far  from  them  on  the  west 
the  German  tribe  known  as  the  Boructarii  were  located, 

1  Latham,  R.'G.,  '  Germania  of  Tacitus,'  Epilegomena,  lix. 

2  Paulus  Diaconus. 

3  Huntingdon's  Chron.,  Bonn's  ed.,  148. 

The  Saxons  and  their  Tribes.  23 

and  these  are  the  people  from  whom  Bede  tells  us  that 
some  of  the  English  in  his  time  were  known  to  have  been 

During  the  folk-wanderings  some  of  the  Suevi  migrated 
to  Swabia,  in  South  Germany,  and  these  people,  called 
by  the  Scandian  nations  the  Swaefas,  were  practically  of 
the  same  race  as  the  Saxons,  and  their  name  is  sometimes 
used  for  Saxon.  The  Angarians,  or  Men  of  Engern,  also 
were  a  tribe  of  the  Old  Saxons.  Later  on,  we  find  the 
name  Ostphalia  used  for  the  Saxon  country  lying  east 
of  Engern,  now  called  Hanover,  and  Westphalia  for  the 
country  lying  west  of  this  district.  Among  the  Saxons 
there  were  tribal  divisions  or  clans,  such  as  that  of  the 
people  known  as  the  Ymbre,  or  Ambrones,  and  the  pagus 
of  the  Bucki  among  the  Engern  people.1 

This  pagus  of  the  Old  Saxons  has  probably  left  its 
name  not  only  in  that  of  Buccingaham,  now  Bucking- 
ham, but  also  in  other  English  counties.  In  Norfolk  we 
find  the  Anglo-Saxon  names  Buchestuna,  Buckenham, 
and  others.  In  Northampton  the  Domesday  names 
Buchebi,  Buchenho,  Buchestone,  and  others,  occur.  In 
Huntingdonshire,  similarly,  we  find  Buchesunorth,  Buches- 
worth,  and  Buchetone  ;  in  Yorkshire  Bucktorp,  in  Not- 
tinghamshire Buchetone,  in  Devon  Buchesworth  and 
Bucheside,  all  apparently  named  after  settlers  called 
Buche.  If  a  settler  was  of  the  Bucki  tribe,  it  is  easy  to 
see  how  he  could  be  known  to  his  neighbours  by  this 

The  Buccinobantes,  mentioned  by  Ammianus,2  were  a 
German  tribe,  from  which  settlers  were  introduced  into 
Britain  as  Roman  colonists  before  the  end  of  Roman  rule 
in  Britain.3  The  results  of  research  render  it  more  and 
more  probable  that  Teutonic  people  under  the  Saxon 
name  were  gradually  gaining  a  footing  in  the  island 

'  Monumenta  Germanise,'  edited  by  Pertz,  Scriptores  i.,  154. 

2  Latham,  R.  G.,  loc.  cit.,  Epilegomena,  Ixxxii. 

3  Stephens,  G.,  '  Old  Northern  Runic  Monuments,'  i.  61. 

24  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

before  the  period  at  which  the  chief  invasions  are  said 
to  have  commenced.  In  the  intestine  wars  that  went 
on  in  the  fifth  century  the  presence  of  people  of  Teutonic 
descent  among  the  Britons  might  naturally  have  led  to 
Teutonic  allies  having  been  called  in,  or  to  have  facili- 
tated their  conquests.1 

Ptolemy  is  the  first  writer  who  mentions  the  Saxons, 
and  he  states  that  the}'  occupied  the  country  which  is 
now  Holstein  ;  but  between  his  time  and  the  invasion  of 
Britain  they  probably  shifted  more  to  the  south-west, 
to  the  region  of  Hanover  and  Westphalia,  some  probably 
remaining  on  the  north  bank  of  the  Elbe.     He  tells  us 
of  a  people  called  the  Pharadini,   a  name  resembling 
Varini  or  Warings,  allies  of  the  Angles,  who  lay  next 
to  the  Saxons.     He  mentions  also  the  three  islands  of 
the  Saxons,  which  are  probably  those  known  now  as  the 
North  Frisian   Islands,   north   of  the   coast  where   the 
Saxons  he  mentioned  are  said  to  have  lived.     This  is 
the  country  that  within  historic  time  has  been,  and  still 
is  in  part,  occupied  by  the  North  Frisians.     The  origin 
of  the  name  Saxon  has  been  a  puzzle  to  philologists,  and 
Latham  has  summed  up  the  evidence  in  favour  of  its 
being  a  native  name  as  indecisive.     There  was  certainly 
a  god  known  in  Teutonic  mythology  as  Saxnote  or  Sax- 
neat,  but  whether  the  name  Saxon  was  derived  from  the 
god,  or  the  god  derived  his  name  from  the  people  who 
reverenced  him,  is  uncertain.     We  find  this  Saxnote  men- 
tioned in  the  pedigree  of  the  early  Kings  of  Essex.  Thunar, 
Woden,  and  Saxnote  are  also  mentioned  as  the  gods  whom 
the  early  Christians  in  Germany  had  to  declare  publicly 
that   they  would  forsake,2  and  the  identity  of  Saxnote 
with  Tiu,  Tius,  or  Tyr,  is  apparent  from  this  as  well 
as  from  other  evidence. 

During  the  Roman  period  a  large  number  of  Germans, 
fleeing   from   the   south-east,   arrived  in   the   plains   of 

1  Stephens,  G.,  '  Old  Northern  Runic  Monuments/  i.  62. 

2  '  Monumenta  Germanise,'  edited  by  Pertz,  i.  19.; 

The  Saxons  and  their  Tribes.  25 

Belgium,  and  the  names  Flamand,  Flemish,  and  Flanders 

were  derived  from  these  refugees,  who  in  some  accounts 
are  described  as  Saxons,  and  the  coast  they  occupied  as 
the  well  -  known  litus  Saxonicum,  or  Saxon  shore.1 
This  is  an  important  consideration  in  reference  to  the 
subsequent  settlement  of  England,  for  it  shows  that 
there  were  people  called  Saxons  before  the  actual  in- 
vasion occurred,  located  on  a  coast  much  nearer  to  this 
country  than  that  along  the  Elbe.  In  the  time  of  Charle- 
magne the  lower  course  of  the  Elbe  divided  the  Saxons 
into  two  chief  branches,  and  those  to  the  north  of  it  were 
called  Nordalbingians,  or  people  north  of  the  Elbe,  which 
is  the  position  where  the  Saxons  of  Ptolemy's  time  are 
said  to  have  been  located.  One  of  the  neighbouring  races 
to  the  Saxons  in  the  first  half  of  the  sixth  century  in  North 
Germany  was  the  Longobards  or  Lombards.  Their  great 
migration  to  the  south  under  their  King  Alboin,  and  their 
subsequent  invasion  of  Italy,  occurred  about  the  middle 
of  the  sixth  century.  This  was  about  the  time  when  the 
Saxons  were  defeated  with  great  slaughter  near  the  Weser 
by  Hlothaire,  King  of  the  Franks.  Some  of  the  survivors 
are  said  to  have  accompanied  the  Lombards,  and  others 
in  all  probability  helped  to  swell  the  number  of  emigrants 
into  England.  It  is  probable  that  after  this  time  they 
became  more  or  less  scattered  to  the  south  and  across  the 
sea,  and  in  Germany  the  modern  name  Saxony  along  the 
upper  course  of  the  Elbe  is  a  surviving  name  of  a  larger 
Saxony.  The  Germans  have  an  ancient  proverb  which  is 
still  in  use  :  '  There  are  Saxons  wherever  pretty  girls 
grow  out  of  trees  '2 — perhaps  a  reference  to  the  fair 
complexion  of  the  old  Saxon  race,  and  to  its  wide 

The  circumstance  that  the  maritime  inhabitants  of  the 
German  coasts  were  known  as  Saxons  before  the  fall  of 
the  Roman  Empire  shows  that  the  name  was  applied  to 

1  Reclus,  E.,  '  Nouvelle  Geographic  Universelle,'  iv.  81,  82. 

2  Menzel,  W.,  '  History  of  Germany,'  Bohn's  ed.,  i.  117. 

26  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

a  seafaring  people,  and  under  it  at  that  time  the  early 
Frisians  were  probably  included.  The  later  information 
we  obtain  concerning  the  identity -of  the  wergelds,  or 
payments  for  injuries,  that  prevailed  among  both  of 
these  nations  supports  this  view.  The  Saxon  as  well  as 
the  Frisian  wergeld  to  be  paid  to  the  kindred  in  the  case 
of  a  man  being  killed  was  160  solidi,  or  shillings.1 

There  are  two  sources,  so  far  as  our  own  island  is  con- 
cerned, whence  we  may  derive  historical  information  con- 
cerning the  conquest  and  settlement  of  England — viz., 
from  the  earliest  English  writers  and  from  the  earliest 
Welsh  writers.  Bede  is  the  earliest  author  of  English 
birth,  and  Nennius,  to  whom  the  '  Historia  Britonum  ' 
is  ascribed,  is  the  earliest  Welsh  author.  The  veracity 
of  the  '  Historia  Britonum  '  is  not  seriously  doubted — 
at  least,  the  book  under  that  name  of  which  Nennius  is 
the  reputed  author.  Its  date  is  probably  about  the 
middle  of  the  eighth  century,  and  we  have  no  reason  to 
suppose  that  the  learning  to  be  found  at  that  time  in 
the  English  monasteries  was  superior  to  that  in  the 
Welsh.  Nennius  lived  in  the  same  century  as  Bede, 
but  wrote  about  half  a  century  later.  His  information 
is  of  value  as  pointing  to  a  large  number  of  German 
tribes  under  the  general  name  of  Saxons,  rather  than 
people  of  one  nationality  only,  having  taken  part  in  the 
invasion  and  settlement  of  England.  Nennius  tells  us 
of  the  struggles  which  went  on  between  the  Britons  and 
the  invaders.  He  says  :  '  The  more  the  Saxons  were 
vanquished,  the  more  they  sought  for  new  supplies  of 
Saxons  from  Germany,  so  that  Kings,  commanders,  and 
military  bands  were  invited  over  from  almost  every  pro- 
vince. And  this  practice  they  continued  till  the  reign 
of  Inda,  who  was  the  son  of  Eoppa ;  he  of  the  Saxon  race 
was  the  first  King  in  Bernicia,  and  in  Caer  Ebrauc 

1  Seebohm,  F.,  '  Tribal  Custom  in  Anglo-Saxon  Law,'  213. 

2  Nennius,  '  Historia  Britonum/  Bonn's  ed.,  p.  409. 

The  Saxons  and  their  Tribes.  27 

In  reference  to  Csesar's  account  of  German  tribes,  it  is 
significant  that  he  mentions  a  tribe  or  nation  called  the 
Cherusci  as  the  head  of  a  great  confederation.  It  is  of 
interest  to  note  also  that,  as  long  as  we  find  the  name 
Cherusci  used.  Saxons  are  not  mentioned,  but  as  soon  as 
the  Cherusci  disappear  by  name  the  Saxons  appear,  and 
these  in  a  later  time  also  formed  a  great  confederacy. 
The  name  Gewissas,  which  was  that  by  which  the  West 
Saxons  were  known,  included  Jutes — i.e.,  in  all  proba- 
bilitjr,  Goths,  Frisians,  Wends,  and  possibly  people  of 
other  tribes,  as  well  as  those  from  the  Saxon  fatherland. 

The  Saxons  of  England  were  converted  to  Christianity 
before  those  of  the  Continent,  and  we  derive  some  in- 
direct information  of  the  racial  affinities  between  these 
peoples  from  the  accounts  of  the  early  missionary  zeal 
of  priests  from  England  among  the  old  Saxons.  Two 
of  these,  who  are  said  to  have  been  Anglians,  went  into 
Saxony  to  convert  the  people,  and  were  murdered  there  ; 
but  in  after-centuries  their  names  were  held  in  high 
reverence,  and  are  still  honoured  in  Westphalia.  We 
can  scarcely  think  that  they  would  have  set  forth  on 
such  a  missionary  expedition  unless  their  dialect  or 
language  had  so  much  in  common  as  to  enable  them  as 
Anglians  from  England  to  make  themselves  easily  under- 
stood to  these  old  Saxons. 

The  question  who  were  the  true  Saxons — i.e.,  the 
Saxons  specifically  so  called  in  Germany — has  been  much 
discussed.  The  name  may  not  have  been  a  native  one, 
but  have  been  fixed  on  them  by  others,  in  which  case, 
as  Beddoe  says,  it  is  easier  to  believe  that  the  Frisians 
were  often  included  under  it.1  They  may  have  been,  and 
probably  were,  a  great  martial  and  aggressive  tribe,  which 
spread  from  the  country  along  the  Elbe  over  the  country  of 
the  Weser,  after  conquering  its  previous  inhabitants,  the 
Boructarii,  or  Bructers.  Such  a  migration  best  accounts 
for  the  later  appearance  of  Saxons  in  the  region  which 
1  Beddoe,  J.,  '  Races  in  Britain,'  41. 

28  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

the  Old  English  called  Old  Saxony,  and  erroneously 
looked  upon  as  their  old  home,  because  their  kindred 
had  come  to  occupy  it  since  their  separation.  The 
Saxonia  of  the  ninth  century  included  Hanover,  West- 
phalia, and  Holstein,  as  opposed  to  Friesland,  Schleswig, 
the  Middle  Rhine  provinces,  and  the  parts  east  of  the 
Elbe,  which  were  Frisian,  Danish,  Frank,  and  Slavonic 
respectively.1  Among  the  Saxons  of  the  country  north 
of  the  Elbe  were  the  people  of  Stormaria,  whose  name 
survived  in  that  of  the  river  Stoer,  a  boundary  of  it,  and 
perhaps  also  in  one  or  more  of  the  rivers  Stour,  where 
some  of  the  Stormarii  settled  in  England. 

William  of  Malmesbury,  who  wrote  early  in  the  twelfth 
century,  tells  us  that  the  ancient  country  called  Germany 
was  divided  into  many  provinces,  and  took  its  name  from 
germinating  so  many  men.  This  may  be  a  fanciful  deriva- 
tion, but  he  goes  on  to  say  that,  '  as  the  pruner  cuts  off 
the  more  luxuriant  branches  of  the  tree  to  impart  a  livelier 
vigour  to  the  remainder,  so  the  inhabitants  of  this  country 
assist  their  common  parent  by  the  expulsion  of  a  part  of 
their  members,  lest  she  should  perish  by  giving  sustenance 
to  too  numerous  an  offspring ;  but  in  order  to  obviate  the 
discontent,  they  cast  lots  who  shall  be  compelled  to 
migrate.  Hence  the  men  of  this  country  made  a  virtue 
of  necessity,  and  when  driven  from  their  native  soil  have 
gained  foreign  settlements  by  force  of  arms.'2  He  gives 
as  instances  of  this  the  Vandals,  Goths,  Lombards,  and 
Normans.  There  is  other  evidence  of  the  prevalence  of 
this  custom.  The  story  of  Hengist  and  Horsa  is  one  of 
the  same  kind.  The  custom  appears  to  have  been  common 
to  many  different  nations  or  tribes  in  the  northern  parts 
of  Europe,  and  points,  consequently,  to  the  pressure  of 
an  increasing  population  and  to  diversity  of  origin  among 
the  settlers  known  as  Saxons,  Angles,  and  Jutes  in 

1  Latham,  R.  G.,  '  Handbook  of  the  English  Language,'  23. 

2  William  of  Malmesbury's  Chronicle,  ed.  by  Giles,  Book  I.,  cl. 

The  Saxons  and  their  Tribes.  29 

The  invasions  of  England  at  different  periods  between 
the  fifth  and  tenth  centuries,  and  the  settlement  of  the 
country  as  it  was  until  the  end  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  period, 
were  invasions  and  settlements  of  different  tribes.  It  is 
necessary  to  emphasize  this.  Bede's  list  of  nations,  among 
others,  from  whom  the  Anglo-Saxon  people  in  his  day 
were  known  to  have  descended  is  considerably  longer 
and  more  varied  than  that  of  Jutes,  Saxons,  and  Angles. 
During  the  centuries  that  followed  his  time  people  of 
other  races  found  new  homes  here,  some  by  conquest,  as 
in  the  case  of  Norse  and  Danes,  and  others  by  peaceful 
means,  as  in  the  time  of  King  Alfred,  when,  as  Asser  tells 
us,  Franks,  Frisians,  Gauls,  Pagans,  Britons,  Scots,  and 
Armoricans  placed  themselves  under  his  government.1 
As  Alfred  made  no  Continental  conquests,  the  Franks, 
Gauls,  and  Frisians  must  have  become  peaceful  settlers 
in  England,  and  as  the  only  pagans  in  his  time  in  Europe 
were  the  northern  nations — Danes,  Norse,  Swedes,  and 
Wends — some  of  these  must  also  have  peacefully  settled 
in  his  country,  as  we  know  that  Danes  and  Norse  did 
largely  during  this  as  well  as  a  later  period.  Men  of 
many  different  races  must  have  been  among  the  ancestors 
of  both  the  earlier  and  later  Anglo-Saxon  people. 

In  the  eighth  and  ninth  centuries  three  kingdoms  in 
England  bore  the  Saxon  name,  as  mentioned  by  Bede 
and  the  Anglo-Saxon  Chronicle  —  viz.,  Essex,  Sussex, 
and  Wessex — and  one  province,  Middlesex.  As  will  be 
seen  when  considering  the  evidence  relating  to  the  settlers 
in  various  parts  of  England,  it  does  not  follow  that  these 
several  parts  of  our  country  which  were  called  after  the 
Saxon  name  were  colonized  by  people  known  as  Saxons 
in  Germany.  The  customs  that  prevailed  in  these  parts 
of  England  were  different  in  many  localities.  The  relics 
of  the  Anglo-Saxon  period  that  have  been  discovered  in 
these  districts  present  also  some  distinctive  features.  It 

1  Asset's  '  Life  of  Alfred,'  edited  by  Camden  in  '  Anglica 
Scripta,'  p.  13. 

3O  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

is  certain  from  the  customs  that  prevailed,  some  of  which 
have  survived,  from  the  remains  found,  from  the  old 
place-names,  and  from  the  variations  in  the  shape 
of  the  skulls  discovered,  that  the  people  of  the  Saxon 
kingdoms  of  England  could  not  have  been  people 
of  one  race.  The  anthropological  evidence  which  has 
been  collected  by  Beddoe 1  and  others  confirms  this,  for 
the  skulls  taken  from  Saxon  cemeteries  in  England 
exhibit  differences  in  the  shape  of  the  head  which  could 
not  have  resulted  from  accidental  variations  in  the  head- 
form  of  people  all  of  one  uniform  race  or  descent.2  The 
typical  Saxon  skull  was  dolichocephalic,  or  long,  the 
breadth  not  exceeding  four-fifths  of  the  length,  like  those 
of  all  the  nations  of  the  Gothic  stock.  Goths,  Norwegians, 
Swedes,  Danes,  Angles,  and  Saxons  among  the  ancient 
nations  all  had  this  general  head-form,  as  shown  by  the 
remains  of  these  several  races  which  have  been  found, 
and  from  the  head-form  of  the  modern  nations  descended 
from  them  ;  but  among  these  long-headed  people  there 
were  some  with  variations  in  the  skull  and  a  few  with 
broad  skulls. 

The  Saxons  must  have  been  nearly  allied  to  some  of 
the  Angles.  This  is  shown  by  the  probability  that  the 
so-called  Saxons  are  located  by  Ptolemy  in  the  country 
north  of  the  Elbe,  which  by  other  early  writers  is  assigned 
mainly  to  the  Angles.  His  references  to  the  tribe  or 
nation  known  as  the  Suevi  point  to  the  same  conclusion, 
the  Suevi -Angli  mentioned  by  him3  being  apparently 
another  name  for  the  people  of  the  country  which,  accord- 
ing to  others,  was  occupied  by  Saxons,  and  these  Suevi 
or  Suabi  are  mentioned  as  a  Saxon  pagus  in  early  German 
records.4  The  Scandian  peninsula,  so  remarkable  for 

1  Loc.  cit. 

2  Haddon,  A.  C,  '  The  Study  of  Man,'  quoting  Beddoe,  '  His- 
toire  de  1'Indice  cephalique.' 

3  Latham,  '  Germania  of  Tacitus,'  27,  quoting  Ptolemy. 
*  '  Monumenta  Germanise,'  edited  by  Pertz,  i.  368. 

The  Saxons  and  their  Tribes.  31 

early  emigration,  was  probably  the  original  home  at  some 
very  remote  period  of  the  ancestors  of  the  nations  known 
in  later  centuries  as  Saxons,  Suevi,  and  Angles.     The 
racial  characters    of    all  the  Teutonic  tribes  of  North 
Germany,  as  of  their  modern  representatives,  were  fair 
hair  and  eyes,  and  heads  of  the  dolichocephalic  shape. 
These  characters  differentiated  the  northern   tribes  of 
Germany  from  the  more  ancient  occupants  of  Central 
Europe,  as  at  the  present  time  they  distinguish  them  from 
the  darker-haired  South  Germans  of  Bavaria  and  Austria, 
who  have  broader  skulls  than  those  of  the  north.     The 
skulls  which  are  found  in  ancient  burial-places  in  Ger- 
many of  the  same  age  as  the  Anglo-Saxon  period  are  of 
two  main  types — viz.,  the  dolichocephalic  or  long,  and  the 
brachycephalic  or  broad.     In  the  old  burial-places  at 
Bremen,  from  which  103  examples  were  obtained,  only 
5  typical  broad  skulls  were  found,  against  72  typical  long 
skulls  and  26  which  were  classed  by  Gildemeister  as 
intermediate  in  form.1     These  26  he  regarded  as  Frisian, 
and  gave  them  the  name  Batavian.     In  the  South  of 
Germany  graves  of  the  same  age  yield  a  majority  of  broad 
skulls,  which  closely  correspond  to  those  of  the  peasantry 
of  the  present  time  in  the  same  parts  of  the  country. 
From  this  it  may  be  inferred  that  during  the  period  of 
the  English  settlement  people  with  long  skulls  were  in 
a  great  majority  in  North    Germany,  and  people  with 
broad  skulls  in  a  majority  in  the  southern  parts  of  that 
country,  certainly  in  those  districts  south  of  Thuringia. 
Bede  tells  us  that  the  people  of  England  were  descended 
from  many  tribes,  and  Nennius  says  that  Saxons  came 
into  England  from  almost  every  province  in  Germany. 
Unless  we  are  to  entirely  discredit  such  statements,  the 
probability  that  some  of  the  settlers  whom  Nennius  calls 
Saxons  may  have    been   broad-headed  is  great.     That 
various  tribal  people  under  the  Saxon  name  took  part 

1  Beddoe,  J.,  '  Races  of  Britain,'   43,   quoting  Gildemeister, 
Archiv  fur  Anthropologie,  1878. 

32  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

in  the  invasion  and  settlement  of  England  is  probable 
from  many  circumstances,  and,  among  others,  the  minor 
variations  in  the  skulls  found  in  Anglo-Saxon  graves 
corresponding  to  the  minor  variations  found  to  exist 
also  among  the  skulls  discovered  at  Bremen.  Of  these 
latter  Beddoe  says  :  '  There  are  small  differences  which 
may  have  been  tribal.'1  The  same  author  remarks  also 
of  these  Bremen  skulls,  that  there  are  differences  in  the 
degree  of  development  of  the  superciliary  ridges  which 
may  have  been  more  tribal  than  individual.2 

Of  100  skulls  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  period  actually  found 
in  England,  and  whose  dimensions  were  tabulated  by 
Beddoe,  the  following  variations  were  found,  the  per- 
centage of  the  breadth  in  comparison  with  the  length 
being  expressed  by  the  indices  :3 

T    ,.  Number  of 

Indices.  01    „ 


65-66  I 

67-68  I 

69-70  . .         . .         . .         . .  8 

71-72  .-         • 14 

73-74  ••  33 

75-76  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  21 

77-78  14 

79-80        . .          . .          . .          . .  6 

8l-82  2 


From  this  table  it  will  be  seen  that  8  of  the  100  have 
a  breadth  very  nearly  or  quite  equal  to  four-fifths  of 
their  length — i.e.,  they  are  the  remains  of  people  of  a 
different  race  from  the  typical  Anglo-Saxon. 

The  typical  Saxon  skull  is  believed  to  have  been  similar 
to  that  known  as  the  '  grave-row  '  skull  on  the  Continent, 
from  the  manner  in  which  the  bones  were  found  laid  in 
rows.  These  occur  numerously  in  Saxon  burial-places  in 

1   Beddoe,  J.,  '  Races  of  Britain,'  46.  2  Ibid. 

3  Haddon,  A.  C.,  loo.  cit.,  85. 

The  Saxons  and  their  Tribes.  33 

the  Old   Saxon  and   Frisian  country,  their  mean  index 
being  about  75 — i.e.,  they  are  long  skulls. 

The  variation  in  the  skulls  from  Anglo-Saxon  graves 
in  England,  as  will  be  seen  from  the  table,  is  very 
considerable,  but  the  majority  have  an  index  from  73  to 
78 — i.e.,  they  resemble  in  this  respect  those  commonly 
found  in  the  old  burial-places  of  North  Germany.  The 
variations  have  been  attributed  by  some  writers  to  the 
racial  mixture  of  Saxons  with  the  conquered  Britons.1 
Since,  however,  similar  variations  are  seen  in  skulls 
obtained  from  the  graves  at  Bremen  and  other  parts  of 
North  Germany,  it  is  probable  that  the  so-called  Saxons 
were  not  a  people  of  a  homogeneous  race,  but  comprised 
tribal  people  who  had  variations  in  head-form,  a  small 
percentage  being  even  broad-headed.  The  migration  of 
such  people  into  England  among  other  Saxons  would 
explain  the  variations  found  in  the  Anglo-Saxon  head- 
form,  and,  moreover,  help  us  to  explain  variations  in 
custom  that  are  known  to  have  existed  within  the  so- 
called  Saxon  kingdoms  of  England. 

1  Haddon,  A.  C.,  loc.  cit.,  85. 



THE  Angles  are  first  mentioned  by  Tacitus  under  the 
name  of  Angli  in  connection  with  another  tribe,  the 
Varini.     From  the  third  to  the  fifth  century  we  hear 
nothing  of  the  Angli.     In  the  time  of  Bede  they  reappear 
as  the  Angles  in  a  new  country-1     The  part  they  are  said 
to  have  played  in  the  settlement  of  England  is  very  large, 
all  the  country  north  of  the  Thames,  except  Essex,  being 
supposed  to  have  been  occupied  by  Angles.     The  dis- 
trict in  North  Europe  that  bore  their  name  is  very  small— 
Anglen,  a  part  of  Schleswig.     There  is  evidence,  how- 
ever, that  they  were  more  widely  seated,  occupying  a 
large  part  of  the  south  of  the  Danish  peninsula,  some  at 
least  of  the  Danish  islands,  and  part  of  the  mainland  of 
Scandinavia.     The   Angles   were   certainly   closely   con- 
nected to,  or  in  alliance  with,  the  Warings,  the  Varini 
of  Tacitus,  and  this  was  long  continued.     In  the  time  of 
Charlemagne  we  read  of  a  common  code  of  laws  sanctioned 
by  that  King,  called  'Leges  Anglorum  et  Werinorum,' 
the  laws  of  the  Angles  and  Warings.     The  Angle  country 
on  the  mainland  of  Northern  Europe  touched  the  Frisian 
country  on  the  west,  that  of  the  Saxons  on  the  south,  and 
that  of  the  Wendish  tribes  of  the  Baltic  coast  on  the 
east.     Their   immigration   into   England   was   so   large, 

1  Latham,   R.    G.,     '  The   Ethnology    of    the    British  Isles,' 
p.  151. 


The  Angles  and  their  Allies.  35 

and  the  area  of  the  country  they  occupied  so  much  greater 
in  extent  than  their  Continental  homelands,  that  we  are 
led,  as  in  the  case  of  the  Saxons,  to  look  for  a  confederacy, 
or  an  alliance  of  some  kind,  under  which  people  of  various 
tribes  joined  the  Anglian  expeditions. 

That  the  names  Saxons  and  Angles  were  understood 
in  a  composite  sense  in  the  time  of  Bede  is  evident  from 
his  writings.  In  narrating  some  events  connected  with 
missionary  undertakings,  he  says  :  '  About  that  time  the 
venerable  servant  of  Christ  and  priest,  Egbert,  proposed 
to  take  upon  himself  the  apostolic  work  to  some  of  those 
nations  that  had  not  yet  heard  it,  many  of  which  nations 
he  knew  there  were  in  Germany,  from  whom  the  Angles 
and  Saxons  who  now  inhabit  Britain  are  known  to  have 
derived  their  origin,  for  which  reason  they  are  still  called 
Germans  by  the  neighbouring  nation  of  the  Britons. 
Such  are  the  Freesons,  Rugians,  Danes,  Hunni,  Old 
Saxons,  and  the  Boructarians.'1  From  this  we  learn 
that  some  of  the  people  who  settled  in  England  under 
the  names  Angles  and  Saxons  were  of  Danish  origin. 
The  country  of  the  Continental  Angles  was  close  to  the 
Danish  islands,  and,  independently  of  any  historical 
statement  of  the  fact,  it  would  be  reasonable  to  suppose 
that  the  confederacy  of  which  the  Angles  formed  the  chief 
part  would  for  the  purpose  of  their  settlement  in  England 
include  some  of  their  neighbours,  the  Danes.  Bede's 
statement  shows  that  this  actually  was  the  case,  and  is 
proof  that  there  were  Danes  settled  in  England  under 
the  name  of  Angles  or  Saxons  before  the  Danish  inva- 
sions began  about  the  end  of  the  eighth  century.  In  con- 
sidering Bede's  reference  to  Germans,  we  should  re- 
member also  that  the  name  Germany  in  his  time  was 
understood  probably  in  that  wider  sense  in  which  it  was 
understood  by  King  Alfred — viz.j  as  extending  from  the 
Danube  to  the  White  Sea. 

1   Beda,  'Ecclesiastical  History,'  edited  by  J.  A.  Giles,  book  v., 
chap.  ix. 


36  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

The  Warings,  whose  name  is  coupled  with  the  Angles 
by  the  early  writers,  were  a  people  located  on  the  south- 
west coast  of  the  Baltic.  From  the  first  mention  of  them 
to  the  last  we  find  them  associated  with  the  Angles,  and 
as  these  accounts  have  a  difference  in  date  of  some 
centuries,  we  may  feel  sure  that  the  connection  was  a  close 
one.  Procopius  tells  us  of  Varini  who  were  seated  about 
the  shores  of  the  northern  ocean,  as  well  as  upon  the 
Rhine,  so  that  there  appears  to  have  been  a  migration  at 
an  early  date.1  Beddoe  has  remarked  that  'the  limits 
of  confederacies  like  those  of  the  Franks,  Saxons,  Frisians, 
and  Angles,  who  seem  sometimes  to  have  included  the 
Warini,  varied  from  time  to  time,  and  by  no  means 
always  coincided  with  the  limits  of  the  dialects.' 2  This 
is  an  important  consideration,  for  we  find  in  the  Frank 
confederation  Franks  who  spoke  a  German  tongue  and 
others  who  did  not,  and  it  may  have  been  the  same  in 
the  confederated  Angles  and  Warings.  The  Angles  were 
a  Teutonic  race,  and  the  Warings  were  probably  a  mixed 
one.  In  one  of  the  Sagas  they  are  mentioned  as  Waernas 
or  Wernas.3  Tacitus,  who  does  not  appear,  however, 
to  have  visited  their  country,  mentions  them  as  a  German 
nation.4  The  Warings  were  one  of  the  early  commercial 
nations  of  the  Baltic,  and  traded  to  Byzantium,  going  up 
the  rivers  of  Slavonia  in  small  barks,  and  carrying  them 
across  from  river  to  river.  The  last  mention  of  them  is 
in  1030.  By  the  early  Russians  they  were  known  as 
Warings,  their  country  as  Waringia,  and  the  sea  near  it 
as  the  Waring  Sea.  In  Byzantium  they  called  them- 
selves Warings.  They  were  in  later  centuries  much 
mixed  up  with  the  Norsemen,  and  this  infusion  became 
stronger  and  stronger,  until  they  disappeared  as  a  separate 

1  Procopius,  '  de  Bello  Gothico,'  iv.  20 ;  Latham,  '  Germania 
of  Tacitus,'  Epilegomena,  cvi. 

2  Beddoe,  J.,  '  Races  in  Britain,'  p.  39. 

3  '  The  Scop,  or  Gleeman's  Tale,'  edited  by  B.  Thorpe. 

4  Latham,   R.    G.,    '  Germania  of    Tacitus,'  Notes,    pp. 

The  Angles  and  their  Allies.  37 

nation.1  It  was  chiefly  men  of  this  race* who  in  the 
eleventh  and  twelfth  centuries  enlisted  in  the  military 
service  of  the  Byzantine  Emperors,  and  were  known  in 
Constantinople  as  the  Varangian  guard,  and  in  this  corps 
there  were  also  some  Old  English,  a  circumstance  that 
points  to  connection  in  race.  The  Billings  are  said  to 
have  been  the  royal  race  of  the  Warings,2  and  it  is  prob- 
able that  under  this  designation  some  of  these  people 
may  be  traced  among  the  old  place-names  in  England.  The 
western  part  of  Mecklenburg  was  long  known  as  the  Mark 
of  the  Billings.  The  name  Wsering  occurs  in  Scandi- 
navian runic  inscriptions.  In  one  found  at  Torvic, 
Hardanger,  Norway,  the  inscription  reads,  '  Lsema  (or 
Laeda)  Waeringsea  '  3 — i.e.,  '  Laema  (or  Lseda)  to  Waering,' 
as  if  intended  to  be  a  monument  to  one  who  bore  the 
Waring  name. 

The  district  called  Anglen  in  the  time  of  the  Saxons  is 
on  the  south-west  of  Sleswig,  and  is  bounded  by  the 
river  Slie,  the  Flensborger  Fjord,  and  a  line  drawn  from 
Flensborg  to  Sleswig.  This  district  is  small,  not  much 
larger,  as  Latham  has  pointed  out,  than  the  county  of 
Rutland.4  Bede  tells  us  that  it  had  by  the  emigration 
of  its  inhabitants  become  deserted.  Such  a  small  district 
alone  was  not,  however,  likely  to  have  been  the  mother- 
country  of  a  large  emigration  across  the  North  Sea  for 
the  occupation  of  a  conquered  country  so  large  as  Eng- 
land. Of  course,  the  Anglen  of  Sleswig  must  have 
been  a  part  only  of  the  country  from  which  the  Angles 
came.  That  a  population  sufficiently  strong  to  have 
largely  conquered  and  given  a  name  to  England,  and 
sufficiently  famous  to  have  been  classed  by  Ptolemy 
among  the  leading  nations  of  Germany,  lived  in  so  small 
an  area  is  extremely  unlikely.  We  must  therefore  con- 

1  Clarke  Hyde,  Transactions  of  Ethnological  Society,  vii.  65-76. 

2  Ibid.,  64,  and  '  Traveller's  Song." 

3  Stephens,  G.,  '  Old  Northern  Runic  Monuments,'  iii.  407. 

4  Latham,    R.   G.,    '  Handbook    of   the    English   Language,' 
p.  70. 

38  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

elude  that  the  Angles  extended  over  a  larger  area,  and 
that  in  the  invasion  and  settlement  of  England  their 
name  was  usedjas  that  of  a  confederacy  which  included 
Warings.  There  remains,  however,  the  statement  of 
Bede  concerning  Anglen.  Its  abandoned  condition  at 
the  time  he  wrote  is  not  improbable,  but  there  is  another 
explanation,  as  Latham  has  pointed  out,  which  helps  to 
account  for  its  deserted  state — viz.,  because  it  was  a 
frontier  land  or  march  between  the  Danes  and  Slavonians 
(or  Wends)  of  the  eastern  half  of  Holstein.1  Many 
frontier  lands  of  a  similar  kind  have  become  deserted 
from  a  similar  cause,  and  examples  of  this  may  be  found 
in  modern  as  well  as  ancient  history.  King  Alfred, 
describing  the  voyager's  course  in  his  geographical  de- 
scription of  the  Baltic,  mentions  Denmark  and  Gothland, 
also  Sealand,  and  other  islands,  and  says  : — '  On  these 
lands  lived  Engles  before  they  hither  to  land  came.'2 
This  extract  makes  it  quite  clear  that  at  the  time  he  wrote 
it  was  understood  in  England  that  the  Angles  came  partly 
from  Old  Denmark  and  Gothland,  on  the  Scandinavian 
coast,  and  partly  from  Sealand  and  the  Danish  islands, 
as  well  as  from  Sleswig.  This  identification  of  Goth- 
land and  the  part  of  Old  Denmark  in  Scandinavia,  also 
the  Danish  islands,  as  lands  from  which  the  Anglian 
settlers  in  England  partly  came  is  of  much  importance. 
It  helps  us  to  understand  the  circumstance  that  a  greater 
extent  of  England  was  occupied  .by  Angles  than  by 
Saxons  ;  that  the  predominant  people  gave  their  name 
to  the  country  ;  and  shows  that  there  was  a  Scandinavian 
immigration  before  the  eighth  century.  Our  chroniclers 
have  assigned  a  large  territory  in  North  Germany  as  the 
fatherland  of  the  Saxons,  but  only  Schleswig  as  the 
fatherland  of  the  Angles.  In  this  they  certainly  over- 
looked the  statement  of  King  Alfred,  who  had  no  doubt 
the  best  traditions,  derived  from  the  Northern  countries 

1  Latham,  R.  G.,  '  Handbook  of  the  English  Language,'  p.  70. 
8  King  Alfred's  '  Orosius,'  edited  by  H.  Sweet,  p.  16. 

The  Angles  and  their  Allies.  39 

themselves,  of  the  origin  of  the  race  in  assigning  Goth- 
land, Scandinavian  Denmark,  and  the  Danish  isles  as 
their  homes,  as  well  as  the  small  territory  of  Anglen. 
Ancient  Gothland  occupied  a  larger  part  of  Sweden  than 
the  limits  of  the  modern  province  of  the  same  name,  and 
Scandian  Denmark  comprised  Holland  and  Scania?  now 
in  Sweden.  This  great  extent  of  country,  with  the 
Danish  islands  and  the  mainland  coasts,  would  be  suffi- 
cient to  afford  a  reasonable  explanation  of  the  numerical 
superiority  of  the  Angles  among  the  English  settlers. 
They  were  clearly  people  who  formed  a  confederacy,  as 
has  been  shown  was  the  case  of  the  Saxons,  and  these 
confederate  invaders  took  their  name  from  those  who 
were  the  leaders  of  it.  Even  as  late  as  Edward  the  Con- 
fessor's time  the  names  Angles  and  Danes  were  con- 
sidered as  almost  the  same.  His  laws  tell  us  of  the 
counties  which  were  under  the  laws  of  the  Angles,  using 
the  name  Angles  for  Danes.  That  the  name  of  the  earliest 
Angles  comprised  people  of  various  tribes  is  also  certain 
from  the  words  used  by  Bede  in  his  reference  to  them  as 
the  peoples  of  the  old  Angles.  His  actual  words  are 
'  populi  Anglorum.'  These  words  occur  in  the  account 
he  wrote  of  the  names  of  their  months,  and  may  be  seen 
in  chapter  xv.  of  his  '  De  Temporum  Ratione.'  Bede 
has  thus  put  it  on  record  that  there  were  among  the 
ancestors  of  Northumbrian  Anglians  of  his  time  peoples 
or  tribes  of  Angles.  That  some  of  them  were  of  Scan- 
dinavian origin  is  clear  from  the  evidence  already  stated. 
It  is  also  practically  certain  from  the  information  Bede 
gives  us  concerning  the  date  at  which  these  peoples  of 
the  ancient  Angles  began  their  year.  This  was  the  eight 
Calends  January,  or  December  25,  the  night  of  which, 
Bede  says,  was  called  by  them  *  Modranichte,'  or  the 
'  Night  of  Mothers,'  an  ancient  pagan  name,  the  origin 
of  which  he  tells  us  he  did  not  know.  The  ancient 
Anglians  thus  began  their  year  at  midwinter,  as  the 
Scandinavians  did.  The  old  Germanic  year,  on  the  other 

40  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

hand,  began  at  the  beginning  of  winter,  or  November  n, 
later  on  known  as  St.  Martin's  Day.1  From  this  differ- 
ence in  their  mode  of  reckoning  as  compared  with  the 
Germans,  and  their  agreement  with  the  Scandinavians, 
it  is  very  difficult  to  avoid  the  conclusion  that  the  ancient 
Angles  must  have  been  more  Scandian  than  Germanic. 
That  the  Angles  and  Danes  were  probably  connected  in 
their  origin  is  shown  also  by  the  statement  of  Saxo,  the 
Danish  historian,  who  tells  us  that  the  stock  of  the  Danes 
had  its  beginning  with  Dan  and  Angul,  their  mythological 

Runic  inscriptions  are  an  important  source  of  evidence 
in  tracing  the  migrations  of  the  Northern  Goths,  and  of 
the  neighbouring  nations  who  acquired  their  knowledge 
of  runes  from  them.  In  Sweden,  Denmark,  and  Norway 
there  are  on  fixed  objects  thousands  of  inscriptions  in 
this  ancient  alphabet.  Similar  records  are  scattered 
over  the  regions  which  were  overrun  and  settled  by  the 
Scandian  tribes.2  They  have  been  found,  on  movable 
objects  only,  in  the  valley  of  the  Danube,  which  was  the 
earliest  halting-place  of  the  Goths  on  their  Southern 
migration.  They  have  been  found  also  on  fixed  objects 
in  Kent,  which  was  conquered  by  the  so-called  Jutes,  in 
Cumberland  and  other  northern  parts  of  England, 
Orkney,  and  the  Isle  of  Man,  where  Norwegians  formed 
settlements.3  They  are  found  in  Northumberland,  where 
the  Anglians  settled  at  an  earlier  period  than  that  of  the 
later  Norse  invaders.  Runes  may  be  classed  in  three 
divisions — Gothic,  Anglian,  and  Scandinavian.  The 
oldest  may  date  from  the  first  or  second  century  A.D., 
and  the  latest  from  the  fourteenth  or  fifteenth  century. 
The  runic  alphabet  is  called  the  Futhorc,  after  the  word 
formed  by  its  first  six  letters.  The  Anglian  runes  are 

1  Tille,  A.,  Transactions  of  Glasgow   Arch.  Soc.,  iii.,  part  ii., 
'  The  Germanic  Year,'  quoting  Wienhold. 

2  Taylor,  Isaac,  '  History  of  the  Alphabet,'  pp.  210-215. 

3  Ibid. 

The  Angles  and  their  Allies.  41 

used  on  the  Ruthwell  Cross,  and  several  other  Northum- 
brian monuments  of  the  seventh  and  following  centuries. 
One  of  the  earliest  examples  is  on  a  sword  found  in  the 
Thames  near  London,1  now  in  the  British  Museum.  The 
Old  English  inscribed  runic  coins  are  scarce,  and  run 
from  about  the  seventh  to  the  first  half  of  the  ninth 
century,  those  solely  in  runic  letters  being  outnumbered 
by  others  in  which  nmic  and  Roman  letters  are 
mixed.2  From  the  circumstance  of  the  discovery  of 
inscriptions  in  runic  characters  in  parts  of  England  which 
were  settled  by  Angles  and  Jutes,  and  not  in  those  parts 
which  were  settled  by  Saxons,  we  are  able  to  draw  two 
conclusions  :  (i)  That  the  settlers  in  Kent  must  have  been 
near  in  race  or  allied  to  the  Anglian  settlers  of  Northum- 
berland and  other  Anglian  counties  ;  and  (2)  that  there 
must  have  been  an  absence  of  any  close  intercourse  or 
communication,  and  consequently  a  considerable  differ- 
ence, between  the  Scandinavian  Angles  and  the  Saxons, 
seeing  that  the  Angles  were  acquainted  with  the  runes 
and  the  Saxons  were  not,  as  far  as  appears  from  the 
total  absence  of  such  inscriptions  on  stones  or  other  fixed 
monuments  in  Germany,  and  in  Wessex,  Sussex,  or 
Essex.  The  runic  inscriptions  found  in  England  are 
marked  by  the  Anglian  variety  of  the  letters. 

From  their  original  home  in  the  North,  the  Goths  went 
southwards,  and  carried  their  art  of  runic  writing  with 
them,  leaving  examples  of  it  here  and  there  in  inscriptions 
on  portable  articles  found  in  the  valley  of  the  Danube, 
written  in  characters  which  mark  the  identity  of  the 
people  with  those  of  Northern  Gothland.  From  their 
Northern  home  across  the  North  Sea  went  also  the 
Anglians,  neighbours  and  allies  of  the  people  of  Goth- 
land, and  they  also  carried  with  them  the  art  of  nmic 
writing,  which  they  had  learnt  from  the  Goths  in  the 
North,  to  their  new  homes  in  England.  Across  the  same 

1  Taylor,  Isaac,  loc.  cit. 

2  Stephens,  G.,  loc.  cit.,  ii.  515. 

42  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

sea  went  also  the  Jutes  or  Goths  to  Kent,  and  left  there 
examples  of  the  same  general  evidence  of  the  Northern 
lands  whence  they  came  and  of  the  race  to  which  they 

From  the  circumstances  mentioned,  it  will  appear  that 
Anglen,  on  the  east  coast  of  Denmark,  could  have  been 
only  a  small  part  of  the  country  inhabited  by  the  people 
called  by  the  Anglian  name  at  the  time  of  the  English 
settlement.  As  Stephens  says,  the  names  Engelholm 
and  Engeltoft,  on  the  Scandinavian  coast  or  mainland, 
still  remind  us  of  the  ancient  Angles.  That  name,  he 
says,  was,  as  regards  the  English  settlement,  the  first 
under  which  the  Scandians  were  known.  Later  on 
they  were  called  Vikings  or  Northmen,  or  Normans. 
They  carried  with  them  to  their  new  homes  their  native 
civilization  and  many  advantages  in  the  knowledge  of 
arts  and  arms.1  Stephens  says  that  no  runic  characters 
have  ever  been  discovered  in  any  original  German  or 
Saxon  manuscript.  It  appears  certain  that  no  runic 
stone  or  other  fixed  runic  inscription  has  ever  been 
discovered  on  German  or  Saxon  soil.  The  ornaments 
of  a  personal  kind  which  bear  runic  letters  have  been 
found  by  hundreds  in  the  Northern  lands,  and  those 
which  have  been  found  in  Germany  and  other  parts  of 
Europe  must  have  been  carried  there.2  Since  the  Anglian 
inscriptions  found  in  England  are  in  characters  earlier 
than  those  which  are  called  Scandinavian,  they  must 
have  been  written  by  people  who  came  during  the  earlier 
immigration,  or  by  their  descendants.  The  Scandinavian 
runes  discovered  in  England  are  chiefly  inscriptions  on 
objects  belonging  to,  or  made  by,  the  men  who  came  in 
during  the  so-called  Danish  or  Viking  period.3 

Many  hundreds  of  inscribed  stones  have  been  found  in 
ancient   Germany,   but   they  bear  Roman  inscriptions. 

1  Stephens,  G.,  '  Runic  Monuments  in  England  and  Scandi- 
navia,' i.  360. 

2  Ibid.,  i.  iv.  3  Ibid.,  i.  360. 

The  Angles  and  their  Allies.  43 

The  nines,  consequently,  afford  us  evidence  in  connection 
with  the  settlement  of  Angles  in  Britain  of  a  kind  which 
is  wholly  wanting  in  connection  with  the  Saxons.  As 
the  total  absence  of  runes  on  fixed  monuments  in  Ger- 
many may  be  considered  conclusive  evidence  that  they 
were  unknown  to  the  German  tribes,  it  is  clear  that  these 
tribes  could  not  carry  them  to  England,  and,  as  might  be 
expected,  there  is,  in  the  parts  of  England  which  were 
mainly  settled  by  German  tribes,  a  similar  absence  of 
runic  inscriptions  to  that  which  exists  in  Germany. 
There  is,  however,  a  trace  of  some  early  inscribed  stones 
in  Wiltshire,  which,  according  to  Aubrey,  were  in  exist- 
ence until  the  year  1640.  This  is  not  improbable,  but  if 
Aubrey's  statement  is  correct  the  occurrence  of  such 
inscriptions  may  be  explained  by  the  existence  of  a 
settlement  of  Goths  or  other  Scandians  there,  and  we 
find  other  evidence,  which  will  be  stated  later  on,  of  such 
settlements  in  Hampshire,  Dorset,  and  Wiltshire.  On 
this  subject  Stephens  quotes  Sir  R.  Colt  Hoare,  who  says  : 
'  At  a  place  called  the  King's  Grave,  where  is  now  the 
Sheep-Penning  of  West  Amesbury,  Aubrey  writes,  "  here 
doe  appear  five  small  barrows  at  one  corner  of  the  Penning. 
At  the  ends  of  the  graves  were  stones  which  the  people  of 
late  (about  1640)  have  fetch't  away,  for  stones,  except 
flints,  are  exceedingly  scarce  in  these  partes.  'Tis  said 
here  there  were  some  letters  on  these  stones,  but  what 
they  were  I  cannot  learn."  u 

The  inscriptions  in  runic  characters  of  an  earlier  date 
than  the  ninth  century  which  have  been  found  in  Eng- 
land cannot  have  been  due  to  the  invasions  of  the  Danes 
and  Northmen,  and  consequently  they  must  have  been 
the  work  of  earlier  Goths  and  Angles.  That  on  the  sword 
or  knife  discovered  in  the  Thames  near  London  has  been 
assigned  by  Stephens  to  the  fifth  century.2  This  points 

1  Stephens,  G.,  '  Runic  Monuments  in  England  and  Scandi- 
navia,' i.  360,  quoting  Sir  R.  Colt  Hoare  and  Aubrey. 

2  Stephens,  G.,  '  Old  Northern  Runic  Monuments,'  i.  124-130. 

44  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

to  the  period  of  the  settlement  of  Kent,  and  the  earliest 
invasions  of  the  Goths  and  Angles.  A  gold  ring,  which 
was  found  near  Coslin,  in  Pomerania,  in  1839,  and  which 
bore  a  runic  letter  of  a  specially  Anglian  or  English  type, 
is,  according  to  Stephens,  of  the  same  period — viz., 
A.D.  400-500.  He  ascribes  this  rune  (  >^)  to  English 
work,  the  letter  being  a  variation  of  the  Gothic  rune 
( ^  ),  and  its  equivalence  being  the  sound  yo.  With 
this  single  exception,  this  rune  has  only  been  found 
in  England.1  This  discovery,  in  conjunction  with  the 
inscription  on  the  sword  found  in  the  Thames,  tends  to 
show  that  there  was  a  connection  between  the  early 
Gothic  and  Anglian  settlers  in  England  and  the  inhabi- 
tants of  the  Baltic  coasts  in  the  fifth  century.  The 
evidence  afforded  by  the  finding  of  runic  letters  of  this 
early  date  at  Coslin  does  not  stand  alone  ;  it  is  sup- 
ported by  that  of  the  objects  which  were  discovered  with 
it.  The  ring  was  found  with  a  bracteate  bearing  runic 
characters,  five  other  bracteates  without  runes,  and  two 
Roman  golden  coins,  one  of  Theodosius  the  Great  (A.D. 
379-395),  the  other  of  Leo  I.  (A.D.  457-474).  This  latter 
coin,  therefore,  assists  in  confirming  the  date  of  the 
objects  as  about  the  end  of  the  fifth  century.  Stephens 
says  :2  '  This  is  one  of  the  few  golden  bracteates  we  can 
date  with  some  certainty  from  a  comparison  of  the  other 
gold  pieces  with  which  it  lay-'  As  is  well  known,  the 
golden  bracteates  belong  to  a  unique  class  of  northern 
remains,  and  chiefly  date  from  the  early  Iron  Age  in 
Scandinavia.  They  were  generally  shaped  like  coins, 
but  were  not  used  as  coins,  being  intended  for  suspensory 
ornaments.  They  are  of  no  common  pattern,  but  differ 
much  in  size,  weight,  and  other  features.3  As  they 
differed  much  in  their  design,  so  they  differed  in  regard 
to  having  runes  or  not.  The  most  important  hoard  of 
them  found  in  England  was  discovered  at  Sarr,  in  Thanet, 

1  Stephens,  G.,   '  Old  Northern   Runic  Monuments,'   vol.  ii., 
P.  602.  2  Ibid.,  ii.  542.  3  Ibid.,  ii.  509. 

The  Angles  and  their  Allies.  45 

in  1863.  These,  however,  had  no  runic  letters  on  them. 
The  evidence  that  Goths  and  Vandals  or  Wends  were 
often  allied  cannot  be  disputed,  and  that  there  was  some 
alliance  and  consequent  intercourse  between  their  respec- 
tive countries  and  the  settlements  of  the  Goths  in  Eng- 
land the  discovery  of  these  objects  with  Anglian  or 
English  runes  on  the  Wendish  coast  near  Coslin  in  the 
fifth  century  is  good  evidence.  The  discovery  of  an 
English  runic  inscription  of  such  an  early  date  in  Pome- 
rania  is  important  from  another  aspect.  It  was  found 
in  what  was  Gothic  and  Vandal  territory,  and  the  con- 
nection of  the  Vandals  with  the  Anglo-Saxon  settlement 
rests  on  strong  evidence  of  another  kind.  Coslin,  where 
the  ring  was  found,  is  on  the  Baltic  coast,  east  of  Riigen 
Island,  and  nearly  opposite  to  the  island  of  Bornholm. 
This  coast  was  in  the  third  century  of  our  era  near  the 
country  of  the  Burgundians,  before  their  great  migration 
to  the  south-western  part  of  Germany  and  to  France. 
During  the  third  and  following  century  the  Goths  and 
Vandals  acted  together  as  allies  in  various  expeditions. 
The  Isle  of  Gotland,  as  proved  by  the  immense  number 
of  Roman  coins  of  the  later  Empire  discovered  there,  was 
even  at  that  early  period  a  great  commercial  centre. 
The  Vandals  were  also  great  navigators,  and  the  so-called 
Angles  were  in  all  probability  a  branch  of  the  Gothic 
race,  certainly  of  Gothic  extraction.  There  must  have 
been  communications  between  the  Gothic  northern  ports 
and  the  English  settlements,  and  the  discovery  on  the 
sword  in  the  Thames,  and  a  similar  discovery  of  English 
runes  on  a  ring  found  near  the  Baltic  coast  of  Pomerania, 
is  not,  considering  all  these  circumstances,  a  matter  for 

In  order  to  realize  the  full  significance  of  the  evidence 
afforded  by  the  runic  inscriptions  and  their  connection 
with  the  settlement  of  England,  it  is  necessary  to  look  at 
it  from  several  points  of  view  :  First,  that  runes  were 
of  Northern  Gothic  origin,  and  the  Gothic  Futhorc  or 

46  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

alphabet  is  the  earliest ;  secondly,  that  the  Anglian 
Futhorc  consists  of  similar  characters  varied  from  the 
Gothic  ;  and,  thirdly,  that  the  Scandinavian  has  later 
additions.  The  evidence  shows  that  Goths  and  Angles 
introduced  the  art  of  runic  writing  into  England  before 
the  end  of  the  fifth  century.  It  is  interesting  to  con- 
sider also  the  probable  origin  of  the  runic  letters  them- 
selves. Isaac  Taylor  has  proved1  that  the  early  Gothic 
runes  were  modifications  of  the  letters  of  the  Greek 
alphabet,  and  were  developed  in  Northern  Gothland  as  a 
result  of  the  commercial  intercourse  of  the  Goths  across 
Eastern  Europe  with  the  Greek  traders  of  the  Levant. 
The  Byzantine  coins  found  in  the  island  of  Gotland  cer- 
tainly point  to  a  trade  of  this  kind  at  a  sufficiently  early 
period.  Lastly,  we  have  to  consider  the  very  interesting 
fact  that  when  the  runic  letters  which  had  been  modified 
from  the  Greek  were  introduced  into  Britain  by  the 
Goths,  these  modified  Greek  characters  which  had  come 
across  Europe  to  the  north,  and  thence  to  England,  met 
there  the  letters  of  the  Celtic  or  Romano-British  alphabet, 
also  derived  from  the  Greek,  but  which  had  come  there 
across  Gaul  from  the  Mediterranean2  through  Roman 

The  Warings,  who  were  such  close  allies  of  the  Angles, 
were  certainly  much  concerned  with  the  early  commerce 
of  the  Baltic  and  the  overland  trade  between  the 
dominions  of  the  Greek  Emperors  and  the  Baltic  ports. 
Nestor,  a  monk  of  Kiev,  who  wrote  in  the  eleventh  cen- 
tury, mentions  Novgorod  as  a  Varangian  city,  and  it  is 
therefore  concluded  that  there  was  at  that  time  a  large 
settlement  of  Varangians  in  that  part  of  Russia.  We 
learn,  also,  that  there  were  Gotlanders  in  early  Russia,3 
and  we  know  that  the  Isle  of  Gotland  has  revealed 
abundant  traces  of  an  ancient  overland  trade  across  that 
country.  Another  fact  of  interest  concerning  the  later 

1  Taylor,  I.,  loc.  cit.  2  Ibid. 

3  Morfill,  W.  R.,  '  Russia,'  p.  19,  quoting  Nestor. 

The  Angles  and  their  Allies.  47 

Warings  is  their    possible  connection  with  the  Isle  of 
Riigen,  which,  in  the  life  of  Bishop  Otto,  is  mentioned  as 
Verania  and  the  population  as  Verani,   who  were  re- 
markable for  their  persistent  paganism.1     These  refer- 
ences point,  without  doubt,  to  the  connection  of  Riigen 
with  Slavonic  paganism,  and  to  the  Warings  of  that  time 
as  associated  with  it.     There  is,  as  already  mentioned, 
another  more   ancient  reference    to  them  by  Ptolemy, 
under   the    name    of    Pharadini,  the    root   syllable  Var 
or  Phar  being  almost  certainly  the  same.     Their  name 
also  appears  in  that  of  the  old  river-name  Warina,  the 
Warna,  which  gives  its  name  to  Warnof,  and  in  War- 
nemiinde,  both  on  the  Baltic  coast.     Procopius  mentions 
the  Warings,  and  tells  us  of  the  marriage  of  a  sister  of 
one  of  the  Kings  of  the  East  English  with  one  of  their 
Kings.     These  allies  of  the  ancient  Anglians  have  left 
their  mark  on  the  subsequent  history  of  Eastern  Europe. 
Their  influence  among  the  old  Slavs  of  what  is  now  Russia 
was  great,  owing  to  their  settlements  among  them  and 
the.  commerce  through  their  territory  with   Byzantium. 
In  Constantinople  itself  the  Varangian  body-guard  of 
the  Greek  Emperors  was  of  political  importance.     The 
tall  stature  of  these  men  and  their  fair  complexions  excited 
wonder  among  the   Greeks  and  Asiatics .  of  that  city. 
Their   name   in   Constantinople   became   the   Byzantine 
equivalent  for  soldiers  of  a  free  company.     The  body  of 
Huscarls  organized  by  Cnut  in  England  was  a  counter- 
part of  the  Varangian  guard.     In  physical  appearance 
their  allies  the  Angles  must  have  resembled  them.    Even 
at  the  present  day  the  stature  of  the  people  in  the  least 
disturbed   districts   of   England    that   were   settled   by 
Angles  is  above  the  average.    It  was,  however,  among  the 
old  Slavs  that  their  influence  was  greatest,  for  the  Slav, 
moulded  by  the  Varangian,  and  converted  to  the  Greek 
Church  through  Byzantine  influence,  became  the  Russian.2 

1  Latham,  R.  G.,  '  Ethnology  of  the  British  Isles,'  154. 

2  Rambaud,  A.,  '  History  of  Russia,'  i.  24. 

48  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

The  custom  of  disposing  of  the  dead  by  cremation  is 
so  different  from  that  of  interment  that  where  both  pre- 
vailed there  must  in  ancient  time  have  been  people  of 
different  races  or  tribes  living  in  such  a  district.  One 
fact  which  excavations  in  Anglo-Saxon  burial-places 
proves  beyond  doubt  is  the  contemporaneous  practice 
of  cremation  and  burial  in  various  parts  of  England. 
In  Norfolk,  Cambridgeshire,  Northamptonshire,  and 
Gloucestershire,  evidence  has  been  obtained  that  both 
practices  went  on.1  In  some  parts  of  Norfolk,  Suffolk, 
and  Derbyshire,  cremation  appears  to  have  been  the  sole 
observance,2  as  at  Walsingham,  and  at  Kingston  near 
Derby.  In  the  cemeteries  of  Kent  and  Sussex  burial 
appears  to  have  been  almost  the  exclusive  practice. 
Derbyshire  is  peopled  by  descendants  of  Anglians, 
according  to  the  present  physical  race-characters  of  the 
people.  A  passage  in  Beowulf  furnishes  evidence  of 
the  practice  of  cremation  among  the  Angles,3 — '  To  make 
a  mound,  bright  after  the  funeral  fire,  upon  the  nose  of 
the  promontory,  which  shall  be  for  a  memorial  to  my 
people.'  The  pagan  Anglians  appear,  from  these  dis- 
coveries and  this  passage,  to  have  burnt  their  dead,  as 
the  pagan  Esthonians  did  at  a  later  period  in  the  time  of 
King  Alfred.4  The  custom  among  the  Teutons  thus 
appears  to  have  been  a  Northern  one,  and  Anglian  rather 
than  Saxon.  From  the  evidence  which  has  been  obtained, 
cremation  appears  to  have  been  practised  in  Jutland  and 
the  western  part  of  the  Danish  isles  about  the  time  of  the 
Anglian  migration,  while  burial  prevailed  at  the  same 
time  in  Zealand  and  part  of  Funen  Isle.5 

1  Akerman,   J.   Y.,    '  Remains  of    Pagan   Saxondom,'   Intro- 
duction, xiv. 

2  Ibid.  3  Ibid.,  xv. 
*  '  Orosius,'  edited  by  Bosworth,  J.,  54. 

6  Englehard,  C.,  '  L'ancient  age  de  fer  en  Seland.' 




THE  Jutes,  who,  according  to  the  English  chroniclers, 
were  one  of  the  three  nations  by  which  England  was 
settled,  are  but  little  mentioned  under  that  name  by 
early  historians  of  Northern  Europe.  Bede  calls  them 
Jutes,  so  that  we  may  conclude  that  at  the  end  of  the 
seventh  century  this  was  the  name  by  which  these  people 
were  known  in  England.  In  early  records  relating  to 
Germany  and  the  North  they  appear  to  have  been  called 
by  man}?  names — Vitungi  or  Juthungi,  Jutae,  Gaetas, 
Gothi,  Gothini,  Gythones,  Guthones,  Gutae,  Gautae,  Vitae, 
and  Gaeta.1  The  name  Geats  they  derived  from  Geat,  a 
mythological  ancestor  of  Woden,  according  to  the  West 
Saxon  genealogy,  and  Asser  tells  us  that  Geat  was  wor- 
shipped as  a  god.2 

Tacitus  mentions  Goths  under  the  name  Guthones,  and 
states  that  they  occupied  the  country  east  of  the  Vistula. 
He  says  also  that  the  Goutai  lived  in  the  island  of  Scandia, 
and  we  may  identify  the  locality  with  the  Swedish 
province  of  Gothland.3  The  people  around  the  Gulf  of 
Riga  at  the  present  day,  including  the  Livonians,  are 
partly  of  Teutonic  origin,  and  may  in  part  be  descendants 

1  Latham,  R.  G.,  '  Germania  of  Tacitus,'  Epilegomena,  cxiv. 

a  Asser,  '  Life  of  Alfred.' 

3  Taylor,  Isaac,  '  Greeks  and  Goths,'  p.  46. 

49  4 

50  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

of  those  ancient  Gothic  people  who  are  known  to  have 
lived  east  of  the  Vistula. 

The  Jutes  who  settled  in  England  had  much  in  common 
with  the  Frisians ;  so  also  had  the  Goths.  In  the 
mythological  genealogies  given  in  the  Anglo-Saxon 
Chronicle  and  elsewhere,  Godwulf  appears  as  the  father 
of  Fin,  which  probably  refers  to  a  very  remote  connection 
between  the  Frisians  and  the  Goths,  for  later  on  the  name 
Fin  occurs  as  a  representative  of  the  Frisian  nation.1 
The  languages,  as  far  as  Frisian  and  the  Moeso-Gothic  are 
concerned,  point  to  a  similar  connection.  There  is 
evidence  of  a  large  Frisian  immigration  in  various  parts 
of  England,  and  much  of  the  country  was  evidently 
settled  by  them  under  the  names  Saxons  and  Angles.  As 
Goths  and  Frisians  were  connected  in  their  mythological 
names,  and  the  great  mythological  Frisian  is  Fin,2  his 
name  perhaps  refers  to  an  ancient  link  also  with  the  Fin 
race,  thus  faintly  transmitted  through  some  remote  con- 
nection. The  accounts  which  the  Frisians  have  of  the 
expedition  of  Hengist  are  similar  to  those  which  we 
possess  of  him  among  the  Jutes  of  Kent. 

The  Jutes,  like  the  Angles,  in  all  probability,  were 
originally  located  in  Scandinavia,  for  Ptolemy,  writing 
in  the  second  century  of  our  era,  places  the  Gutse  in  the 
south  of  that  peninsula.  In  Bede's  time  Jutland  was 
known  by  its  present  name,  and  no  doubt  took  it  from  the 
Jutes,  but  the  time  of  their  settlement  in  Kent  and  that 
of  Bede  are  separated  by  nearly  three  centuries,  and 
during  this  interval  the  Jutes  may  have  become  located 
also  in  Jutland.  There  is  neither  contemporary  history 
nor  tradition  that  a  people  so  called  were  there  before 
Bede's  time.  His  statement  that  those  who  settled  in 
England  came  from  Jutland  is,  as  Latham  has  pointed 
out,  only  an  inference  from  the  fact  that  when  he  wrote 

1  Lappenberg,  J.  M.,  '  History   of   the  Anglo  -  Saxon  Kings,' 
i.  24,  note. 
a  '  The  Traveller's  Song.' 

The  Jutes,  Goths,  and  Northmen.  5 1 

Jutes,  Angles,  and  Saxons  were  in  contact  in  the  Danish 
peninsula  and  the  adjoining  part  of  North  Germany,  and 
also  in  contact  in  England.  Under  these  circumstances 
it  was  a  logical  inference  that  the  Angles  came  from 
Anglen  and  the  Jutes  from  Jutland,  but  this  is  probably 
only  true  in  part.  Jutland  may  have  been  a  Jutish  colony 
like  Kent  and  the  Isle  of  Wight,  and  probably  an  earlier 
one,  seeing  that  it  is  so  much  nearer  to  the  original 
homeland  of  the  Gothic  race  in  Scandinavia,  but  that 
would  not  necessarily  imply  that  all  the  Jutes  came  from 

Whatever  may  have  been  the  origin  of  their  name,  it 
is  probable  that  they  were,  like  the  modern  Danes,  men 
of  more  than  average  stature.  It  has  been  commonly 
assumed  that  during  the  inroads  into  the  countries  that 
were  provinces  of  the  Roman  Empire,  and  the  settle- 
ment of  people  who  gave  rise  to  new  nations  therein, 
only  Britain  was  attacked  by  bands  of  Saxons,  Angles, 
and  Jutes.  We  do  not  read  of  conquests  by  these  nations 
elsewhere.  Some  of  the  Saxons  are,  indeed,  said  to  have 
accompanied  their  neighbours,  the  Lombards,  in  their 
great  Southern  expedition  and  invasion  of  Italy,  but 
little  is  known  of  this  alliance. 

Apart  from  the  statement  of  Bede,  whose  list  of  tribes 
from  which  the  Old  English  of  his  time  were  known  to 
have  descended,  is  not  repeated  by  the  later  chroniclers, 
it  would  seem  improbable  that,  in  the  general  rush  for 
new  territory,  two  or  three  German  tribes  or  nations 
should  have  had  left  to  them  the  island  of  Britain  as  a 
kind  of  exclusive  territory  for  conquest  and  settlement. 
Bede,  the  earliest  Anglo-Saxon  historian,  wrote,  no 
doubt,  according  to  the  best  information  current  in 
his  day,  and  his  statement  concerning  the  many  German 
tribes  from  which  the  English  were  descended  is  sup- 
ported by  modern  research.  Tradition  cannot  be  alto- 
gether neglected.  In  all  old  countries  there  comes  a 
time  when  history  dawns,  but  men  lived  and  died  before 


52  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

that  dawn,  and  only  traditions  concerning  them  came 
do\yn  to  the  historic  period.  Many  such  traditions  are 
no  doubt  based  on  actual  occurrences,  the  details  of 
which  have  become  more  or  less  hazy,  and  in  some 
instances  distorted  by  the  additions  acquired  through 
their  narration  by  word  of  mouth  from  age  to  age. 
The  story  of  Hengist  may  be  a  tradition  of  this  kind. 

As  already  stated,  Nennius,  in  the  '  Historia  Britonum,' 
gives  one  name  to  all  the  invaders  of  Britain,  that  of 
Saxons,  and  does  not  attempt  to  distinguish  them  under 
the  national  or  tribal  names  by  which  they  were  known 
among  themselves.  It  was  sufficient  for  his  purpose  as 
a  British  historian  to  describe  these  enemies  of  his 
countrymen  by  one  general  name. 

In  the  passage  of  Bede  in  which  he  refers  to  some  of 
the  tribes  from  which  his  countrymen  were  known  to 
have  descended,  we  obtain  a  glimpse  of  those  wider  views 
of  the  origin  of  the  Old  English  race  which  were  known 
in  his  time,  and  were  probably  well  recognised  by  existing 
tribal  differences  in  dialect,  customs,  and  even  in  the 
physical  appearance  of  the  people  at  the  time  he  wrote . 

In  the  passage  of  Nennius  in  which  he  mentions  that 
among  the  early  invaders  of  Britain  there  were  some  who 
came  from  almost  all  the  provinces  of  Germany,  we  have 
corroboration  of  Bede's  statement  and  another  glimpse 
of  the  current  knowledge  in  Britain  at  that  time,  and 
of  the  wider  origin  of  the  Old  English  than  the  later 
chroniclers  have  transmitted  to  us. 

The  general  names  Saxons,  Angles,  and  Jutes  were  no 
doubt  at  first  used  as  comprehensive  terms  for  people 
of  various  tribes,  but  as  time  passed  on,  and  the  chroniclers 
omitted  all  references  to  the  tribal  names  mentioned  by 
Bede,  these  three  names  came  to  be  regarded  in  a  more 
limited  sense  as  the  names  of  the  actual  nations  from 
which  alone  the  Old  English  sprang.  The  omission  of 
Frisians  is  especially  remarkable.  It  has  been  shown 
that  under  the  name  Saxons  the  Frisians  must  have  been 

The  Jutes,  Goths,  and  Northmen.  53 

included,  and  it  will  also  be  shown  that  fhey  must  be 
included  among  the  Anglian  settlers.  It  has  also  been 
shown  that  the  Angles  were  allied  to  the  Warings  seated 
on  the  south-west  of  the  Baltic  coast.  As  Bede  mentions 
the  Danes  in  his  list,  it  is  also  practically  certain  that  the 
early  Danes  were  allies  of  the  Angles.  The  list,  therefore, 
of  the  nations  and  tribes  from  whom  the  English  of  the 
end  of  the  seventh  century  were  descended  becomes 
enlarged.  Frisians,  Danes,  Hunni  or  Hunsings,  Rugians, 
and  Boructers,  must  certainly  be  numbered  among 

Moreover,  when  we  consider  Bede's  list  by  the  light  of 
modern  research,  we  arrive  at  the  conclusion  that  some 
of  the  Franks  probably  took  part  in  the  settlement  of 
England,  for  he  mentions  the  Boructarii  or  Bructers, 
and  these  are  known  later  on  to  have  been  part  of  the 
Frank  confederation. 

It  is  difficult  to  avoid  the  conclusion  that  the  Goths 
must  have  been  allies  of  the  Angles.  They  were  also 
close  allies  of  the  Vandals  or  Wends,  of  which  nation  the 
Rugians  formed  part.  The  commerce  of  the  Baltic  during 
the  period  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  settlement  was  largely 
in  the  hands  of  the  Goths.  It  is  impossible  to  over- 
rate the  commercial  importance  of  the  Isle  of  Gotland 
at  this  time  and  for  many  centuries  later.  The  ruins 
of  Wisby,  the  chief  port  of  ancient  Gotland,  are  to  this 
day  the  greatest  wonder  of  the  Baltic,  and  Oland  Isle 
was  another  seat  of  ancient  Gothic  trade.  There  is 
some  connection  between  the  ancient  trade  of  the  Goths 
and  the  settlement  of  them  and  their  allies  in  England. 
The  most  remarkable  native  commodity  which  came  in 
ancient  days  from  the  Baltic  was  the  fossil-gum  known 
as  amber.  The  trade  in  amber  can  be  traced  almost  as 
long  as  any  in  Europe.  It  was  known  to  the  Greeks  and 
Romans,  and  came  from  the  North  to  the  South  by  the 
old  trade  routes  across  the  Continent.  The  Goths  were 
known  only  too  well  to  the  later  Roman  Emperors.  Long 

54  Ongin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

after  the  Romans  had  left  Britain  that  country  was  still 
recognised  as  one  of  the  provinces  of  the  Empire,  and  as 
late  as  A.D.  537  Belisarius,  in  the  name  of  the  Emperor, 
granted  it  to  the  Goths,1  which  seems  to  show  that  the 
Byzantine  Emperor  of  the  sixth  century  knew  quite  well 
that  Goths  were  already  settled  in  our  country. 

The  ancient  people  on  the  coast  of  the  Baltic  who 
collected  amber  and  exchanged  it  for  other  commodities 
were  called  the  Guthones  and  the  ^Estyi.  There  were 
two  routes  by  which  amber  could  reach  the  South  of 
Europe  in  the  time  of  the  Empire — one  through  Ger- 
many, the  other  by  the  route  further  eastward  through 
the  countries  known  as  Sarmatia  or  Slavonia.  The 
double  name  for  the  people  near  the  mouth  of  the  Vistula 
probably  arose  in  this  way,  from  their  being  known  to 
the  Germans  as  the  ^Estyi,  and  to  the  Slavonians  who 
traded  across  to  the  Black  Sea  as  Guthones.  These 
Guthones  were  Goths  of  the  same  race  or  descent  as  the 
islanders  of  Gotland,  and  as  the  people  of  East  and  West 
Gothland  in  Sweden.  That  the  Reid-Goths — at  least, 
some  of  them — lived  in  the  Scandian  peninsula  is  proved 
by  a  runic  inscription  on  a  stone  at  Rok  in  East  Goth- 
land, in  which  a  chieftain  named  Waring  is  commemo- 
rated, and  in  which  he  is  said  to  have  increased  their 
power.2  This  inscription  also  connects  the  Waring  name 
with  the  eastern  or  Ostrogoths  of  Sweden.  Amber  was 
certainly  used  as  an  ornament  among  the  Anglo-Saxons 
at  a  very  early  date.  It  has  been  frequently  found  in 
the  form  of  beads  and  other  articles  in  cemeteries  in 
many  parts  of  England,  and  its  use  at  this  early  time  in 
England  points  to  an  early  trade  with  the  Baltic.  Its 
common  use  in  the  manufacture  of  beads  and  other 
personal  ornaments  may  perhaps  also  point  to  a  custom 
of  personal  decoration  which  was  introduced  into  England 
by  settlers  from  the  Baltic.  These  amber  traders  were 

1  Church,  A.  J.,  '  Early  Britain,'  88. 

2  Stephens,  G.f  '  Old  Northern  Runic  Monuments,'  i.  228. 

The  Jutes,  Goths,  and  Northmen.  55 

commonly  known  in  England  by  their  Gerfrian  name  of 
Eastmen,  the  ^Estyi  of  the  early  writers. 

The  names  Estum  and  Estmere  are  mentioned  by 
King  Alfred  in  connection  with  the  Vistula  in  his  descrip- 
tion of  the  relative  situation  of  Veonod-land — i.e.,  Wend- 
land,  Vitland,  and  other  countries  on  the  southern  coast 
of  the  Baltic  Sea.  The  ^Estyi  are  mentioned  by  Pliny 
and  Tacitus,  the  former  of  whom  locates  them  in  '  ^Estu- 
arium  Oceani,'  an  expression  which,  as  Latham  has 
pointed  out,  probably  arose  through  the  name  Est-ware 
or  Eastmen  being  misunderstood  to  have  reference  to 
an  estuary.1  Pliny  connects  the  ^Estyi  with  the  amber 
country,  and  Tacitus,  in  following  the  coast-line  of  the 
Baltic,  comes  to  their  country.  The  locality  of  these 
people  of  the  amber  district  was  therefore  the  coast  in 
which  amber  is  found  at  the  present  day.  To  the  north 
of  it  is  the  Isle  of  Gotland,  and  this  island  in  the  time  of 
the  Romans  and  during  the  Anglo-Saxon  period  was  the 
greatest  commercial  centre  in  the  North  of  Europe.  The 
proof  of  its  trade  with  England  and  overland  with 
Eastern  countries  is  complete.  The  evidence  of  its  early 
trade  during  the  Roman  period  is  shown  by  the  large 
number  of  Roman  coins  which  have  been  found  in  the 
island.  Thousands,  indeed,  of  the  Roman  and  early 
Byzantine  periods  have  been  discovered  there.  Similarly, 
during  the  Viking  Age,  the  coins  found  in  Gotland  show 
that  the  island  stood  foremost  as  the  commercial  centre 
of  the  North.  It  kept  its  supremacy  for  ten  or  twelve 
centuries.2  In  addition,  thousands  of  Arabic  coins  have 
been  found  there  ;  also  silver  ornaments,  to  which  the 
name  Kufic  has  been  given,  showing  that  the  old  trade 
route  with  Gotland  extended  at  one  time  as  far  eastward 
as  Bokhara,  Samarcand,  Bagdad,  and  Kufa.3 

Another  source  of  evidence  concerning  the  eastern 
trade  of  Gotland,  and  more  particularly  with  the  Eastern 

1  Latham,  R.  G.,  '  The  Germania  of  Tacitus,'  Notes. 

2  du  Chaillu,  '  Viking  Age,'  ii.  218.  3  Ibid.,  ii.  219. 

56  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

Empire,  is  that  derived  from  certain  weights  of  the 
Viking  period  found  in  the  island,  and  now  in  the  museum 
at  Stockholm.  These  relate  to  the  weights  of  gold  and 
silver,  and  their  unit  is  exactly  the  same  as  that  of  the 
Eastern  stater,1  thus  pointing  to  a  common  weight  in 
use  for  purposes  of  exchange  between  Goths  of  the  Baltic 
and  Greeks  of  the  Levant. 

It  is  of  interest  to  note  this  influence  of  eastern  trade 
in  the  monetary  computation  introduced  into  England 
by  Danish  and  Scandian  settlers.  The  ora  is  mentioned 
in  the  treaty  between  Alfred  and  Guthrum,  in  subsequent 
laws,  and  in  Domesday  Book.  The  marks  and  oras  of 
the  Danes  were  the  computation  in  use  in  England  within 
the  Danelaw  until  after  the  Norman  Conquest. 

Although  it  is  not  probable  that  Danish  marks  and 
other  coins  were  used  as  coins  in  England,  money  com- 
putations were  often  made  in  them.  In  Domesday  Book 
the  Danish  money  is  mentioned  as  the  computation  in 
which  customary  payments  were  made  in  various 
boroughs  and  manors  outside  the  Danelaw — Bristol, 
Dorchester,  Wareham,  Bridport,  Shaftesbury,  Ringwood, 
some  manors  in  the  Isle  of  Wight,  in  North-East  Gloucester- 
shire, and  elsewhere,  being  among  the  number,  thus 
clearly  pointing  to  Scandinavian  settlers. 

The  pounds  and  shillings  of  Wessex  were  Roman  in 
their  origin.  The  marks  and  oras  of  the  Danish  districts 
in  England  had  an  Eastern  equivalence.  As  regards 
their  value,  they  had  their  origin  in  the  Eastern  Empire 
and  in  the  monetary  exchange  that  prevailed  along  the 
Eastern  trade  route  from  Byzantium  to  the  Baltic. 
More  than  20,000  Anglo-Saxon  coins  have  been  found  in 
Sweden  and  the  Isle  of  Gotland,  ranging  in  date  from 
Edward  the  Elder  to  Edward  the  Confessor.  Many  of 
them  are  preserved  in  the  Royal  Collection  at  Stock- 
holm. 2 

1  Seebohm,  P.,  '  Tribal  Custom  in  Anglo-Saxon  Law,'  236. 
a  du  Chaillu,  loc.  cit.,  ii.  219. 

The  Jutes,   Got/is,  and  Northmen.  57 

These  remarkable  discoveries,  and  especially  the  Roman 
coins  on  the  one  hand  and  the  Anglo-Saxon  on  the  other, 
show  that  the  great  trade  of  Gotland  was  continuous 
from  the  Roman  period  to  the  later  Saxon  time  in 
England.  Its  commercial  prosperity  as  the  chief  centre 
of  maritime  trade  in  the  North  of  Europe  must  con- 
sequently have  extended  over  the  whole  period  of  the 
attacks  on  Britain  by  the  Saxons,  Angles,  Jutes  or 
Goths,  and  Danes.  There  can,  indeed,  be  little  doubt 
that  such  a  maritime  centre  as  the  island  was  during  the 
fifth  and  succeeding  centuries  furnished  ships  for  the 
invasions  and  settlement  of  England  by  Goths  and  their 
allies.  Gotland  was  no  ordinary  island,  and  Wisby,  its 
great  port,  was  no  ordinary  seaport.  It  must  have 
exercised  no  ordinary  influence  on  maritime  affairs  in 
Northern  Europe  during  the  time  it  flourished,  and  this 
influence  certainly  extended  to  England.  The  Goths  and 
other  Teutonic  people  of  the  Baltic  are  brought  under 
very  early  notice  by  Pytheas,  the  renowned  navigator  of 
Marseilles,  in  the  fourth  century  B.C.  He  tells  us  that 
he  sailed  up  the  Baltic  in  search  of  the  amber  coast, 
rounding  the  cape  of  what  is  now  called  Jutland,  and 
proceeding  about  6,000  stadia  along  the  coasts  of  the 
Guttones  and  Teutones.  As  the  date  of  this  voyage  was 
about  325  B.C.,  the  account  shows  that  Goths  and  Teutons 
at  that  early  time  were  known  names  for  Northern 

The  relations  of  the  Goths  and  the  Vandals  is  important, 
and  must  be  fully  considered  in  reference  to  any  part  of 
Europe  that  was  conquered  and  settled  by  the  former 
nation,  which  was  more  advanced  in  civilization  and  the 
arts  than  their  allies.  The  Goths  invented  runes,  and 
so  established  among  Northern  races  the  art  of  writing, 
and  they  were  skilled  metallurgists  and  gilders.  The 
Vandals  of  the  Baltic  coast  whom  they  conquered  were  a 
less  advanced  people,  but  a  lasting  peace  appears  to  have 
been  formed  between  them,  and  to  have  been  subse- 

58  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

quently  remembered  in  Northern  mythology.  The  con- 
flict of  the  ^Esir  and  Vanir  is  a  Northern  myth,  which, 
considered  ethnologically,  may  be  regarded  as  founded 
on  the  wars  carried  on  between  the  Teutonic  and  Slavonic 
races.  That  between  the  Goths  and  Vandals  was  a 
war  of  this  kind,  and  it  resulted  in  peace  and  a  lasting 
alliance.  The  myth  of  the  conflict  of  the  ^Esir  and  Vanir 
also  terminated  in  a  lasting  peace  and  the  exchange  of 
hostages  between  the  contending  races.  The  alliance 
between  the  Northern  Goths  and  the  Vandals  and  their 
combined  expeditions  can  be  traced  in  the  Anglo-Saxon 
settlement  and  in  the  present  topography  of  England. 
In  many  parts  of  our  country  Gothic  and  Wendish  place- 
names  survive  near  each  other,  side  by  side  with  Gothic 
and  Wendish  customs.  There  is,  indeed,  in  England 
very  considerable  evidence  afforded  by  the  ancient  place- 
names  that  two  of  the  great  nations  of  the  North  in  the 
fifth  and  sixth  centuries — the  Goths  and  Vandals — who 
played  such  an  important  part  in  the  destruction  of  the 
Roman  Empire  and  the  occupation  of  large  provinces 
elsewhere,  took  part  in  the  invasion  and  settlement  of 
this  country.  This  evidence  is  confirmed  by  the  sur- 
vival of  customs  among  the  English  settlers,  some  of 
which  have  come  down  to  our  time,  and  for  their 
remote  origin  may  be  traced  to  Goths,  or  to  Vandals. 
Both  these  Northern  nations  were  maritime  people. 
The  Baltic  Sea  was  called  in  ancient  time  the  Vendic 
Sea,  after  the  Vandals,  as  the  Adriatic  Sea  is  called 
the  Gulf  of  Venice  after  them  to  the  present  day. 
The  conclusion,  therefore,  appears  unavoidable  that, 
under  the  general  names  of  Saxons,  Angles,  and  Jutes, 
some  Goths  and  Vandals,  as  will  be  shown  more  fully  in 
succeeding  chapters,  took  a  considerable  part  in  the 
invasion  and  settlement  of  England.  Later  on,  during 
the  Viking  Age,  the  Vikings  of  Denmark  and  Norway 
often  acted  in  alliance  with  the  Wendish  Vikings  of 
Jomberg,  as  shown  by  references  in  early  Norse  litera- 

The  Jutes,  Goths,  and  Northmen.  59 

ture,  and  the  occurrence  in  close  proximity,  in  various 
parts  of  England  on  or  near  the  coast,  of  Wendish  place- 
names  and  Scandinavian  place-names,  which  mark  the 
settlements  of  these  allies.  Not  infrequently,  also,  near 
such  places  the  survival  of  characteristic  Norse  and 
Wendish  customs  can  be  traced. 

There  is  evidence  of  the  large  immigration  of  settlers 
of  various  tribes  from  Scandinavia  to  be  found  in  remains 
of  their  speech.  The  dialects  which  the  Northmen  intro- 
duced into  England,  both  during  the  earlier  settlements 
of  Goths  and  Angles  and  the  later  settlements  of  Danes, 
certainly  formed  the  basis  from  which  some  of  the 
dialects  spoken  in  many  parts  of  England  were  formed. 
Skeat  has  pointed  out  that  when  Icelandic  became  a 
written  language  in  the  eleventh  century,  an  interesting 
statement  in  regard  to  English  and  the  language  of  the 
Northmen  was  made  by  Snorri  Sturluson,  the  author 
of  the  Icelandic  alphabet  and  its  earliest  literature. 
'  Englishmen,'  he  says,  '  write  English  with  Latin  letters 
such  as  represent  their  sounds  correctly.  Following  their 
example,  since  we  are  of  one  language,  although  the  one  & 
may  have  changed  greatly,  or  each  of  them  to  some 
extent,  I  have  framed  an  alphabet  for  us  Icelanders.' 
There  is  a  statement  also  in  the  Saga  of  Gunlaugr  Orms- 
tunga  that  there  was  the  same  tongue  used  at  the  time 
the  Saga  was  written — the  eleventh  century — in  England, 
Norway,  and  Denmark.1  This  was  the  age  of  William 
the  Conqueror,  who  was  desirous  that  his  own  son  Richard 
should  learn  the  Old  Danish  language,  no  doubt  with 
some  political  or  administrative  object  in  view,  and  we 
are  told  that  he  sent  him  for  this  purpose  to  Bayeux, 
where  the  Old  Northern  speech  still  lingered,  although 
it  had  died  out  at  Rouen.2 

As  the  Jutes  who  settled  in  England  were  neither  Norse 
nor  Danes,  as  known  at  a  later  period,  they  must,  by  the 

1  Skeat,  W.  W.,  'Principles  of  English  Etymology,'  455. 

2  Ellis,  G.,  '  Early  English  Metrical  Romances,'  Introd.,  p.  6. 

60  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

evidence  of  the  runic  inscriptions  found  in  Kent,  have 
been  either  of  the  Anglian1  or  Gothic  stock.  In  the  time 
of  Pytheas — fourth  century  B.C. — and  in  that  of  Ptolemy 
— second  century  A.D. — the  Goths,  as  already  mentioned, 
occupied  a  region  on  the  east  of  the  Baltic.  Their  name 
is  lost  there,  but  survives  in  Gotland  Isle  and  Gothland 
in  Sweden.  Tradition  ascribes  the  Baltic  area  as  their 
original  home,  and  in  any  case  they  must  have  been  settled 
along  its  coasts  at  a  very  early  period.  The  old  name 
Uuitland  for  a  part  of  the  east  coast  of  the  Baltic  reminds 
us  of  the  Jutes,  for  Uuit  is  probably  a  modified  form  of 
Jute  or  Jewit,  and  in  the  Jutish  parts  of  England,  as  in 
Hampshire,  we  meet  with  Uuit  or  Wit  names,  as  Wihtland 
for  the  Isle  of  Wight.  The  identity  of  some  of  the  Jutes 
with  the  Goths  is  shown  by  the  similarity  of  the  name, 
and  its  ancient  occurrence  on  both  sides  of  the  Baltic 
Sea ;  in  the  similarity  of  customs,  as  will  be  described 
later ;  and  in  historical  references,  such  as  that  of  Asser, 
who,  in  telling  us  that  King  Alfred's  mother  was  descended 
from  the  Goths  and  Jutes,  practically  identifies  them 
as  being  of  one  race.  In  the  survival  of  monuments 
with  old  Gothic  runes  in  Kent  we  have  corroborative 

Beddoe  refers  to  the  similarity  of  the  place-names  in 
many  parts  of  England,  and  says : 2  '  The  patronymical 
names  and  other  place-names  in  Kent  and  other  parts 
of  England  forbid  us  to  imagine  an  exclusive  Jutish 
nationality.'  The  evidence  of  Goths  and  Frisians  in 
Kent,  and  of  settlers  of  the  same  nationalities  in  many 
other  parts  of  England,  appears  to  afford  a  solution  of 
the  question  who  the  -people  called  Jutes  in  Kent  or  in 
Hampshire  really  were — i.e.,  mainly  Goths  or  of  Gothic 

The  part  which  the  nations  of  the  Baltic  took  in  the 
conquest  and  settlement  of  England  has  been  under- 

1  Taylor,  I.,  'History  of  the  Alphabet,'  210-215. 

2  Beddoe,  J.,  '  Races  in  Britain,'  42. 

The  Jutes,  Goths,  and  Northmen.  6  r 

rated.  With  such  a  great  centre  of  commerce  and 
shipping  as  existed  at  Wisby,  although  smaller  than  it 
afterwards  became,  it  is  unreasonable  to  doubt  the  con- 
nection of  the  Goths  with  many  of  these  maritime  expe- 
ditions, if  only  as  carriers.  The  time  of  the  settlement 
of  the  Isle  of  Gotland  is  lost  in  antiquity.  The  only 
record  of  its  remarkable  history  is  the  '  Gotlands  lagarne,'1 
which  is  thought  to  be  a  supplement  to  the  ancient  laws 
of  the  country.  This  is  supposed  to  have  been  written 
about  A.D.  1200,  and  preserves  in  the  old  Gotlandish 
language  laws  that  are  apparently  of  a  much  earlier 
date.  The  discovery  of  so  many  Roman  coins  in  the 
island  shows  that  its  commercial  history  is  older  than  the 
time  of  the  English  Conquest.  Whatever  it  was  at  that 
time — and  relatively  to  most  other  ports  it  must  have 
been  great — Wisby  became  in  the  tenth  and  eleventh 
centuries  a  place  of  almost  fabulous  wealth.  As  regards 
the  ancient  homelands  of  the  Goths  in  Sweden,  the 
evidence  of  communications  with  Anglo-Saxon  England 
is  direct.  In  the  south  of  the  Scandian  peninsula  is  a 
province  now  called  Carlscrona,  whose  ancient  name 
was  Blekinge,  under  which  name  it  is  mentioned  by 
King  Alfred  in  his  '  Orosius.'  Stephens  tells  us  of  runic 
stones  that  have  been  found  in  Bleking,  and  on  the 
authority  of  Elias  Fries  of  Upsala  he  states  they  are  said 
to  be  in  Anglo-Saxon.2  WThen  we  consider  that  there  is 
historical  evidence  of  the  missionary  labours  of  English- 
men among  the  heathen  Goths  of  the  South  of  Sweden,  it 
will  not  appear  surprising  that  inscriptions  in  Anglian 
runes  should  be  found  there.  The  church  of  Lund,  the 
mother-church  of  that  part  of  the  country,  was  founded 
by  Englishmen  early  in  the  eleventh  century,  according 
to  Adam  of  Bremen.3  Lund  was  the  capital  of  this  part 

1  du  Chaillu,  P.  B.,  '  The  Land  of  the  Midnight  Sun,'  i.  304. 

2  Stephens,  G.,  loc.  cit.,  i.  359. 

3  Adamus  Bremen,  '  Hist.  Eccles.,'  lib.  ii.,  chaps,  xxix.  and 

62  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

of  the  peninsula,  a  city  of  great  extent,  of  great  antiquity, 
and  one  which  enjoyed  a  high  prosperity  as  early  as  the 
ninth  century.  Blekinge  is  mentioned  as  Blecinga-eg, 
or  the  Isle  of  the  Blekings,  by  King  Alfred,  repeating  the 
description  of  Wulfstan  of  his  voyage  up  the  Baltic. 
'  We  had,'  he  says,  'first  Blekinge,  and  Moen  and  Eowland, 
and  Gothland  on  our  larboard  (baecbord),  and  these 
lands  belong  to  Sweden ;  and  Wendland  was  all  the  way 
on  our  starboard  as  far  as  the  mouth  of  the  Vistula.'1 
These  on  the  larboard  were,  without  doubt,  homelands  of 
some  of  the  early  people  of  the  Jutish  or  Gothic  race. 
There  is  other  evidence  of  early  communications  between 
England  and  Scandinavia.  At  Skaang,  in  Sodermanland, 
Sweden,  there  is  a  runic  inscription  on  a  stone  of  peculiar 
interest,  from  its  association  with  England.  It  has  the 
English  sign  ("I)  for  the  word  and,.  This,  Stephens 
tells  us,  is  distinctly  English,  and  only  English,  in  its 
origin,  so  that  inscriptions  having  it  show  English 
influence  of  some  kind.2  In  considering  this  he  regards 
it  as  evidence  of  early  literary  communications  between 
the  English  settlers  and  their  Continental  kindred. 
We  should  remember  also  that  this  Old  English  sign 
abounds  in  Domesday  Book.  Stephens  says  :  '  The 
Saxon  and  German  pagans  got  their  writing-schools  as 
well  as  their  Christianity  and  culture  of  movements, 
direct  and  indirect,  chiefly  from  England  and  Anglo- 
Keltic  lands,  whose  missionaries  carried  their  runes  with 
them,  partly  for  secret  writing,  and  partly  for  use  in 
Scandinavia.'  It  is  the  evidence  of  the  runes  that  shows 
the  Scandian  origin  of  the  Anglians  who  settled  in 
Northern  England.  Stephens'  last  words  on  this  subject 
are  :  '  I  beg  the  reader  carefully  to  ponder  the  following 
remarkable  and  interesting  and  decisive  facts  in  the  list 
showing  the  numerical  result  (of  runic  discoveries)  in 
every  class  up  to  June,  1894.  It  is  :  in  Scando-Anglia, 

1  King  Alfred's  '  Orosius,'  edited  by  H.  Sweet,  p.  20. 

2  Stephens,  G.,  loc.  cit.,  iii.  24. 

The  Jutes,   Goths,  and  Northmen.  63 

10,423  runic  remains  ;  in  Germany,  SaxcJny,  and  else- 
where, 19  as  wanderers.'1 

The  Northmen  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  period  were  cer- 
tainly people  of  many  tribes.  The  name  included  all 
the  inhabitants  of  the  Northern  peninsula  as  well  as  the 
Danes.  It  was  not  confined  in  its  meaning  like  the  later 
name  Norse.  In  Sweden  there  were  the  ancient  provinces 
of  Halland,  Skane,  Bleking,  Smaland,  Sodermanland, 
Nebrike,  Vermland,  Upland,  Vestmanland,  Angerman- 
land,  Helsingland,  Gestrickland,  Delarna,  Eastern  and 
Western  Gotland,  and  others.  Vermland,  which  had 
been  part  of  Norway,  was  added  to  Sweden  after  860. 
In  Norway  there  were  the  tribal  provinces  or  districts 
of  Nordrland,  Halgoland,  Raumerike,  Heredaland,  Hade- 
land,  Rogaland,  Raumsdel,  Borgund,  Viken,  and 

People  of  these  provinces  or  tribal  districts  were  all 
Northmen,  as  understood  by  the  early  settlers  in  England, 
and  in  the  parts  of  our  country  where  Scandinavians 
made  colonies  some  of  these  tribal  names  may  still  be 
traced.  It  is  certain  also  that  the  inhabitants  generally 
of  the  coast  of  Norway  and  the  shore  of  the  Baltic  were 
called  Lochlandach  or  Lakelanders,2  and  traces  of  them 
may  perhaps  be  found  in  England  under  names  derived 
from  this  word.  '  Few  and  far,'  says  Stephens,  writing 
of  the  tribes  of  Scandinavia,  '  are  the  lights  which  grimmer 
over  the  clan  lands  of  our  forefathers.  .  .  .  We  may 
learn  a  little  more  in  time  if  we  work  hard  and  theorize 
less.  But  whatever  we  can  now  master  as  to  the  Old 
Northern  language  we  have  learnt  from  the  monuments. 
These,  therefore,  we  must  respect  at  all  hazards,  what- 
ever systems  may  have  to  give  way,  even  though  the 
upshot  should  be  that  much  of  our  boasted  modern 
philology,  with  its  iron  laws  and  straight  lines  and  regular 

1  Stephens,   G.f   '  The  Runes,   Whence  they  Came,'   Preface, 
3  Stephens,  G.,  '  Old  Northern  Runic  Monuments,'  iii.  10. 

64  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

police-ruled  developments,  is  only  a  house  built  upon  the 

The  Northern  dialects,  as  introduced  into  England 
from  the  fifth  and  tenth  centuries,  may  have  differed, 
in  some  respects,  from  the  Icelandic  or  Old  Northern 
tongue  as  written  in  the  eleventh  century.  Hence 
the  great  value  of  the  earliest  runic  inscriptions  as 
evidence,  so  far  as  they  go,  of  the  earliest  meanings  of 
some  words  that  afterwards  were  used  in  Old  English. 
In  considering  this  probable  change,  Stephens  tells  us 
that  the  only  corruptors  of  dialects  he  knew  were  those 
'  who  improve  Nature,  by  writing  them  not  as  they  are, 
but  according  to  their  notions  of  what  they  ought  to 
be — i.e.,  in  accordance  with  rules  of  grammar  derived 
from  other  languages — for  instance,  the  peculiar  and 
comparatively  modern  Icelandic,  with  which  they  may 
be  acquainted.'2 

As  the  name  Northmen  was  a  general  one,  which 
included  the  different  tribal  people  of  Scandinavia,  so 
the  name  Eastmen  appears  to  have  also  been  a  general 
name  for  the  people  of  the  Baltic  region  on  the  opposite 
shores  to  those  of  Sweden.  With  the  Angles  and  Goths 
of  the  early  period  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  settlement  some 
people  of  the  Norse  race,  afterwards  so  called,  may  well 
have  been  included.  The  earliest  English  coins  found 
in  Norway  are  of  the  period  when  the  Norse  began 
their  Viking  expeditions  to  the  British  shores.  They 
comprise  coins  of  Kewulf  of  Mercia,  796-819,  Ceolwulf 
his  son,  819-821,  and  Northumbrian  coins  of  about 

From  the  results  of  the  researches  of  many  archae- 
ologists, historians,  and  philologists,  both  English  and 
Scandinavian,  we  are  led  to  the  conclusion  that  the 
Northmen  of  various  tribes  and  nations  had  a  greater 
share  in  the  settlement  of  England  than  has  commonly 

1  Stephens,  G.,  '  Old  Northern  Runic  Monuments,'  iii.  396. 

2  Ibid.,  iii.  2.  3  du  Chaillu,  '  Viking  Age,'  ii.  221. 

The  Jutes,  Goths,  and  -Northmen.  65 

been  attributed  to  them.  Stephens  assigns  them  a  very 
large  share  indeed,  and  his  great  work  on  the  '  Old 
Northern  Runic  Monuments  '  attests  his  vast  research. 
He  says  :  '  Anglic  Britain  was  chiefly  planted  by  North- 
men in  the  second  and  following  centuries,  and  was  half 
replanted  by  them  in  the  ninth  and  tenth.'1  Whatever 
may  have  been  the  date  of  their  earliest  settlements, 
Northmen  were  certainly  among  both  the  earlier  and 
later  ancestors  of  the  Old  English. 

1   Loc.  cit.,  iii.,  Foreword. 



r  I  "*HE  ancient  Frisians  are  but  poorly  represented 
by  their  descendants  on  the  coast  of  the  North 
Sea  at  the  present  time.  The  greater  part  of 
Holland  was  at  one  time  occupied  by  them,  as  the 
northern  part  still  is.  Their  coast  has  undergone 
greater  changes  within  the  range  of  history  than  any 
other  in  Europe.  An  old  map  of  the  twelfth  century 
shows  that  Texel  and  Vlieland,  and  the  other  islands 
now  forming  a  crescent  along  the  coast,  were  joined 
to  the  mainland.  The  river  Ysel  at  that  time  passed 
into  the  sea  through  the  narrow  channel  between 
Texel  and  the  promontory  of  North  Holland.  The 
Vlie  similarly  had  its  outlet  through  a  channel 
north  of  the  present  Vlieland.  In  the  middle  of  the  old 
northern  province  of  Holland  the  Lake  of  Flevo  was 
situated.  This  was  an  inland  water  of  the  same  kind  as 
the  Frisian  broads  at  the  present  time.  As  the  result 
of  a  great  flood  in  the  autumn  of  1170  the  lowlands  along 
the  rivers  began  to  disappear,  and  in  the  course  of  the 
next  two  centuries  nearly  a  million  acres  of  land  had 
become  submerged.  By  the  middle  of  the  fifteenth 
century  there  was  left  the  Zuyder  Zee  of  the  present  time, 
with  the  islands,  to  mark  the  great  encroachment  of  the 
sea  on  the  old  Frisian  country.  Before  the  time  when 
their  history  began  the  Frisians  extended  westward  to 
the  old  Rhine,  whose  outlet  is  at  Katwijk,  and  much 


The  Frisians :  Their  Tribes  and  Allies.      67 

farther  to  the  northward,  where  their  descendants  still 
occupy  the  North  Frisian  Islands  and  the  opposite  coast 
of  Schleswig.  They  and  the  Goths  of  the  Baltic  coasts 
were  the  greatest  maritime  nations  of  Northern  Europe 
in  the  early  centuries  of  our  era.  The  old  Frisian  settle- 
ments, indeed,  extended  into  the  Baltic,  where  they  came 
into  contact  with  the  Goths,  Danes,  Wends,  and  other 
nations.  This  was  the  direction  of  their  early  trade,  by 
which  they  were  brought  into  commercial  connection  with 
the  Eastern  trade  route.  The  Scandinavian  ratio  of  the 
value  of  gold  to  silver — i  to  8 — which  prevailed  in  ancient 
Frisia  in  the  payment  of  the  gold  wergelds  of  the  district 
near  the  Weser  in  a  silver  equivalent,1  appears  to  be 
satisfactory  proof  of  this  commercial  intercourse.  It 
was  without  doubt  from  the  Frisian  coast  that  many 
expeditions  started  for  the  coasts  of  Britain,  that  re- 
sulted in  the  conquest  of  the  country  and  the  settlement 
of  new  races  of  people  in  it.  Much  has  been  written 
about  the  Anglo-Saxon  settlement,  but  little  has  been 
told  of  the  part  which  the  Frisians  played  in  this  great 
migration.  Some  English  historians  only  tell  us  of  their 
settlements  on  the  Scotch  coast  in  the  Firth  of  Forth 
and  around  Dumfries  at  the  head  of  the  Solway  Firth. 
The  evidence  is,  however,  abundant  that  the  part  they 
played  in  the  settlement  of  England  was  hardly  second 
to  that  of  any  race.  They  were  probably  included  in 
the  designation  Saxon  within  the  confederacy  of  the 
Saxon  invaders,  and  as  they  were  the  chief  maritime 
nation  of  North  Germany  at  that  time  there  can  be  no 
doubt  that  Frisian  ships  were  used. 

The  settlement  of  some  Frisians  on  the  east  coast  of 
Britain  in  the  time  of  the  Empire  is  probable  from 
Ptolemy's  reference  to  the  Parisi  in  the  Holderness 
district,  and  the  Teutonic  equivalence  of  this  name,  Fan  si. 

Procopius  also,  the  Greek  historian  of  the  sixth  century,2 

1  Seebohm,  F.,  '  Tribal  Custom  in  Anglo-Saxon  Law,'  207. 

2  Procopius,  '  De  Jiell.  Goth.,'  lib.  iv.,  20. 


68  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

says  that  three  very  populous  nations  occupied  Britain — 
the  Angles,  the  Britons,  and  the  Frisians.     Their  migra- 
tions across  the  North  Sea  certainly  began  at  an  early 
date.      By  the  middle  of  the  sixth  century  there  were 
scattered    colonies    of    Angles    and    Frisians    occupying 
districts  of  the  east  coast  of  Britain  from  the  Tees  to  the 
Forth,  and  the  kingdom  of  Bernicia  was  formed  by  Ida, 
the  capital,  Bamburgh,  being  placed  on  a  headland  not 
far  from  the  Tweed.1    The  selection  of  such  a  site  for 
the   seat   of  government   of  a   kingdom   founded  by  a 
maritime  people  was  characteristic.     The  Frisian  country 
itself  was   a   coast   country,   not   extending  far  inland 
beyond  easy  access  to  and  from  the  sea.     It  was  natural, 
therefore,  that  the  new  settlements  which  such  a  people 
founded  should  be  grouped  so  as  to  reproduce  as  much  as 
possible  facilities  for  communication  similar  to  those  to 
which   they  were   accustomed.      Their   communications 
were  kept  up  mainly  by  the  sea,  and  the  position  of 
Bamburgh,  as  the  seat  of  government  for  the  settlers 
along  the  coast,  points  to  this  as  well  as  to  the  site  being 
chosen  for  defence.     These  were  not  the  earliest  of  their 
race  that  came  to  Britain,  and  probably  not  the  earliest 
settlers,  for  in  the  later  Roman  period  we  have  a  record 
of    some  colonies  of  Frisians  and  other  German   tribes 
introduced  for  military  purposes. 

Procopius  mentions  the  inhabitants  of  Britain  under 
the  names  '  Angeloi,  Phrissones,  and  those  surnamed 
from  the  island  Brittones.'  He  thus  calls  the  same  people 
Angles  and  Frisians,  whom  Welsh  authors,  writing  about 
the  same  date,  call  Saxons. 

The  Frisian  occupancy  of  the  coast  of  North  Germany 
was  probably  continuous  from  North  Holland  to  South 
Denmark,  and  there  must  be  assumed  to  have  been  a 
fringe  of  them  along  the  whole  sea-board  of  Hanover 
and  Holstein.2  They  were  the  neighbouring  nation  to  the 

1  Skene,  W.  F.,  '  Celtic  Scotland,'  i.  151. 

2  Latham,  R.  G.,  '  The  Germania  of  Tacitus,'  p.  242. 

The  Frisians:   Their  Tribes  and  Allies.      69 

Angles,  the  Frisians  lying  west  and  the  Angles  east.  The 
approach  of  the  two  people  towards  identity  of  race  or 
origin  is  probably  near,  but  there  is  no  proof  of  any  Frisian 
calling  himself  an  Angle  or  vice  versa.  Both  may  have  been 
called  by  the  same  name  by  a  third  nation,  or  both  may 
have  been  called  Saxon.1  This  consideration  is  important 
in  reference  to  the  use  of  the  names  Angles  and  Saxons  as 
those  of  allied  peoples  and  not  merely  of  tribes  or  nations. 

The  Frisian  people,  both  in  Schleswig  and  in  Holland, 
are  an  example  of  an  ancient  race  in  the  last  stage 
of  gradual  absorption  by  the  more  vigorous  nations  with 
which  they  are  in  close  contact.  Other  races  which 
were  much  concerned  with  the  conquest  and  settlement 
of  England  as  parts  of  confederacies  have  similarly 
become  absorbed  in  the  nationalities  of  their  more 
vigorous  neighbours,  and  their  languages  have  entirely 
disappeared.  Of  this,  the  case  of  the  Wends,  who  occupied 
the  coast  of  Pomerania,  is  an  example.  The  Old  Saxons, 
also,  were  relatively  greater  than  the  Saxons  of  Germany 
at  the  present  day,  and  their  language  has  been  absorbed 
in  the  German.  One  of  the  most  remarkable  disappear- 
ances of  any  ancient  race  is  that  of  the  Lombards  or 
Longobards,  who  were  neighbours  of  the  Saxons.  All 
that  remains  to  remind  us  of  them  is  the  name  Lom- 
bardy.  The  race  and  their  language  have  entirely  dis- 
appeared, and  been  absorbed  by  the  Italian.  A  similar 
disappearance  is  that  of  the  Burgundians.  Their  original 
home  was  in  the  East  of  Europe,  in  and  near  the  Isle 
of  Bornholm  in  the  Baltic  and  on  the  adjacent  coasts, 
but  as  a  result  of  their  southern  migration  the  race  has 
been  absorbed,  and  the  names  Bornholm  and  Burgundy 
alone  remain  to  tell  us  of  their  existence  in  North- 
Eastern  Europe  and  in  Eastern  France. 

At  the  present  time  the  North  Frisian  area,  which  is 
separated  by  a  long  stretch  of  coast  from  East  Friesland, 
comprises  the  western  part  of  Schleswig  and  the  islands 
1  Latham,  R.  G.,  loc.  cit.,  p.  241. 

7o  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

opposite.  The  North  Frisian  area  comprised  the  parts 
about  Husum,  Bredsted,  and  Tondern,  on  the  mainland  of 
Schleswig,  where  the  Frisians  were  distributed  over  some 
thirty-eight  parishes,  which,  along  with  the  inhabitants 
of  the  islands,  gave  a  population  in  1852  of  about  30,000. 
In  this  northern  province  of  Germany,  as  in  Holland, 
the  same  process  of  absorption  is  going  on,  and  more 
rapidly  perhaps  in  Schleswig  than  in  East  Friesland.  In 
these  disappearing  Frisians  we  may  see  the  last  remnants 
of  a  vigorous  ancient  nation,  largely  concerned  in  the 
conquest  and  settlement  of  England,  and  numerously 
represented  among  the  ancestors  of  the  English  people. 

Several  dialects  of  the  Frisian  language  still  survive, 
and  a  characteristic  suffix  for  their  place-names  is  the 
termination  -um.  This  is  the  equivalent  of  the 
English  -ham  and  the  German  -heim.  In  Friesland 
itself  the  places  with  names  ending  in  -um  are  abun- 
dant. Within  a  few  miles  of  Leeuwarden  sixteen  out  of 
twenty-four  places  have  this  characteristic  ending.1  In 
Northumberland  many  place-names  terminate  in  -ham, 
but  this  suffix  is  in  almost  all  instances  pronounced  -um. 

Latham  says  that  there  are  one  or  two  names  ending 
in  this  Frisian  suffix  in  the  Danish  isles  of  Fyen  and 
Sealand,  and  this  may  be  a  trace  of  former  settlements 
on  the  Baltic.  Their  trading  voyages  certainly  led  them 
there,  and  they  were  so  closely  connected  with  the  Goths 
and  Angles  in  alliance,  and  probably  in  early  commerce, 
that  Frisian  settlements  on  the  Western  Baltic  coast 
probably  existed.  They  were  also  in  communication  and 
in  alliance,  at  least  from  time  to  time,  with  the  Wends  or 
Vandals  of  the  south  coast  of  the  Baltic.  Alliances, 
indeed,  played  a  very  important  part  in  the  earlier  con- 
quest of  England  by  the  Anglo-Saxons,  and  in  its  later 
conquest  by  the  Danes.  In  both  of  these  conquests  the 
Frisians  took  part.  Some  came  in  the  former  period 

1  Van  Langenheuzen's  Map,  1843,  quoted  by  Latham,  R.  G., 
'  Germania,'  Notes,  p.  119. 

The  Frisians:  Their  Tribes  and  Allies.      71 

under  the  name  of  Angles  or  Saxons,  in  the  latter  under 
the  name  of  Danes  or  Vikings.  Our  early  chroniclers 
had  more  accurate  traditions  of  who  the  Danes  were  than 
modern  historians  have  fully  recognised.  Henry  of 
Huntingdon,  in  the  passage  in  which  he  mentions  the 
impiety  of  the  Anglo-Saxons  some  time  after  their  con- 
version, says  :  '  The  Almighty  therefore  let  loose  upon 
them  the  most  barbarous  of  nations,  the  Danes  and 
Goths,  Norwegians  and  Swedes,  Vandals  and  Frisians.'1 
It  will  be  noticed  that  he  couples  the  Vandals  with  the 
Frisians,  as  if  they  were  acting  together  in  alliance. 

Among  the  ancient  Frisian  books  which  exist  is  one 
known  as  the  '  Keran  fon  Hunesgena  londe,'  or  Statutes 
of  the  Country  of  the  Hunsings,  the  date  of  which  is 
about  A.D.  1252,  but  the  origin  of  the  statutes  is  of  a  far 
earlier  period.  There  is  also  another  old  law-book  in  exist- 
ence, known  as  the  '  Littera  Brocmannorum,'  or  written 
law  of  the  Brocmen.'2  The  chief  part  which  remains  of 
old  Frisia  is  the  country  of  the  meres  and  broads  of  North 
Holland,  but  in  assigning  a  locality  to  any  ancient  Frisian 
tribe,  we  must  remember  the  great  destruction  of  the 
land  which  has  occurred  within  the  range  of  history. 
The  Brocmen  certainly  formed  an  old  tribal  division  of 
the  race,  of  sufficient  importance  to  have  laws  of  their 
own  as  distinct  from  their  neighbours,  and  they,  or  some 
of  their  tribe,  may  have  occupied  part  of  East  Friesland 
and  probably  some  of  the  submerged  country.  Their 
country  was  also  known  as  Brocmonnelond  and  Brock- 
merland.3  The  Frisian  author  Halbertsma  tells  us  that 
the  pagus  of  the  Brocmen  was  in  East  Frisia.  Among 
the  Frisians  there  were  certainly  distinct  tribes.  Even 
as  late  as  the  twelfth  century  William  of  Malmesbury 
alludes  to  these  ancient  tribes  in  the  expression,  '  all 

1  Henry  of  Huntingdon's  Chronicle,  Bonn's  ed.,  p.  148. 

2  Bosworth,  Joseph,  '  Origin  of  the  English,  Germanic,  and 
Scandinavian  Languages,'  p.  61. 

3  Halbertsma,  J.  H.,  '  Lexicon  Frisicum.' 

72  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

the  Frisian  nations.'1  We  may  probably  trace  three  of 
them,  of  which  the  Hunsings  would  be  one,  in  the  three 
different  amounts  of  tribal  wergelds  or  compensations 
for  injuries  that  prevailed  in  the  ancient  Frisian  territory 
westward  of  the  river  Weser.2 

The  close  relationship  between  the  Anglo-Saxon  and 
Frisian  languages  has  been  shown  by  Halbertsma  and  by 
Siebs  among  Continental  scholars,  and  by  philologists 
in  our  own  country.  This  philological  evidence  supplies 
additional  proof  of  the  large  Frisian  element  in  the 
Anglo-Saxon  settlement,  in  the  comparison  of  the  Frisian 
with  the  Old  English  or  Anglo-Saxon  language.  On  this 
subject  Sweet  says  that  the  treatment  of  the  letter  a 
is  almost  identical  in  the  two  languages.  In  Frisian 
we  find  mon  and  noma  alternating  with  man  and 
natna  (name).  We  find  the  same  exceptional  o  in  ofy 
nosi  (nose) — (O.E.  nosu) — and  the  same  change  of  a 
into  cz  ;  that  in  Frisian,  which  has  no  ce,  is  written  e, 
as  ik  brec,  bee,  kreft,  corresponding  to  the  Old  English 
brcec,  bcec,  and  crceft.  These  changes,  he  says,  do  not 
occur  in  any  of  the  other  cognates,  and  could  not, 
except  by  a  most  extraordinary  coincidence,  have  been 
developed  independently  in  English  and  in  Frisian. 
They  must  therefore  have  already  existed  in  Anglo- 
Frisian.3  Frisian  throws  important  light  on  the  forma- 
tion of  the  peculiar  English  diphthongs  a  and  ce.  In 
the  older  Anglo-Saxon  texts,  including  West  Saxon, 
a  is  only  diphthongised  before  r,  and  not  before  /,  so  that 
we  have  the  typical  forms  aid  and  heard.  In  the  oldest 
glossaries  hard  for  heard  is  exceptional ;  but  in  a  few  old 
Northumbrian  fragments  hard  predominates.  The  Frisian 
language  similarly  agrees  in  preserving  a  before  /  in  al, 
half,  galga,  etc.,  while  before  r  it  is  written  e,  doubtless 

1  Malmesbury's  Chronicle,  book  i.,  chap.  iv. 

2  Seebohm,  F.,  '  Tribal  Custom  in  Anglo-Saxon  Law,'  199. 

3  Sweet,  H.,  '  Dialects  and  Prehistoric  Forms  of  Old  English,' 
Trans.  Philol.  Soc.,  1875-1876,  p.  562. 

The  Frisians :   Their  Tribes  and  Allies.       73 

for  <z,  as  herd  for  hcerd,  the  Anglo-Saxorr  heard.  The 
change  of  the  word  hard  into  hard  is  parallel  to  that  of 
the  change  of  bac  into  bcec.1  The  resemblances  to  be 
found  between  the  language  still  spoken  by  the  scattered 
remnants  of  the  ancient  Frisian  nation  and  that  of  our 
Saxon  forefathers  are  many,  and  leave  no  room  for 
doubt  of  their  very  close  connection.  One  remarkable 
word  they  had  in  common,  and  which  has  not  been  found 
in  any  other  old  Germanic  language,  is  sunnstede  for  the 
solstice.  The  Frisian  and  Old  English  also  evolved 
earlier  than  German  their  common  term  for  equinox, 
Anglo-Saxon  evenniht,  Frisian  evennaht. 

We  can  trace  various  tribes  of  ancient  Frisians — viz., 
the  Hunsings,  the  Brocmen,  the  Huntanga,  and  the 
Chaucians  or  Hocings,  and  others.  These  people  appear 
all  to  have  been  designated  at  times  as  Frisians,  and  at 
other  times  by  their  own  special  or  tribal  names.  The 
Chaucians,  however,  were  a  populous  race,  and  may  be 
regarded  in  some  respects  as  a  separate  nation  in  close 
connection  with,  and  never  in  opposition  to,  the  Frisians. 
They  were  seated  in  the  country  between  the  Weser  and 
the  Elbe.  The  name  Cuxhaven  at  the  mouth  of  the  Elbe 
is  one  which  was  probably  derived  from  the  Chaucians, 
and  has  come  down  to  us  as  that  of  a  place  situated  in 
their  old  country.  The  Hunsings  were  the  same  people 
as  the  Hunni  mentioned  by  •  Bede2  as  one  of  the  tribes 
by  which  England  was  settled.  The  country  they  occupied 
was  a  district  in  the  province  of  Groningen,in  the  North  of 
Holland,  where  the  river  Hunse  flows  from  the  south 
past  Groningen  towards  the  sea.  A  part  of  this  country 
is,  or  was  within  the  last  century,  known  by  its  old  name 
as  the  '  District  of  Hunsing.'3  The  '  Hundings  '  also 
are  alluded  to  in  the  *  Traveller's  Song,'  Hundingum 

1  Sweet,  H.,  '  Dialects  and  Prehistoric  Forms  of  Old  English,' 
Trans.  Philol.  Soc.,  1875-1876,  p.  563. 

2  Bede,  '  Hist.  Eccles.,'  v.,  chap.  ix. 

3  Bosworth,  J.,  loc.  cit.,  p.  65.  ; 

74  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

being  mentioned  as  if  the  people  were  a  separate  tribe. 
The  Phundusii,  also  mentioned  by  Ptolemy,  were  prob- 
ably the  same  people  at  an  earlier  date,  although  located 
by  him  further  to  the  north.1  Hunnaland  and  Friesland 
are  mentioned  among  the  countries  the  Norse  Vikings 
ravaged.2  The  pagus  of  the  Huntanga,  apparently,  was 
located  between  the  River  Hunte  in  Oldenburg  and  the 
province  of  Groningen.3  The  name  Hun,  Hilne,  or 
Hunni  is  one  which  in  the  sense  of  giant  prevails  in  the 
popular  traditions  of  North  Germany.  Grimm  4  tells  us 
that  it  is  especially  characteristic  of  the  prehistoric 
traditions  of  Westphalia,  and  that  it  extends  as  far  west- 
ward as  the  Groningen  country  and  the  river  Drenth 
in  Holland.  Barrows  and  dolmens,  known  as  giant  hills 
and  giant  tombs,  are  also  called  in  these  parts  of  Europe 
hilnebedde  and  hunebedden,  '  bed  '  being  commonly  used 
for  '  grave.'  Another  country  of  the  Hunni  has  been 
identified  by  some  Northern  writers  with  the  northern 
part  of  Jutland,  where  a  few  place-names  that  contain 
the  word  Hilne  still  survive.  As  the  Frisians  formerly 
extended  much  further  north  than  their  present  limit 
in  Schleswig,  the  occurrence  of  these  names  may  be  quite 
consistent  with  the  later  connection  of  the  name  with 
the  Frisian  Hunsings.  It  is  quite  certain  that  the  name 
is  a  very  ancient  one,  probably  as  old  as  that  of  Frisians 
themselves . 

From  these  circumstances  and  references  we  may  see 
that  the  Hilne  or  Huni  name  was  probably  applied  to 
some  of  the  inhabitants  of  Schleswig,  as  weU  as  to  some  in 
East  Friesland.  In  the  eighth  century  we  read  of  the 
boundaries  of  the  Hune  in  the  south  part  of  Denmark.5 
There  is  a  reference  also  to  the  forest  which  separates 

1  Ptolemy's  Map  of  Germany,  reproduced  in  Elton's  '  Origin 
of  English  History,'  second  ed. 

2  du  Chaillu,  '  Viking  Age,'  i.  503. 

3  Monumenta  Germaniae,  Script,  iii.  38. 

*  Grimm,  J.,  '  Teutonic  Mythology,'  523. 
5  Monumenta  Germaniae,  i.  34. 

The  Frisians :  Their  Tribes  and  Allies.       75 

Hunaland1  from  Reidgotaland,  the  latter 'name  having 
been  identified  as  referring  to  Jutland.  In  the  province 
of  Drenthe  in  Holland,  where  the  river  Hunse  has  its 
source,  there  still  exists  a  remnant  of  a  more  ancient 
population  than  the  old  Frisian.  These  people  are  of 
different  physical  characters  from  their  neighbours.  They 
are  broad-headed,  while  the  true  Frisians  are  long-headed. 
They  are  brown  in  aspect,  while  the  Frisians  are  fair, 
and  they  are  supposed  to  be  descendants  of  a  remnant  of 
the  very  ancient  brown  race  of  Europe  who  were  left 
when  their  country  was  overrun  at  a  remote  period  by 
people  of  the  Gothic  or  Germanic  stock.  We  have  no 
knowledge  of -the  physical  characters  of  the  Hunsings  or 
Hunni  mentioned  by  Bede,  but  as  these  brown  people 
of  Holland  who  are  to  be  found  in  Drenthe  and  Overijssel 
occupy  the  country  which  was  in  part  occupied  by  the 
Hunsings,  there  may  have  been  some  connection  between 

Among  the  tribes  or  allies  of  the  Frisians  the  most 
important  was  the  Chauci  or  Chaucians.  Tacitus  men- 
tions them  as  living  on  both  sides  of  the  Weser. 
Those  settled  between  the  Weser  and  the  Elbe  he  called 
Chauci  majores  ;  and  those  on  the  west  of  the  Weser,  but 
higher  up  the  river,  Chauci  minor es.2  His  description 
of  them  is  that  of  a  considerable  nation.  He  says  that 
the  land  from  Hessia  was  under  the  dominion  of,  and 
inhabited  by,  Chauci.  He  has  left  two  accounts  of  them 
somewhat  different,  but  that  in  his  '  Germania  '  is  believed 
to  have  been  written  later  than  that  in  his  '  Annals,' 
or  '  History,'  and  it  may  well  have  been  that  before 
writing  his  later  account  he  had  had  opportunities  of 
learning  more  about  them  and  correcting  his  previous 
statements.  He  says  that  the  Chauci  never  excited  wars 
nor  harassed  their  neighbours,  and  that  they  wished  to 
support  their  grandeur  by  justice.  This  description  agrees 

1   Kemble,  J.  M.,  '  Saxons  in  England,'  quoting  Sogur,  i.  495. 
3  Latham,  R.  G.,  '  The  Germania  of  Tacitus,'  Map. 

76  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

with  the  character  of  the  Frisians,  and  may  perhaps  be 
taken  to  refer  also  to  them.1  The  accounts  which  Tacitus 
gives  of  the  German  people  between  the  Rhine  and  the 
Elbe  are  of  more  value  than  that  of  those  beyond  the 
Elbe,  for  in  the  former  case  he  wrote  from  information 
collected  from  people  who  had  actually  travelled  through 
the  countries,  which  in  the  latter  was  probably  not  the 
case,  as  the  countries  were  further  removed  from  the 
Roman  influence.2 

The  question  may  here  suggest  itself  :  What  have  these 
Chauci  or  Chaucians  to  do  with  the  English  settlement  ? 
I  see  no  reason  to  doubt  that  they  had  a  considerable 
share  in  it.  Kemble  found  near  Stade,  in  the  part  of 
ancient  Frisia  occupied  by  the  Chaucians,  and  also  far 
up  the  Weser,  certain  mortuary  urns  of  a  kind  that  is 
rare  or  unknown  in  other  parts  of  Germany,  but  known 
to  occur  in  Suffolk,  Warwickshire,  Derbyshire,  the  Isle 
of  Wight,  and  other  parts  of  England,3  and  the  Chaucian 
name  apparently  survives  in  many  old  English  place- 

Ptolemy's  account  of  these  people  agrees  in  regard  to 
their  locality  with  that  of  Tacitus.  He  says  that  they 
were  contiguous  to  the  Frisii,  and,  like  them,  extended 
along  the  coast,  but  also  further  inland.  He  tells  us  also 
that  the  Frisii  lay  in  front  of  the  Angrivarii,  who,  as  we 
have  seen,  were  a  tribe  of  the  Saxons,  for  these  Angri- 
varii of  the  earlier  centuries  were  the  same  as  the 
Angarians  or  Engern  people  of  Carlovingian  time. 
Ptolemy  says  that  the  Chauci  reached  to  the  Elbe.4 
The  survival  of  such  a  name  as  Cuxhaven  in  their  old 
country  is  significant,  the  first  syllable  Cux  having  come 
form  Chauc.  This  etymology,  which  has  generally  been 
adopted,5  is  important  in  reference  to  the  traces  of  the 

1  Bosworth,  Joseph,  loc.  cit.,  p.  48. 

2  Latham,  R.  G.,  loc.  cit.,  '  Prolegomena,'  xv. 
o    3  Beddoe,  J.,  '  Races  in  Britain,'  p.  46. 

4  Ptolemy,  ii.  2.  5  Latham,  R.  G.,  loc.  cit.,  242. 

The  Frisians :   Their  Tribes  and  Allies.       77 

Chaucians  which  may  be  found  in  England.  Here  in 
an  ancient  Chaucian  region  a  survival  of  the  old  tribal 
or  national  name  exists  in  the  form  Cux.  In  various 
parts  of  England  where  Frisians  settled  we  shall  also 
find  it. 

The  name  under  which  the  Chaucians  are  mentioned 
in  the  Sagas  is  that  of  Hocings.  In  Beowulf  we  read  of 
them  under  this  name.  Word  for  word,  says  Latham, 
this  word  Hoeing  is  held  to  be  that  of  Chauci  by  all,  or 
most,  who  have  written  on  the  subject.  Hoeing,  how- 
ever, with  its  suffix  -ing,  means  not  so  much  a  Chaucus  as 
of  Chauch  blood.1  The  identity  of  the  names  is  estab- 
lished by  the  ancient  sound  of  ch  being  equivalent  to 
that  of  h.  This  identification  will  be  of  use  in  endeavour- 
ing to  unravel  the  threads  in  the  tangled  skein  of  informa- 
tion which  has  come  down  to  us  relating  to  the  people 
concerned  in  the  English  settlement.  The  Chauci  as  a 
nation  have  long  since  disappeared,  and  were  probably 
absorbed  by  the  Franks  of  Germany.  Some  of  them,  no 
doubt,  migrated  to  England,  where  they  were  absorbed 
in  the  Old  English  race.  If  we  look  for  traces  of  them  in 
England  through  the  names  by  which  they  were  known 
in  their  Continental  home,  we  shall  discover  many  parts 
of  the  country  in  which  small  colonies  of  them  probably 
settled.  As  regards  their  alternative  name  Hocings, 
philologists  give  us  several  examples  of  the  equivalence 
of  the  early  ch  and  h  sounds  in  these  tribal  or  national 
names.  South  of  the  Chauci  another  great  tribe  of 
German  people  known  as  the  Chatti  were  situated,  from 
which,  according  to  German  philologists,  in  which  others 
concur,  the  name  Hesse  has  been  derived.  The  Hessians 
are  the  descendants  of  the  ancient  Chatti  or  Hatti.  They 
are  mentioned  under  the  names  Chattuarii,  Attuarii,  and 
Hetware.  In  the  name  Attuarii,  as  Latham  has  pointed 
out,  the  ch  sound  disappears  altogether.  The  name 

1   '  Germania  of  Tacitus,'  edited  by  R.  G.  Latham,  243. 

78  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

Hesse  also,  says  Latham,  word  for  word  is  Chatti.1  The 
Old  Frisian  ch  was  equivalent  to  the  Anglo-Saxon  h.2 
We  may  therefore  accept  the  identity  of  the  sounds 
chauc-  and  hoc-  in  the  names  Chauci  and  Hocings,  and 
this  will  be  of  interest  in  reference  to  traces  of  them  in 
England.  At  some  time  during  the  period  of  the  growth 
of  the  Frank  confederation  the  Chaucians  assumed  the 
name  of  Franks,  and  their  name  disappeared  from 

Pliny's  description  of  part  of  Frisia  and  the  condition 
of  some  of  its  inhabitants  may  be  overdrawn,  but  there 
is  in  it  a  sufficient  element  of  truth  to  warrant  the  belief 
that  foreign  expeditions,  with  a  view  to  settlements  in 
a  land  more  favoured  by  Nature,  could  not  have  been 
unpopular  among  them.  Two  or  three  days'  sail  would 
bring  them  to  the  coasts  of  Britain,  where,  if  they  could 
form  colonies  sufficiently  strong  to  resist  attacks,  they 
could  at  least  find  a  better  subsistence,  with  more  favour- 
able conditions  of  life  than  those  Pliny  describes.  He 
says :  '  In  this  spot  the  wretched  natives  occupying 
either  the  tops  of  hills  or  artificial  mounds  of  turf  raised 
out  of  the  reach  of  the  highest  tides  build  their  small 
cottages,  which  appear  like  sailing-vessels  when  the  water 
covers  the  circumjacent  ground,  and  like  wrecks  when  it 
has  retired.  For  fuel  they  use  a  kind  of  mud  taken  up 
by  hand  and  dried  rather  in  the  wind  than  the  sun,  and 
with  this  earth  they  heat  their  food  and  warm  their 
bodies,  stiffened  by  the  rigorous  North.  Their  only 
drink  is  rain-water  collected  in  ditches  at  the  thresholds 
of  their  doors.'  The  reference  to  peat-digging,  which  is 
still  extensively  carried  on  in  Friesland,  the  mounds  on 
which  their  houses  were  built,  and  the  appearance  of  the 
country,  shows  that  this  was  a  description  of  an  eye- 
witness. The  terp  mounds  on  which  the  ancient  habita- 

1  Latham,  R.  G.,  'The  English  Language,'  5th  ed.,  p.  242. 

2  Ibid.,    93.      Also     Maetzner,    E.,     'English     Grammar,'     i. 

The  Frisians :  Their  Tribes  and  Allies.      79 

tions  in  the  meres  of  Old  Frisia  were  constructed  have  been 
shown  to  be  composed  largely  of  deposits  due  to  accumu- 
lations under  ancient  pile  dwellings,  and  many  of  them 
have  been  removed  for  manure  and  agricultural  pur- 

As  already  mentioned,  the  original  home  of  the  ancestors 
of  the  Frisians,  Jutes,  and  Danes  appears  to  have  been  in  GJ 
the  Scandian  peninsula,  which  Ptolemy,  the  geographer 
of  the  second  century,  understood  to  have  been  an 
island.  He  places  the  nations  called  the  Phiresii,  Guise, 
and  Dauciones  all  within  Scandia.  The  migration  of  the 
Phiresii  south-westward  has  left  its  traces  in  certain 
parts  of  Jutland,  and  appears  to  have  been  such  a  very 
early  one  that  it  occurred  before  the  invention  of  runes 
by  their  neighbours  the  Goths,  for  no  fixed  runic  monu- 
ments have  ever  been  found  in  any  part  of  Old  Frisia. 
The  Daucones  were  the  Dacians  or  Danes,  and  they 
migrated,  apparently,  after  the  invention  of  runes,  for 
fixed  monuments  with  runes  are  found  in  Denmark.  As 
already  pointed  out,  one  of  the  strongest  proofs  of  the 
Scandian  connection  of  the  Angles  of  Northumbria  is 
that  they  took  with  them  to  England  a  knowledge  of 
runic  writing,  and  have  left  examples  of  their  runic  inscrip- 
tions on  fixed  stone  monuments.  Not  so  the  Frisians, 
who,  though  allied  with  the  Angles,  were  behind  them  in 
the  knowledge  of  letters.  The  physical  appearance  of 
the  Frisians  at  the  present  day  bears  witness  to  the 
Northern  origin  of  their  race.  Beddoe  says  :  '  They  are 
an  extremely  fair  and  very  comely  people.  I  found  the 
Frisians  from  the  Zuyder  Zee  through  Groningen  (a 
Saxonised  district)  to  beyond  Ems,  a  taller,  longer-faced,  $ 
more  universally  blonde  and  light-eyed  folk  than  the 
Saxons,  the  latter  being  often  very  hazel-eyed,  even  when  9 
their  hair  is  light.'2 

Among  the  indications  that  communication    between 

1  Proc.  Soc.  Ant.  Scot.,  xxiii.  98-100. 

2  Beddoe,  J.,  loc.  cit.,  pp.  39,  40. 

8o  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

the  early  Saxon  people  and  those  of  the  same  races  from 
whom  they  sprang  was  not  wanting  is  the  story  of  the 
early  missionary  work  of  the  Old  English  Christians. 
The  Frisians  were  pagans  long  after  the  conversion  of 
those  of  their  race  who  were  descended  from  the  early 
Frisian  settlers  in  England.  The  Frankish  monks  had 
endeavoured  in  vain  to  convert  them,  and  failed,  perhaps 
through  difficulties  with  their  language.  The  Anglo- 
Saxon  missionaries,  being  more  allied  in  race,  met  with 
some  success.1  William  of  Malmesbury  tells  us  how 
their  final  conversion  was  brought  about.  He  says  : 
'  The  ancient  Saxons  and  all  the  Frisian  nations  were 
converted  to  the  faith  of  Christ  through  the  exertions  of 
King  Charles,'2  but  we  know  that  in  the  conversions 
which  followed  the  conquests  of  Charlemagne  the  sword 
was  the  chief  instrument.  It  was  by  far  different  means 
that  some  hundred  and  fifty  years  earlier  the  band  of 
Anglo-Saxon  missionaries,  of  whom  Wilfrid  was  the  first, 
began  their  j  ourneys  into  Germany,  impelled  by  Christian 
zeal,  and  it  can  hardly  be  doubted  by  the  sentiment  also 
of  common  racial  descent.  They  turned  their  energies 
to  the  conversion  of  their  Frisian  and  Saxon  cousins  to 
the  faith  which  the  English  people  had  themselves  so 
lately  adopted. 

Wilfrid  and  Willibord,  his  pupil,  Winfrith  or  Boniface, 
Leofwine,  the  converter  of  the  Saxons,  Willehad  of 
Northumbria,  and  the  brothers  Willibald  and  Wunibald, 
are  but  names  to  the  political  historian  of  the  Conti- 
nental nations  from  which  the  Anglo-Saxon  race  sprang. 
They  stand  out  prominently,  however,  in  the  early  eccle- 
siastical history  of  Northern  Germany,  where  they  are, 
even  to  the  present  day,  as  honoured  as  those  of  Augus- 
tine, Birinus,  and  Paulinus  in  England. 

From  such  a  country  as  ancient  Frisia  was,  emigration, 
as  the  population  increased,  was  a  necessity.  The  story 

1  Bosworth,  J.,  loc.  cit.,  p.  94. 

2  William  of  Malmesbury's  Chronicle,  book  i.,  chap.  iv. 

The  Frisians:  Their  Tribes  and  Allies.       81 

of  Hengist  and  the  custom  of  the  expulsion  of  a  number 
of  the  young  people  of  his  country  may  have  reasonably 
prevailed  in  Friesland.  Whether  they  settled  in  England 
under  the  names  Angles  and  Jutes,  or  under  tribal  names 
of  their  own,  it  is  certain  that  large  numbers  of  Frisians 
must  have  become  English  colonists  under  the  Saxon 
name.  The  old  chroniclers  are,  indeed,  at  a  loss  whether 
to  make  Hengist  a  Frisian  or  a  Saxon.  One  of  them 
says  : 

'  Ein  hiet  Engistus  een  Vriese  een  Sas 
Die  vten  lande  verdruen  was.'1 

[One  was  named  Engist  a  Frisian  or  a  Saxon,  who  was  driven 
away  out  of  his  land.] 

There  is  direct  evidence  of  early  communication  be- 
tween ancient  Frisia  and  England  in  the  discovery  in  Fries- 
land  and  Holland  of  movable  objects  with  inscriptions  on 
them  in  early  runic  characters  peculiar  to  England.  At 
Harlingen,  in  Friesland,  a  bracteate  was  found  which  has 
on  it  large  clear  runes,  the  type  of  the  A  ( [sf  )  being  pro- 
vincial English,  which  Stephens  assigns  to  the  fifth 
century.  He  says  it  was  doubtless  struck  in  England,  or 
by  an  English  workman  in  Scandinavia.2  In  Holland  an 
English  runic  coin  has  also  been  found.3 

The  establishment  of  Frisian  colonies  on  the  north- 
eastern coasts  of  England  and  the  south-east  of  Scotland 
during  the  early  centuries  of  our  era,  before  the  end  of 
the  Roman  rule  in  Britain,  is  supported  by  circumstantial 
evidence  so  strong  that  it  cannot  be  doubted.  It  will 
be  summarised  in  the  chapters  on  Northumbria.  With 
the  early  Frisian  colonists  there  must  have  been  others 
of  Anglian  descent,  among  whom  a  knowledge  of  runic 
writing  was  known,  as  proved  by  inscriptions  still  existing. 

In  all  countries  of  which  early  records  exist  we  find 

1  Maerlant,  quoted    by  Bosworth,   '  Origin    of    the    English, 
German,  and  Scandinavian  Languages,'  p.  52. 

2  Stephens,  G.,  '  Old  Northern  Runic  Monuments,'  ii.  555. 

3  Ibid.,  ii.  568. 


82  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

traces  of  the  custom  of  giving  to  people  the  same  names 
as  those  of  the  tribes  and  clans  to  which  they  belonged. 
Many  instances  may  also  be  found  of  men,  when  they 
lived  as  foreigners  among  people  of  another  race,  being 
known  by  the  name  of  their  own  nation.  Some  of  these 
old  tribal  clan  or  national  names  have  come  down  as 
surnames  to  modern  times.  During  the  period  of  the 
Anglo-Saxon  settlement  it  could  scarcely  have  been 
otherwise  in  our  own  country.  Men  must  have  been 
commonly  designated  by  their  tribal  or  clan  names  if 
they  lived  among  neighbours  of  another  tribe  who  were 
unacquainted  with  the  names  by  which  these  men  called 
themselves.  Such  names  are  descriptive  of  the  indi- 
viduals to  whom  they  were  applied,  and  as  in  the  early 
Anglo-Saxon  period  a  tun  or  a  ham  was  commonly  named 
after  that  of  the  head  of  the  family  living  in  it,  it  is 
difficult  to  avoid  the  conclusion  that  many  of  the  names 
of  these  early  tuns  and  hams  must  be  the  same  as  the  tribal 
and  clan  names  of  their  first  occupants.  Personal  names 
derived  from  those  of  tribes  are  older  than  those  derived 
from  countries  or  districts  in  which  tribes  settled.  To  call 
a  man  after  the  name  of  his  tribe  or  clan  in  the  time  before 
the  tribal  wanderings  of  the  German  and  Northern  people 
had  ceased  was  the  most  natural  way  of  distinguishing 
him.  The  occurrence  of  so  many  names  of  people  called 
Hun  and  Hune,  or  compounds  of  them,  in  Anglo-Saxon 
literature  points  to  tribal  people  of  that  name  having 
taken  part  in  the  settlement  of  England.  The  Hunsings 
and  the  people  of  the  Huntanga  tribe  we  can  connect 
with  the  settlement,  and  with  the  Hunni  mentioned  by 
Bede.  Many  persons  bearing  Hun  or  Hune  names  are 
very  frequently  mentioned  in  Anglo-Saxon  records — 
e.g.,  Hunfrith  fifteen  times,  and  Hunred  twelve  times. 
Hunman  and  Huneman  both  occur.  Huna,  Hunes, 
Hune,  Hungar,  Hunbeorht,  Hunni,  and  Hunding,  are 
some  of  the  forms  of  these  personal  names.  Some  of 
them  are  probably  ancestral  names  repeated.  There  are 

The  Frisians :   Their  Tribes  and  Allies.      83 

more  than  150  known  instances  of  designations  of  this 
kind.1  Even  if  we  suppose  that  some  persons  who  bore 
them  obtained  them  from  some  other  origin  than  that  of 
the  tribal  name  or  that  of  an  ancestor,  the  number  which 
in  all  probability  was  originally  derived  from  the  tribal 
names  of  the  Hunsings  or  the  Huntanga  will  still  be  large. 
The  people  of  these  tribes  were  Frisians,  and  their  settle- 
ments in  England  were  both  early  and  late.  The  last 
of  their  ancient  immigrations,  or  of  people  of  the  same 
descent,  into  England  took  place  in  the  twelfth  century, 
when,  as  a  result  of  inundations,  many  were  obliged  to 
seek  new  homes.  It  was  early  in  that  century  that 
Flemings  settled  in  parts  of  South  Wales,  where  they 
were  absorbed  among  the  English  settlers,  and  their 
language  became  lost  in  the  English  speech,  as  did  that 
of  the  settlers  centuries  earlier. 

The  discovery  of  a  large  number  of  skulls  at  Bremen, 
of  the  same  period  as  that  of  the  Anglo-Saxon,  has  been 
referred  to.  Those  intermediate  in  length  were  named 
Batavian  or  Frisian.  Beddoe,  in  summarising  the 
evidence  of  these  ancient  skulls  in  connection  with  the 
light  they  throw  on  the  racial  -  characters  of  the  Old 
English  people,  says  that  the  Frisian  or  so-called 
Batavian  skulls  have  characters  that  resemble  those  of 
the  Anglo-Saxons.  '  John  Bull,'  says  Beddoe,  '  is  of  the 
Batavian  type,'2  an  opinion  from  so  distinguished  an 
anthropologist  which  is  valuable  evidence  in  support  of 
the  conclusion  that  there  must  have  been  a  very  large 
Frisian  admixture  in  the  Old  English  race. 

1  Birch,  W.  de  Gray,  '  Index  Saxonicus,'  and  Searle,  W.  G., 
'  Onomasticon  Anglo-Saxonicum.' 

2  Haddon,  A.  C.,  '  The  Study  of  Man,'  84,  quoting  Beddoe. 




THE  name  Wends  was  given  by  the  old  Teutonic 
nations  of  Germany  to  those  Slavonic  tribes  who 
were  located  in  the  countries  east  of  the  Elbe  and 
south  of  the  Baltic  Sea.  It  is  the  same  as  the  older  name 
used  by  Ptolemy,1  who  says  that  'the  Wenedae  are  estab- 
lished along  the  whole  of  the  Wendish  Gulf.'  Tacitus  also 
mentions  the  Venedi.  There  can,  therefore,  be  no  doubt 
that  these  people  were  seated  on  the  coast  of  Mecklenburg 
and  Pomerania  before  the  time  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  settle- 
ment. That  there  were  some  differences  in  race  between 
the  Wends  of  various  tribes  is  probable  from  the  existence 
of  such  large  tribes  among  them  as  the  Wiltzi  and  Obo- 
driti,  who  in  the  time  of  Charlemagne  formed  opposite 
alliances,  the  former  with  the  Saxons,  the  latter  with  the 
Franks.  The  Wends  who  still  exist  in  Lower  Saxony 
are  of  a  dark  complexion,  and  are  of  the  same  stock  as 
the  Sorbs  or  Serbs  of  Servia.  They  are  Slavonic,  but 
many  tribes  of  Slavonic  descent  are  fair  in  complexion. 
Procopius  tells  us  that  those  Vandals  who  were  allies 
of  the  ancient  Goths  were  remarkable  for  their  tall 
stature,  pale  complexion,  and  blonde  hair.2  It  is  there- 
fore by  no  means  improbable  that  the  ancient  Slavic 

1  Morfill,  '  Slavonic  Literature/  36,  quoting  Ptolemy. 

2  Procopius,  '  Wars  of  the  Vandals  '  (Greek  ed.,  1607),  book  i., 
p.  92,  and  Greek-Latin  ed.,  iii.  313. 


Rugians,  Wends,  and  Tribal  Slavonic  Settlers.     85 

tribes  of  the  Baltic  coast  were  distinguished  by  differences 
in  complexion. 

As  the  identification  of  Vandal  or  Wendish  settlers 
with  various  parts  of  England  is  new,  or  almost  so,  it 
will  be  desirable  to  state  the  evidence  of  their  connection 
with  the  origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  race  more  fully  than 
would  otherwise  have  been  necessary. 

The  Vandals  are  commonly  thought  to  have  been  a 
nation  of  Teutonic  descent  like  the  Goths,  but  there  is 
certain  evidence  that  the  later  Vandals  or  Wends  were 
Slavonic,  and  there  is  no  reason  to  doubt  that  these  later 
Vandals  were  descended  from  some  of  the  earlier. 
Tacitus  mentions  the  Vandals  as  a  group  of  German 
nations,  the  name  being  used  in  a  wide  sense,  as  British 
is  at  the  present  time.  The  most  important  reason  for 
considering  the  early  Vandals  to  be  Teutonic  is  that  the 
names  of  their  leaders  are  almost  exclusively  Teutonic, 
as  Gonderic,  Genseric,  etc.1  This  reason  would  be  valid 
if  there  were  nothing  else  to  set  against  it.  Leaders  of 
a  more  advanced  race,  however,  have  led  the  forces  of 
less  advanced  allies  in  all  ages,  and  the  Goths  were  a 
more  advanced  race  than  the  Vandals,  whom  they  con- 
quered, and  who  subsequently  became  their  firm  allies. 
Among  the  collection  of  Anglo-Saxon  relics  in  the 
British  Museum  are  a  number  of  Vandal  ornaments 
from  North  Africa,  placed  there  for  comparison  with 
those  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  period.  These  are  apparently 
rough  imitations  of  those  of  the  same  age  found  in 
Scandinavia  and  in  England — i.e.,  imitations  of  Gothic 

Of  all  the  people  in  ancient  Germania  east  of  the  Elbe 
whom  Tacitus  mentions  as  Germans,  not  a  single  Teutonic 
vestige  remained  in  the  time  of  Charlemagne.  Poland 
and  Silicia  were  parts  of  his  Germania.  When  the 
Germans  of  Charlemagne  and  his  successors  conquered 
the  country  east  of  the  Elbe  there  was  neither  trace  nor 
1  Latham,  R.  G.,  '  Germania  of  Tacitus,'  Epileg.  Ixxxix. 

86  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

record  of  any  earlier  Teutonic  occupation.1  Such  a 
previous  occupancy  rarely  occurs,  as  Latham  has  pointed 
out,  without  leaving  some  traces  of  its  existence  by  the 
survival  here  and  there  of  descendants  of  the  older 
occupants.  In  Germany,  east  of  the  Elbe,  no  earlier 
inhabitants  than  the  Slavonic  have  been  discovered, 
excepting  those  of  a  very  remote  prehistoric  age.  At  the 
dawn  of  German  history  no  traces  are  met  with  of 
enthralled  people  of  Teutonic  descent  among  the  Slavs 
east  of  the  Elbe,  and  there  are  no  traditions  of  such 
earlier  occupants,  while  the  oldest  place-names  are  all 
Slavonic.  If  there  were  Germans,  strictly  so-called,  east 
of  the  river  in  the  time  of  Tacitus — i.e.,  long-headed 
tribes — their  assumed  displacement  by  the  Slavs  between 
his  time  and  that  of  Charlemagne  would  have  been  the 
greatest  and  most  complete  of  any  recorded  in  history.2 
Ethnology  and  history,  therefore,  alike  point  to  people  of 
Sarmatian  or  Slavic  descent — i.e.,  brachycephalic  tribes — 
as  the  earliest  inhabitants  of  Eastern  Germany,  and 
indicate  some  misunderstanding  in  this  respect  by  the 
commentators  of  Tacitus.3  In  Eastern  Germany  place- 
names  survive  ending  in  -itz,  so  very  common  in  Saxony ; 
in  -zig,  as  Leipzig ;  in  -a,  as  Jena ;  and  in  -dam,  as  Pots- 
dam. All  these  places  were  named  by  the  Slavs.4 

The  statement  of  Bede  that  the  Rugini  or  Rugians  were 
among  the  nations  from  whom  the  English  were  known 
to  have  descended  was  contemporary  evidence  of  his  own 
time.  The  Rugi  are  also  mentioned  by  Tacitus.5  Their 
name  apparently  remains  to  this  day  in  that  of  Riigen 
Island,  situated  off  the  coast  which  they  occupied  in  the 
time  of  the  Roman  Empire. 

As  Ptolemy  tells  us  of  the  wenedae  seated  on  this  same 
Baltic  coast,  and  as  they  were  Sarmatians  or  Slavs,  it 

1  Latham,  R.  G.,  loc.  cit.,  Prolegomena,  xxvii. 

2  Ibid.,  Prolegomena,  xxvii.  3  Ibid.,  xxvi. 
4  Ripley,  W.  Z.,  '  Races  of  Europe,'  239. 

6  Germania,  Sect,  xliii. 

Wends,  and  Tribal  Slavonic  Settlers.     87 

is  clear  that  the  Rugians  must  have  been  of  that  race. 
Some  of  the  nations  mentioned  by  Tacitus  were,  he  says, 
of  non-Germanic  origin.  Riigen  Island  was  the  chief 
place  of  worship  for  the  Wendish  race,  the  chief  centre 
of  their  religion.  On  the  east  side  of  the  peninsula  of 
Jasmund  in  Riigen  are  the  white  chalk  cliffs  of  Stubben- 
kammer,  and  on  the  north  side  of  the  island  is  the  pro- 
montory of  Arcona,  where  in  the  twelfth  century  we  read 
of  the  idol  Svantovit,  and  the  temple  of  this  Wendish 
god..  No  traces  of  Teutonic  worship  have  ever  been 
found  in  Riigen.  They  are  all  Slavonic.  Saxo  tells  us 
of  the  worship  of  Svantovit  at  Arcona  with  the  tributes 
brought  there  from  all  Slavonia.1 

The  probability  of  some  very  early  settlers  in  Britain 
having  been  Wends,  and  consequently  that  there  was 
a  Slavic  element  in  the  origin  of  the  Old  English  race, 
is  shown  in  another  way.  The  settlement  of  large 
bodies  of  Vandals  in  Britain  by  order  of  the  Emperor 
Probus  is  a  fact  recorded  in  Roman  history.  The 
authority  is  Zosimus,2  and  this  settlement  is  said  to  have 
taken  place  in  the  latter  part  of  the  third  century  of  our 
era,  after  a  great  defeat  of  Vandals  near  the  Lower  Rhine. 
They  were  accompanied  by  a  horde  of  Burgundians, 
and  as  they  were  apparently  on  the  march  in  search  of 
new  homes,  it  probably  suited  them  as  well  as  it  suited 
the  Romans  to  be  transported  to  Britain.  Unless  it 
can  be  shown  that  the  Vandal  name  is  to  be  understood 
to  mean  only  certain  tribes  of  Teutonic  origin,  this 
arbitrary  settlement  of  Vandals  in  Britain  is  the  earliest 
record  of  immigrants  of  Slavic  origin.  It  is  not  possible 
to  ascertain  the  parts  of  the  country  in  which  they 
settled,  but  as  they  were  known  to  Roman  writers  by 
the  names  Vinidse  and  Venedi,  it  is  possible  that  the 
Roman  place-names  in  Britain — Vindogladia  in  Dorset, 
Vindomis  in  Hampshire,  and  others — may  have  been  con- 

1  Saxo  Grammaticus,  translated  by  O.  Elton,  393-395. 

2  Zosimus,  i.,  c.  68. 

88  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

nected  with  their  settlements.  It  is  possible  also  that 
during  the  time  between  their  arrival  and  that  of  the 
earliest  Anglo-Saxon  settlers  some  of  their  descendants 
may  have  maintained  their  race  distinctions  apart  from 
the  British  people,  as  descendants  of  some  of  the  Roman 
colonists  apparently  did  in  Kent. 

The  defeat  of  the  Vandals  by  Probus  near  the  Rhine 
occurred  in  A.D.  277,1  so  that  their  settlement  in  Britain 
was  not  more  than  two  centuries  before  the  arrival  of 
the  Jutes  and  Saxons.  As  it  is  probable  there  were  some 
so-called  Saxons  already  settled  on  the  eastern  coast  of 
England,  with  whom  those  of  a  later  date  coalesced,  it  is 
not  impossible  that  some  of  the  Vandal  settlers  in  Britain 
in  the  time  of  Probus  may  have  preserved  their  dis- 
tinction in  race  until  the  invasion  of  the  Saxons,  Angles, 
and  Jutes  began. 

The  names  in  the  Anglo-Saxon  charters  which  appar- 
ently marked  settlements  of  Rugians  in  England  are 
Ruanbergh  and  Ruwanbeorg,  Dorset  ;  Ruganbeorh  and 
Ruwanbeorg,  Somerset ;  Ruwanbeorg  and  Rugan  die, 
Wilts  ;  Rugebeorge,  in  Kent ;  and  Ruwangoringa,  Hants.2 
These  will  be  referred  to  in  later  chapters. 

The  chief  Old  English  names  which  appear  to  refer 
to  them  in  Domesday  Book  are  Ruenore  in  Hampshire, 
Ruenhala  and  Ruenhale  in  Essex,  Rugehala  and  Rugelie 
in  Staffordshire,  Rugutune  in  Norfolk,  and  Rugarthorp 
in  Yorkshire.  Close  to  Ruenore,  in  Hampshire,  is  Stub- 
bington,  which  may  have  been  an  imported  name,  as  it 
resembles  that  of  Stubnitz  in  the  Isle  of  Riigen. 

In  its  historical  aspect  the  Anglo-Saxon  settlement 
may  be  regarded  as  part  of  that  wider  migration  of  nations 
and  tribes  from  Eastern  and  Northern  Europe  into  the 
provinces  of  the  Roman  Empire  during  its  decadence. 
In  its  ethnological  aspect  it  may  be  regarded  as  a  final 
stage  in  the  westward  European  migration  of  people  of 

1  Hodgkin,  T.,  '  Italy  and  her  Invaders,'  217. 

2  Codex  Dipl.,  Index. 

Rugians,  Wends,  and  Tribal  Slavonic  Settlers.     89 

the  Germanic  stock.  As  the  history  and  ethnology  of 
the  Franks  in  Western  Germany  afford  us  a  notable 
example  of  the  fusion  of  people  of  the  Celtic  with  others 
of  the  Teutonic  race,  so  the  history  and  ethnology  of 
Eastern  Germany  afford  an  equally  striking  example 
of  the  fusion  of  people  of  Teutonic  and  Slavonic  origins. 
It  began  at  a  very  early  period  in  our  era,  and  the  present 
irregular  ethnological  frontier  between  Germans  and 
Slavs  shows  that  it  is  still  slowly  going  on.  The  eastward 
migration  of  Germans  in  later  centuries  has  absorbed  the 
Wends.  The  descendants  of  the  isolated  Slavonic  settlers 
near  Utrecht  and  in  other  parts  of  the  Rhine  Valley 
have  also  long  been  absorbed.  The  ethnological  evidence 
concerning  the  present  inhabitants  of  these  districts  and 
the  survival  of  some  of  their  old  place-names,  however, 
supports  the  statement  of  the  early  chroniclers  concerning 
the  immigration  of  Slavs  into  what  is  now  Holland. 

The  part  which  the  ancient  Wends,  including  Rugians, 
Wilte,  and  other  Slavonic  people,  took  in  the  settlement 
of  England  was,  in  comparison  with  that  of  the  Teutonic 
nations  and  tribes,  small,  but  yet  so  considerable  that  it 
has  left  its  results.  During  the  period  of  the  invasion 
and  the  longer  period  of  the  settlement,  the  southern 
coasts  of  the  Baltic  Sea  were  certainly  occupied  by 
Slavonic  people.  Ptolemy,  writing,  as  he  did,  about  the 
middle  of  the  second  century  of  our  era,  mentions  the 
Baltic  by  the  name  Venedic  Gulf,  and  the  people  on  its 
shores  as  Venedi  or  Wenedae.  He  describes  them  as  one 
of  the  great  nations  of  Sarmatia,1  the  most  ancient  name 
of  the  countries  occupied  by  Slavs,  but  which  was  re- 
placed by  that  of  Slavonia.  Pliny,  in  his  notice  of  the 
Baltic  Sea,  has  the  following  passage  :  '  People  say  that 
from  this  point  round  to  the  Vistula  the  whole  country 
is  inhabited  by  Sarmatians  and  Wends.'2  Although  he 

1  Bunbury,  E.  H.,  '  Hist,  of  Ancient  Geography,'  ii.  591. 

2  Pliny,  '  Hist.  Nat.,'  iv.,  chap,  xxvii.,  quoted  by  Elton,  C.  I. 
'  Origins  of  Engl.  Hist.,'  40. 

go  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

did  not  write  from  personal  knowledge  of  the  Wends, 
this  passage  is  weighty  evidence  that  they  must  have 
been  located  on  the  Baltic  in  his  time. 

During  the  time  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  period  the  Slavs 
in  the  North  of  Europe  extended  as  far  westward  as  the 
Elbe  and  to  places  beyond  it.  On  the  east  bank  of  that 
river  were  the  Polabian  Wends,  and  these  were  apparently 
a  branch  of  the  Wilte  or  Wiltzi.  This  name  Wiltzi  has 
been  derived  from  the  old  Slavic  word  for  wolf,  wilk, 
plural  wiltzi,  and  was  given  to  this  great  tribe  from  their 
ferocious  courage.  The  popular  name  Wolf  mark  still 
survives  in  North-East  Germany,  near  the  eastern  limit 
of  their  territory.  These  people  called  themselves 
Welatibi,  a  name  derived  from  welot,  a  giant,  and  were 
also  known  as  the  Haefeldan,  or  Men  of  Havel,  from  being 
seated  near  the  river  Havel,  as  mentioned  by  King 
Alfred.  The  inhabitants  of  the  coast  near  Stralsund, 
who  were  called  Rugini  or  Rugians,  and  who  are  men- 
tioned by  Bede  as  one  of  the  nations  from  whom  the 
Anglo-Saxons  of  his  time  were  known  to  have  derived 
their  origin,1  must  have  been  included  within  the  general 
name  of  the  Wends.  As  these  Rugians  must  have  been 
Wends,  the  statement  of  Bede  is  direct  evidence  that 
some  of  the  people  of  England  in  his  time  were  known 
to  be  of  W^endish  descent .  This  is  supported  by  evidence 
of  other  kinds,  such  as  the  mention  of  settlements  of 
people  with  Wendish  or  Vandal  names  in  the  Anglo- 
Saxon  charters,  the  numerous  names  of  places  in  England 
which  have  come  down  from  a  remote  antiquity,  and 
the  identity  of  the  oldest  forms  of  such  names  with  that 
of  the  people  of  this  race.  We  read  also  that  Edward, 
son  of  Edmund  Ironside,  fled  after  his  father's  death 
'ad  regnum  Rugorum,  quod  melius  vocamus  Russiam.'2 
It  is  also  supported  by  philological  evidence.  As  a  dis- 
tinguished American  philologist  says  :  '  The  Anglo-Saxon 

1  Beda,  '  Eccles.  Hist.,'  edited  by  J.  A.  Giles,  book  v.,  chap.  ix. 

2  Cottonian  Liber  Custumarum,  Liber  Albus,  vol.  ii.,  pt.  ii.,  645. 

Rugians,  Wends  t  and  Tribal  Slavonic  Settlers.     91 

was  such  a  language  as  might  be  supposed  would  result 
from  a  fusion  of  Old  Saxon  with  smaller  proportions  of 
High  German,  Scandinavian,  and  even  Celtic  and 
Slavonic  elements.'1  The  migration  of  the  Wilte  from 
the  shores  of  the  Baltic  and  the  foundation  of  a  colony 
in  the  country  around  Utrecht  is  certainly  historical. 
Bede  mentions  it  in  connection  with  the  mission  of 
Wilbrord.  He  says  :  '  The  Venerable  Wilbrord  went 
from  Frisia  to  Rome,  where  the  Pope  gave  him  the  name 
of  Clement,  and  sent  him  back  to  his  bishopric.  Pepin 
gave  him  a  place  for  his  episcopal  see  in  his  famous 
castle,  which,  in  the  ancient  language  of  those  people,  is 
called  Wiltaburg — i.e.,  the  town  of  the  Wilti — but  in  the 
French  tongue  Utrecht.'2  Venantius  also  tells  us  that 
the  Wileti  or  Wiltzi,  between  A.D.  560-600,  settled  near 
the  city  of  Utrecht,  which  from  them  was  called  Wilta- 
burg, and  the  surrounding  country  Wiltenia.3  Such  a 
migration  would  perhaps  be  made  by  land,  and  some  of 
these  Wilte  may  have  gone  further.  The  name  of  the 
first  settlers  in  Wiltshire  has  been  derived  by  some 
authors  from  a  migration  of  Wilte  from  near  Wiltaburg,4 
and  the  name  Wilsaetan  appears  to  afford  some  corrobora- 
tion.  It  is  certain  that  Wiltshire  was  becoming  settled 
in  the  latter  half  of  the  sixth  century,  and  such  a  migra- 
tion may  either  have  come  direct  from  the  Baltic  or  the 
Elbe,  or  from  the  Wilte  settlement  in  Holland. 

It  must  not  be  supposed  that  there  is  evidence  of  the 
settlement  of  all  Wiltshire  by  people  descended  from  the 
Wilte,  but  it  is  not  improbable  that  some  early  settlers 
of  this  time  were  the  original  Wilsaetas.  The  Anglo- 
Saxon  charters  supply  evidence  of  the  existence  in  various 
parts  of  England,  as  will  be  referred  to  in  later  pages,  of 

1  Marsh,  G.  P.,  '  Lectures  on  the  English  Language,'  Second 
Series,  p.  55. 

2  Beda,  loc.  cit.,  book  v.,  chap.  ii. 

3  Hampson,  R.  T.,  '  The  Geography  of  King  Alfred,'  p.  41. 

*  Schafarik,  '  Slavonic  Antiquities,'  quoted  by  Morfill,  W.  R., 
'  Slavonic  Literature,'  3-35. 

92  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

people  called  Willa  or  Wilte.  There  were  tribes  in 
England  named  East  Willa  and  West  Willa  ;*  and  such 
Anglo-Saxon  names  as  WTillanesham  ;2  Wilburgeham, 
Cambridgeshire  ;3  Wilburge  gemsero  and  Wilburge  mere 
in  Wilt  shire;4  Wilbur  gewel  in  Kent;5  Willa-byg  in  Lincoln- 
shire ;6  Wilmanford,7  Wilmanleahtun,8  appear  to  have 
been  derived  from  personal  names  connected  with  these 
people.  I  have  not  been  able  to  discover  that  any  other 
Continental  tribe  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  period  were  so 
named,  except  this  Wendish  tribe,  called  by  King  Alfred 
the  men  of  Havel,  a  name  that  apparently  survived  in 
the  Domesday  name  Hauelingas  in  Essex.  The  \Vilte 
or  Willa  tribal  name  survived  in  England  as  a  personal 
name,  like  the  national  name  Scot,  and  is  found  in 
the  thirteenth-century  Hundred  Rolls  and  other  early 
records.  In  these  rolls  a  large  number  oi  persons  so 
named  are  mentioned — Wiltes  occurs  in  seventeen  entries, 
Wilt  in  eight,  and  Wilte  in  four  entries.  Willeman  as 
a  personal  name  is  also  mentioned.9'  The  old  Scando- 
Gothic  personal  name  Wilia  is  well  known.10 

The  great  Wendish  tribe  which  occupied  the  country 
next  to  that  of  the  Danes  along  the  west  coast  of  the 
Baltic  in  the  ninth  century  was  the  Obodriti,  known 
also  as  the  Bodritzer.  From  their  proximity  there  arose 
an  early  connection  between  them  and  the  Danes,  or 
Northmen.  In  the  middle  of  the  ninth  century  we  read 
of  a  place  on  the  boundaries  of  the  Northmen  and  Obo- 
drites,  '  in  confinibus  Nordmannorum  et  Obodritorum.' 1] 
The  probability  of  Wendish  people  of  this  tribe  having 
settled  in  England  among  the  Danes  arises  from  their 
near  proximity  on  the  Baltic,  their  political  connection 

1  Cart.  Sax.,  edited  by  Birch,  i  416. 

2  Codex  Dipl.,  No.  931.  3  Ibid.,  No.  967. 
4  Ibid.,  Nos.  641  and  387.  5  Ibid.,  No.  282. 

6  Ibid.,  No.  953.  7  Ibid.,  No.  1205. 

8  Ibid.  9  Hund.  Rolls,  vol.  ii.,  Index. 

10  Stephens,  G.,  'Old  Northern  Runic  Monuments,'  iii.  122. 

11  Monumenta  Germanise,  Scriptores  ii.  677,  A.D.  851. 

Rtigians,  Wends,  and  Tribal  Slavonic  Settlers.     93 

in  the  time  of  Sweyn  and  Cnut,  historical  references  to 
Obodrites  in  the  service  of  Cnut  in  England,  and  the 
similarity  of  certain  place-names  in  some  parts  of  England 
colonized  by  Danes  to  others  on  the  Continent  of  known 
Wendish  or  Slavonic  origin.  Obodriti  is  a  Slavic  name, 
and,  according  to  Schafarik,  the  Slavic  ethnologist,  the 
name  may  be  compared  with  Bodrica  in  the  government 
of  Witepsk,  Bodrok,  and  the  provincial  name  Bodrog  in 
Southern  Hungary,  and  others  of  a  similar  kind.  In  the 
Danish  settled  districts  of  England  we  find  the  Anglo- 
Saxon  names  Bodeskesham,  Cambridgeshire  ;  Bodesham, 
now  Bosham,  Sussex ;  Boddingc-weg,  Dorset  j1  the 
Domesday  names  Bodebi,  Lincolnshire  ;  Bodetone  and 
Bodele,  Yorkshire  ;  Bodeha,  Herefordshire  ;  Bodeslege, 
Somerset ;  Bodesha,  Kent ;  and  others,2  which  may  have 
been  named  after  people  of  this  tribe. 

The  map  of  Europe  at  the  present  day  exhibits  evidence 
of  the  ancient  migration  of  the  Slavs.  The  Slavs  in  the 
country  from  Trient  to  Venice  were  known  as  Wendi,  and 
hence  the  name  Venice  or  the  Wendian  territory.3 
Bohemia  and  Poland  after  the  seventh  century  became 
organized  States  of  Slavs  on  the  upper  parts  of  the  Elbe 
and  the  Vistula.  The  Slavonic  tribes  on  the  frontier 
or  march-land  of  Moravia  formed  the  kingdom  of  Moravia 
in  the  ninth  century.  Other  scattered  tribes  of  Slavs 
formed  the  kingdom  of  Bulgaria  about  the  end  of  the 
seventh  century ;  and  westward  of  these,  other  tribes 
organized  themselves  into  the  kingdoms  of  Croatia, 
Dalmatia,  and  Servia.4  In  the  North  the  ancient  Slav 
tribes  of  Pomerania,  Mecklenburg,  Brandenburg,  and 
those  located  on  the  banks  of  the  Elbe,  comprising  the 
Polabians,  the  Obodrites,  the  Wiltzi,  those  known  at  one 
time  as  Rugini,  the  Lutitzes,  and  the  Northern  Sorabians 
or  Serbs,  became  gradually  absorbed  among  the  Germans, 

1  Codex.  Dipl.,  Index.  2  Domesday  Book,  Index. 

3  Menzel,  '  History  of  Germany,'  i.  242. 

4  Rambaud,  A.,  '  History  of  Russia,'  i.  23. 

94  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

who  formed  new  States  eastward  of  their  ancient  limits. 
These  have  long  since  become  Teutonised,  and  their 
language  has  disappeared,  but  the  Slavonic  place  -  names 
still  remain. 

What  concerns  us  specially  in  connection  with  the 
settlement  of  England  and  the  Vandals  is  that  these 
people  were  Slavs,  not  Teutons  or  Germans,  as  is  some- 
times stated.  They  are  fully  recognised  as  Slavs  by 
the  historian  of  the  Gothic  race,  who  tells  us  that  Slavs 
differ  from  Vandals  in  name  only.1  It  is  important,  also, 
to  note  that  the  Rugians  mentioned  by  Bede  were  a 
Wendish  tribe.  Westward  of  the  Elbe  the  Slavic  Sorabians 
had  certainly  pushed  their  way,  before  they  were  finally 
checked  by  Charlemagne  and  his  successors.  The  German 
annals  of  the  date  A.D.  7822  tell  us  that  the  Sorabians 
at  that  time  were  seated  between  the  Elbe  and  the  Saale, 
where  place-names  of  Slavonic  origin  remain  to  this 

Those  WTends  who  were  located  on  the  Lower  Elbe, 
near  Liineburg  and  Hamburg,  were  known  as  Polabians, 
through  having  been  seated  on  or  near  this  river,  from 
po,  meaning  'on,'  and  laba,  the  Slavic  name  for  the  Elbe. 

The  eastern  corner  of  the  former  kingdom  of  Hanover, 
and  especially  that  in  the  circuit  of  Liichow,  which  even 
to  the  present  day  is  called  Wendland,  was  a  district 
west  of  the  Elbe,  where  the  Wends  formed  a  colony,  and 
where  the  Polabian  variety  of  the  Wendish  language 
survived  the  longest.  It  did  not  disappear  until  about 
1700-1725,  during  the  latter  part  of  which  period  the 
ruler  of  this  ancient  Wendland  was  also  King  of  England. 

During  the  later  Saxon  period  in  England  the  Wends 
of  the  Baltic  coast  had  their  chief  seaport  at  Julin  or 
Jomberg,  close  to  the  island  called  Wollin,  in  the  delta  of 
the  Oder.  Julin  is  mentioned  by  Adam  of  Bremen  as 
the  largest  and  most  flourishing  commercial  city  in  Europe 

1  Magnus,  J.,  'Hist,  de  omn.  Goth.  Sueon.  reg.,'  ed.  1554,  p.  15. 

2  Monumenta  Germaniae,  Ann.  Einh.,  edited  by  Pertz,  i.  163. 

Wends,  and  Tribal  Slavonic  Settlers.     95 

in  the  eleventh  century,  but  it  was  destroyed  in  1176 
by  Valdemar,  King  of  Denmark.1  Its  greatest  rival  was 
the  Northern  Gothic  port  of  Wisby  in  the  Isle  of  Gotland. 
Whether  Jomberg  surpassed  Wisby  as  a  commercial 
centre,  which,  notwithstanding  the  statement  of  Adam 
of  Bremen,  is  doubtful,  it  is  certain  that  these  two 
ports  were  the  chief  ports  respectively  of  the  Wends  and 
the  Goths  of  the  Baltic.  Both  of  them,  even  during  the 
Saxon  period,  had  commercial  relations  with  this  country, 
or  maritime  connection  of  some  sort,  as  shown  by  the 
number  of  Anglo-Saxon  coins  and  ornaments  with 
Anglian  runes  on  them  found  either  in  Gotland  or 

The  connection  of  the  Slav  tribes  of  ancient  Germany 
with  the  settlement  of  England  is  supported  also  by  the 
survival  in  England  of  ancient  customs  which  were 
widely  spread  in  Slavonic  countries,  by  the  evidence  of 
folk-lore,  traces  of  Slav  influence  in  the  Anglo-Saxon 
language,  and  by  some  old  place-names  in  England, 
especially  those  which  point  to  Wends  generally,  and 
others  referring  to  Rugians  and  to  Wilte.  The  great 
wave  of  early  Slavonic  migration  was  arrested  in  Eastern 
Germany,  but  lesser  waves  derived  from  it  were  con- 
tinued westward,  as  shown  by  the  isolated  Slav  colonies 
of  ancient  origin  in  Oldenburg,  Hanover,  and  Holland. 
The  same  migratory  movement  in  a  lesser  degree  appears 
to  have  extended  even  into  England,  bringing  into  our 
country  some  Slavonic  settlers,  probably  in  alliance  with 
Saxons,  Angles,  Goths,  and  other  tribes,  and  some  later 
on  in  alliance  with  Danes.  The  existence  of  separate 
large  tribes  among  the  Wends  is  probable  evidence  of 
racial  differences,  and  the  alternative  names  they  had  are 
probably  those  by  which  they  were  known  to  themselves 
and  to  their  neighbours.  The  remnant  at  the  present 
time  of  the  dark-complexioned  Wends  of  Saxony,  who 
called  themselves  Sorbs,  shows  that  there  must  have  been 
1  Mallet,  M.,  '  Northern  Antiquities,'  Bohn's  ed.,  p.  139. 

96  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

some  old  Wendish  tribe  of  similar  complexion,  from  which 
they  are  descended.  As  the  country  anciently  occupied 
by  the  Wiltzi  included  Brandenburg  and  the  district 
around  Berlin,  it  joined  the  limits  of  ancient  Saxony  on 
the  west.  There  is  evidence,  arising  from  the  survival 
of  place-names  in  and  near  the  old  Wendish  country,  to 
show  that  these  Wilte  have  left  distinct  traces  of  their 
existence  in  North-East  Germany — for  example,  Wilts- 
chau,  Wilschkowitz,  and  Wiltsch  are  places  in  Silesia ; 
Wilze  is  a  place  near  Posen ;  Wilsen  in  Mecklenburg- 
Schwerin ;  Wilsdorf  near  Dresden  ;  Wilzken  in  East 
Prussia ;  and  Wilsum  in  Hanover.1  Similarly,  names 
of  the  same  kind  which  can  be  traced  back  to  Saxon 
time  survive  in  England.  If  the  existence  of  these  Wilte 
place-names  in  the  old  Wendish  country  of  Germany  is 
confirmatory  evidence  of  the  former  existence  in  that 
part  of  Europe  of  a  nation  or  tribe  known  as  the  Wiltzi 
or  Wilte,  the  existence  of  similar  names  in  England, 
dating  from  the  Anglo-Saxon  period,  cannot  be  other 
than  probable  evidence  of  the  settlement  in  England 
of  some  of  these  people,  for  no  other  tribe  is  known  to 
have  existed  at  that  time  which  had  a  similar  name. 
This  tribal  name  has  also  survived,  in  other  countries, 
such  as  Holland,  in  which  the  Wilte  formed  colonies. 
The  Polabian  Wends  or  Wilte  were  located  on  the  right 
bank  of  the  Elbe,  where  some  ships  for  the  Saxon  inva- 
sion must  have  been  fitted  out.  There  were  Saxons  on 
the  left  bank  and  Wilte  on  the  right.  At  a  later  period 
they  were  in  close  alliance,  and  unless  there  had  been  peace 
between  them,  it  is  not  likely  that  a  Saxon  expedition  to 
England  would  have  been  organized. 

Under  these  circumstances,  if  we  had  no  evidence  of 
Wilte  or  other  Wends  in  England,  it  would  be  very 
difficult  indeed  to  believe  that  some  of  them  did  not  come 
among  the  Saxons.  The  general  name  of  the  Wends 
survives  in  many  place-names  in  the  old  Wendish  parts 
1  Rudolph,  H.,  '  Orts  Lexikon  von  Deutschland.' 

Rugians,   Wends,  and  Tribal  Slavonic  Settlers.     97 

of  Germany,   such  as  Wendelau,  Wendemark,-  Wende- 
wisch,  Wendhagen,  and  Wendorf.1 

It  is  difficult  to  avoid  the  conclusion  that  the  old 
Slavonic  tribes  not  only  comprised  people  of  different 
tribal  names,  but  of  different  ethnological  characters, 
seeing  that  at  the  present  time  there  are  dark-corn-  £> 
plexioned  Slavs  and  others  as  fair  as  Scandinavians. 
No  record  of  the  physical  characters  of  the  ancient 
Wends  appears  to  have  survived,  but  observations  on 
the  remnant  of  the  race,  who  call  themselves  Sorbs, 
in  Lower  Saxony  have  been  made  by  Beddoe.  The 
Wendish  peasants  examined  by  him  and  recorded  in 
his  tables  2  showed  the  highest  index  of  nigrescence  of 
any  observed  by  him  in  Germany.  These  observations 
have  been  confirmed  by  the  results  of  the  official  ethno- 
logical survey  of  that  country.3 

The  coast  of  the  Baltic  Sea  as  far  east  as  the  mouth  of 
the  Vistula,  and  beyond  it,  is  remarkable  for  having 
been  what  may  be  called  the  birthplace  of  nations. 
Goths  were  seated  east  of  the  Vistula  before  the  fall  of 
the  Roman  Empire,  and  Vandals  appear  to  have  occupied 
a  great  area  of  country  around  the  sources  of  the  Vistula 
and  the  Oder.  In  the  middle  of  the  fifth  century  the 
Burgundians  were  seated  in  large  numbers  between  the 
middle  courses  of  these  rivers,  while  the  Slavic  tribes 
known  as  Rugians  were  located  on  the  Baltic  coast  on 
both  sides  of  the  Oder.  The  name  Rugini  or  Rugians 
thus  appears,  at  one  time,  to  have  been  a  comprehensive 
one,  and  to  have  included  the  tribes  known  later  on  as 

In  the  Sagas  of  the  Norse  Kings,  Vindland  is  the  name 
of  the  country  of  the  Wends  from  Holstein  to  the  east  of 
Prussia,  and  as  early  as  the  middle  of  the  tenth  century 
we  read  of  both  Danish  and  Vindish  Vikings  as  subjects 

1  Rudolph,  H.,  loc.  cit. 

2  Beddoe,  J.,  '  Races  of  Britain,'  207. 

3  Ripley,  W.  Z.,  '  Races  of  Europe,"  Map. 


98  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

of,  or  in  the  service  of,  Hakon,  King  of  Denmark.1  In 
this  century  the  Wends  were  sometimes  allies  and  some- 
times enemies  of  the  Danes  and  Norse.  There  is  a 
reference  to  interpreters  of  the  Wendish  tongue  in  the 
Norse  Sagas.2  The  Wends  were  sea-rovers,  like  their 
neighbours,  and  comprised  the  largest  section  of  the 
ancient  association  or  alliance  known  as  the  Jomberg 
Vikings.3  An  alliance  was  made  between  the  Danes  and 
the  Wends  by  the  marriage  of  Sweyn,  King  of  Denmark, 
to  Gunhild,  daughter  of  Borislav,  a  King  of  the  Wends. 
Cnut,  King  of  England  and  Denmark,  was  actually  King 
of  ancient  Wendland,  and  the  force  of  huscarls  he  formed 
in  England  was  partly  composed  of  Jomberg  sea-rovers 
who  had  been  banished  from  their  own  country.  The 
evidence  of  Wendish  settlers  with  the  Angles,  Saxons, 
and  Jutes  in  England  rests,  as  far  as  the  Rugians  are 
concerned,  on  Bede's  statement,  and  generally  on  the 
survival  of  customs,  place-names,  and  folk-lore.  It  is 
certain  that  large  colonies  of  Vandals  were  settled  in 
Britain  before  the  end  of  the  Roman  occupation,  and 
some  of  them  may  have  retained  their  race  characters 
until  the  time  of  the  Saxon  settlement.  It  is  certain, 
also,  that  there  was  an  immigration  in  the  time  of  Cnut. 
The  evidence  of  a  Wendish  influence  in  the  English  race, 
arising  from  these  successive  settlements,  extending 
from  the  Roman  time  to  the  later  Anglo-Saxon  period, 
cannot,  therefore,  be  disregarded. 

The  Anglo-Saxon  charters4  tell  us  of  Wendlesbiri  in 
Hertfordshire,  Wendlescliff  in  Worcestershire,  Waendles- 
cumb  in  Berkshire,  and  Wendlesore,  now  Windsor — all 
apparently  named  from  settlers  called  Wendel,  after  the 
name  of  their  race. 

In   such   Old   English   place-names   the   tribal   name 

1  '  The  Heimskringla,'  translated  by  Laing,  edited  by  Ander- 
son, ii.  12.  2  Ibid.,  iv.  201. 

3  Memoires  de  la  Societe  Royale  des  Antiquaires  du  Nord, 
1850-1860,  p.  422.  4  Codex  Dipl.,  Nos.  826,  150,  1283,  816. 

Rugians,  Wends,  and  Tribal  Slavonic  Settlers.     99 

lingers  yet,  as  similar  names  linger  in  North-East  Ger- 
many ;  and  in  the  names  Wilts,  Willi,  Rugen,  Rown,  or 
Ruwan,  and  others,  we  may  still,  in  all  probability,  trace 
the  Wilte  and  Rugians — Wendic  tribes  of  the  Saxon  age. 
In  the  old  Germanic  records  the  Rugians  are  mentioned 
under  similar  names  to  those  found  in  the  Anglo-Saxon 
charters,  Ruani  and  Rugiani.1 

Some  manorial  customs,  and  especially  that  of  sole 
inheritance  by  the  youngest  son,  may  be  traced  with 
more  certainty  to  the  old  Slavic  nations  of  Europe  than 
to  the  Teutonic.  Inheritance  by  the  youngest  son,  or 
junior  preference,  was  a  custom  so  prevalent  among  the 
Slavs  that  there  can  be  little  doubt  it  must  have  been 
almost  or  quite  the  common  custom  of  the  race.  The 
ancient  right  of  the  youngest  survives  here  and  there 
in  parts  of  Germany — in  parts  of  Bavaria,  for  example 
— but  in  no  Teutonic  country  is  the  evidence  to  be 
found  in  ancient  customs  or  in  old  records  of  the 
identification  of  this  custom  with  the  Teutonic  race  as 
it  may  be  identified  with  the  Slavic.  In  the  old  Wendish 
country  around  Lubeck  the  custom  of  inheritance  by 
the  youngest  son  long  survived,  or  still  does,  and  Lubeck 
was  the  city  in  which  during  the  later  Saxon  age  in 
England  the  commerce  of  the  Wends  began  to  be 

There ,  is  evidence  of  another  kind  showing  the  con- 
nection of  Wends  with  Danes  or  Northmen.  At  Sonde- 
vissing,  in  Tyrsting  herrad,  in  the  district  of  Scanderborg, 
there  is  a  stone  monument  with  a  runic  inscription 
stating  tkat  '  Tuva  caused  this  barrow  to  be  constructed.  • 
She  was  a  daughter  of  Mistivi.  She  made  it  to  her  mother, 
who  was  the  wife  of  Harald  the  Good,  son  of  Gorm.'2 
The  inscription  has  been  assigned  to  the  end  of  the  tenth 
century,  and  Worsaae  says :  '  We  know  that  there 
existed  at  this  period  a  Wendish  Prince  named  Mistivi, 

1  Monumenta  Germanise,  iii.  461. 

2  Worsaae,  J.  J.  A.,  '  Primaeval  Antiquities  of  Denmark,'  p.  u8. 


ioo  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

who  in  the  year  986  destroyed  Hamburg,  possibly  the 
same  as  in  the  inscription.'  This  refers  to  a  generation 
earlier  than  that  of  Cnut,  to  the  time  of  Sweyn,  who 
married  the  daughter  of  Borislav,  King  of  the  Wends. 
During  the  period  of  Danish  rule  in  England  there  are 
several  historical  references  to  the  connection  of  the 
Wends  with  England.  In  1029,  Eric,  son  of  Hakon,  was 
banished  by  Cnut.  Hakon  was  doubly  the  King's 
nephew,  being  the  son  of  his  sister  and  the  husband  of 
his  niece  Gunhild,  the  daughter  of  another  sister  and  of 
Wyrtgeorn,  King  of  the  Wends.1  There  was  at  this  time 
an  eminent  Slavonic  Prince  who  was  closely  connected 
with  Cnut,  and  spent  some  time  with  him  in  England — 
viz.,  Godescalc,  son  of  Uto,  the  Wendish  Prince  of  the 
Obodrites,  whose  exploits  are  recorded  in  old  Slavonic 
history.  The  Obodrites  were  the  Wendish  people  whose 
warlike  deeds  are  still  commemorated  at  Schwerin. 
Godescalc  waged  war  against  the  Saxons  of  Holstein 
and  Stormaria,  but  was  taken  prisoner.  After  his  release 
he  entered  the  service  of  Cnut,  probably  as  an  officer  of 
the  huscarls,  and  later  on  he  married  the  King's  daughter. 
There  is  another  trace  of  the  Wends  in  an  English 
charter  of  A.D.  1026,  which  is  witnessed  by  Earls  Godwin, 
Hacon,  Hrani,  Sihtric,  and  Wrytesleof.  The  name  of 
the  last  of  these  is  apparently  Slavonic.2  There  is  also  a 
charter  of  Cnut,  dated  1033,  by  which  he  granted  to 
Bouige,  his  huscarl,  land  at  Horton  in  Dorset.3  Saxo,  the 
early  chronicler  of  the  Danes,  tells  us  that  Cnut's  Wendish 
kingdom  was  called  Sembia,  and  it  was  in  the  Wendish 
war  under  Cnut  that  Godwin,  the  Anglo-Saxon  earl,  rose 
to  distinction.  As  Wendland  was  actually  part  of  Cnut's 
continental  dominions,4  the  migration  into  England  of 
Wendish  people  during  his  reign  is  easily  accounted  for. 

1  Freeman,  E.  A.,  '  Hist,  of  the  Norman  Conquest,'  i.  475. 

2  Freeman,  E.  A.,  loc.  cit.,  i.  650. 

3  Codex  Dipl.,  No.  1318. 

4  Freeman,  E.  A.,  loc.  cit.,  i.  504,  Note. 

Rugians,  Wends,  and  Tribal  Slavonic  Settlers.     101 

There  is  additional  evidence  of  the  intercourse  of  the 
Wendish  people  of  Pomerania  with  the  people  of  Anglo- 
Saxon  England  in  the  objects  that  have  been  found. 
The  gold  ring  which  was  found  at  Coslin,  on  the  Pomer- 
anian coast,  in  1839,  Stephens  says  was  the  first  instance 
of  the  discovery  of  a  golden  bracteate  and  Northern  runes 
on  German  soil.1  The  inscription  is  in  provincial  English 
runes,  the  rune  (  ^ ),  yo,  a  slight  variation  of  ( |  ),  being 
decisive  in  this  respect,  for,  as  Stephens  says,  it  has  only 
been  found  in  England.  The  ring  must  be  a  very  early 
one,  for  it  contains  the  heathen  symbols  for  Woden  and 
also  for  the  Holy  Triskele  (Y)-  Stephens  states  that  it 
cannot  well  be  later  than  the  fifth  century,  and  that  it 
had  been  worn  by  a  warrior  '  who  had  been  in  England, 
or  had  gotten  it  thence  by  barter.'  The  style  is  that 
of  six  centuries  earlier  than  the  eleventh  or  twelfth 
centuries,  when  the  Germans  came  to  Pomerania.  The 
well-preserved  characters  on  the  ring  point  to  its  loss  at 
an  early  date  after  its  manufacture,  and  thus  to  early 
communication  of  some  kind  between  England  and 
Pomerania.  It  may  have  been  the  much-prized,  rare 
ornament  of  a  Wendish  chief,  brought  or  sent  from 
England.  In  any  case  we  know  that  the  Wends,  who 
had  no  knowledge  of  runes,  must  have  prized  ornaments 
such  as  this,  whose  construction  was  beyond  their  skill, 
for  the  relics  of  Vandal  ornaments  we  possess  from  other 
countries  where  Vandals  settled  are  clearly  in  many 
respects  rough  imitations  of  those  of  the  ancient  Goths.2 
With  this  English  golden  finger-ring  there  were  also  two 
Roman  golden  coins,  one  of  Theodosius  the  Great 
(379-395),  and  the  other  of  Leo  I.  (457-474),  thus  fixing 
the  probable  date  of  the  ring  as  the  fifth  century.  At 
that  time  the  Goths  were  settling  down  in  Kent,  with  some 
Wends,  probably,  near  to  them.  They  can  be  traced  in 
both  Essex  and  Sussex.  The  coast  of  the  Baltic,  it  should 
also  be  remembered,  was  not  only  Wendish  in  the  parts 
1  Stephens,  G.,  loc.  cit.,  ii.  600.  2  Collection,  British  Museum. 

IO2  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

nearest  to  the  Elbe,  but  also  Gothic  in  those  beyond 
the  Vistula.  The  discovery  of  this  ring  in  old  Vandal 
territory  with  the  Roman  coins,  and  especially  with  the 
very  early  English  runic  characters  upon  it,  assists  in 
proving  that  the  early  Goths  who  settled  in  Kent  were  of 
the  same  stock  as  those  who  overran  so  large  a  part  of 
Europe  during  the  decline  of  the  Roman  Empire.  In 
considering  this,  it  should  also  be  remembered  that 
inscribed  stones  discovered  at  Sandwich,  which  are 
marked  with  very  early  runes,  and  are  ascribed  to  the 
same  early  period,  still  exist  in  Kent.1 

The  evidence  we  possess  relating  to  the  connection  of 
ancient  Wendland  with  both  the  earlier  and  later  Anglo- 
Saxons  thus  points  to  a  continued  intercourse  between 
that  country  and  our  own.  It  is  known  to  have  been  very 
considerable  in  the  time  of  Cnut,  who  was  the  King  or 
overlord  of  the  Baltic  Wendland.  A  large  discovery  of 
coins  was  made  at  Althofthen  on  the  Obra,  in  the  province 
of  Posen,  not  far  from  Brandenburg,  in  1872.  From  sixty 
to  seventy  Anglo-Saxon  coins  of  yEthelred  and  Cnut,  and  an 
Irish  one  of  Sithric,  were  found  in  this  hoard.  These  Anglo- 
Saxon  coins  bear  the  mint  marks  of  Cambridge,  London, 
Canterbury,  Shaftesbury,  Cricklade,  Oxford,  Stamford, 
Winchester,  York,  and  other  places — twenty  in  all.2 

The  local  traces  of  Wendish  settlers  in  various  English 
counties  will  be  stated  when  considering  the  evidence  of 
tribal  settlers  in  different  parts  of  England .  Among  these 
local  traces  are  customs  and  folk-lore,  which  were  of 
great  vitality  among  these  people  of  Wendland.  On  this 
subject  Magnus,  the  historian  of  the  Goths  and  Vandals, 
gives  us  positive  information.  He  says :  '  For,  as 
Albertus  Crantzius  reports  of  Vandalia,  "  great  is  the 
ove  men  bear  to  their  ancestors'  traditions."  '3 

1  Stephens,  G.,  loc.  cit.,  ii.  542. 
z  Warne,  C.,  '  Ancient  Dorset,'  p.  320. 
*  Magnus,  O.,  '  Hist.  omn.  Goth.,'  quoting  Albertus  Crantzius, 
lib.  ix.,  chap,  xxxvii. 



ONE  of  the  facts  concerning  the  colour  of  the 
hair  and  eyes  of  the  people  in  different  counties 
of  England  at  the  present  time,  brought  to  light 
by  scientific  observations,  is  that  there  is  a  higher 
percentage  of  people  of  a  mixed  brown  type  living 
in  Hertfordshire,  Buckinghamshire,  Wiltshire,  and 
Dorset,  than  in  most  other  counties.  Except  those  in 
Cornwall  and  on  the  old  Celtic  borders,  the  inhabi- 
tants of  these  counties  are  the  darkest.  This  is  usually 
explained  on  the  supposition  that  in  the  process  of  the 
Saxon  settlement  a  British  population  was  allowed 
to  remain  in  these  parts  of  England,  which  in  the 
course  of  centuries  became  mixed  with  the  inhabitants 
of  Anglo-Saxon  descent,  and  consequently  the  present 
population  is  more  marked  than  those  of  pure  descent 
by  brown,  hazel,  or  black  eyes,  with  brown  (chestnut), 
dark-brown,  or  black  hair.1  The  counties  of  Hertford 
and  Buckingham  have  people  as  dark  as  Wales.  All 
investigation  goes  to  show  that  this  brunette  outcrop 
is  a  reality.  Beddoe  found  that  the  area  in  which  there 
is  a  larger  percentage  of  brown  people  in  England  extends 
from  the  river  Lea  to  the  Warwickshire  Avon.  In  dealing 
with  the  circumstances  of  the  settlement,  these  ethno- 
logical facts  must  receive  consideration.  The  survival 

1  Ripley,  W.  Z.,  '  The  Races  of  Europe,'  p.  323,  and    Had- 
don,  A.  C.,  '  The  Study  of  Man,'  pp.  38,  39. 


IO4          Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

of  a  British  population  is  a  possible  explanation,  and  the 
one  which  appears  to  be  the  most  natural.  As  there 
are  some  difficulties  in  this  conclusion,  the  question 
arises,  Is  there  any  other  way  in  which  the  origin  of 
these  mixed  brown  people,  surrounded  by  others  of  a 
somewhat  fairer  complexion,  can  be  explained  ?  An 
alternative  explanation  is  that  people  of  a  darker  race 
may  have  come  with  the  Angles,  Saxons,  or  Danes,  and 
have  settled  largely  in  these  parts  of  the  country.  There 
is  circumstantial  evidence  that  people  of  a  brown  or 
dark  complexion  did  come  into  England  during  the  time 
of  both  the  Saxon  and  the  Danish  settlements,  and  this 
may  now  be  summarised. 

First,  we  have  the  evidence  that  Wends  were  among 
the  settlers  either  during  the  early  period  or  later  in 
alliance  with  the  Danes.  The  Wends,  specifically  so 
called  by  the  Germans,  included  some  tribes  much 
darker  than  the  Saxons  and  Angles,  as  the  remnant 
of  the  race  still  called  Wends  living  on  the  border  of 
Saxony  and  Prussia  at  the  present  time  shows.  They 
are  the  darkest  people  in  Northern  Germany,  according 
to  the  official  census.  From  26  to  29  per  cent,  of  the 
children  of  the  Wendish  district  of  Lusatia,  south  of 
Dresden,  were  shown  by  this  census  to  be  brunettes, 
notwithstanding  the  admixture  of  race  with  the  much 
fairer  people  of  Teutonic  descent  which  has  been  going 
on  along  this  borderland  since  the  dawn  of  history. 
All  the  Slav  nations  are  not  dark.  Some  are  as  fair  as 
the  Scandinavians,  while  others,  such  as  the  Wends  and 
the  Czechs  of  Bohemia,  are  dark. 

The  Wendish  place-names  in  Buckinghamshire  and  on 
its  borders  help  to  show  that  some  people  of  this  race 
probably  settled  in  that  county.  Huntingdon  tells  us 
that  during  the  later  Saxon  period  they  formed  part  of 
the  Scandian  hosts.1  They  were  in  alliance  with  the 
Norwegians,  Danes,  Swedes,  Goths,  and  Frisians,  or,  in 
1  Henry  of  Huntingdon's  Chronicle,  Bonn's  ed.,  p.  148. 

Our  Darker  Forefathers.  105 

any  case,  people  of  these  races  were  acting  together  in 
the  Danish  expeditions  against  England.  It  is  likely, 
therefore,  that  when  permanent  settlements  were  formed 
adjoining  townships  would  be  occupied  by  people  of  this 
alliance.  This  consideration  helps  us  to  identify 
Wendlesbury  in  Hertfordshire.1  Wendover  and  its 
neighbourhood  in  Buckinghamshire,  the  Anglo-Saxon 
Wendofra,2  and  Windsor,  anciently  Wendlesore,3  close  to 
the  southern  border  of  that  county,  were  probably  named 
after  settlers  who  were  Wends. 

If  British  people  were  left,  as  suggested,  like  an  eddy 
between  the  main  lines  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  advance  east 
and  west  of  these  counties,  would  it  not  be  very  surprising 
that  the  advancing  Saxons  should  make  no  use  of  the  exist- 
ing Roman  roads — the  Watling  Street,  Ikenield  Street, 
and  Akeman  Street — which  passed  through  parts  of  these 
shires,  while  the  Ermine  Street  also  went  through  Hert- 
fordshire ?  To  suppose  that  invaders  and  subsequent 
settlers  would  have  forsaken  the  excellent  roads  which 
the  Romans  had  made,  and  in  their  advance  would  have 
passed  through  the  more  difficult  country  east  and  west 
of  them,  thus  leaving  undisturbed  a  British  population, 
is  most  unlikely. 

Secondly,  these  counties  are  not  specially  marked  by  the 
survival  of  Celtic  place-names,  nor  by  a  dialect  containing 
words  of  Celtic  origin.  In  Anglo-Saxon  times  there  was, 
however,  a  place  named  Wealabroc,  in  Buckinghamshire. 

Thirdly,  it  should  be  remembered  that  the  western 
border  of  Buckinghamshire  was  at  one  time  the  western 
frontier  of  the  Danelaw,  which  comprised  fifteen  counties 
known  as  Fiftonshire,  until  after  the  Norman  Conquest, 
and  that  Danish  law  survived  for  more  than  a  century 
after  the  Conquest  east  of  this  frontier.4  This  fact  points 

1  Codex  Dipl.,  826. 

2  Dipl.  Angl.  JEvi  Sax.,  by  B.  Thorpe,  527. 

3  Codex  Dipl.,  816. 

4  Cottonian  Liber  Custumarium  in  Liber  Albus,  ii.  625. 

io6  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

to  a  population  largely  Scandian.  There  is,  in  addition, 
evidence  that  points  to  Norwegians  of  a  brunette  appear- 
ance as  another  source  whence  brown-complexioned  people 
may  have  come  into  England.  On  the  south-east  coast  of 
Norway,  and  here  and  there  on  the  coast  farther  north,  a 
population  is  met  with  which  differs  from  the  usual 
Norwegian  type,  and  this  has  been  referred  by  anthro- 
pologists to  a  very  ancient  settlement  there  of  the  pre- 
historic brown  race  that  survives  in  the  highlands  of 
Central  Europe,  and  is  known  as  the  brown  Alpine  race.1 
This  race  is  believed  to  have  extended  before  the  dawn 
of  history  much  further  northwards  in  Germany.  The 
brown  people  of  Norway  are  well  seen  in  Joderen,  where 
Arbo  found  the  blonde  and  really  dark-haired  people 
about  equally  represented.  The  Norwegian  brunettes 
differ  from  the  typical  blondes  of  that  country  in  two 
other  particulars.  First,  they  are  broad-headed,  while 
the  blondes,  which  comprise  the  bulk  of  the  nation,  are 
long-headed  ;  and  not  only  are  the  broader-headed  people 
of  these  coast-districts  darker  as  a  whole,  but  in  them 
the  broad-headed  individuals  tend  to  be  darker  than  the 
other  type,  as  Arbo  has  clearly  shown. 2  Secondly,  the 
broadest-headed  people  of  these  localities  in  Norway 
incline  to  shortness  of  stature  below  that  of  the  typical 

From  Huntingdon's  statement  concerning  Vandals  as 
Danish  allies  and  these  considerations,  there  appears  to 
be  evidence  to  account  for  the  greater  percentage  of 
brunettes,  or  the  greater  tendency  to  the  brunette  type, 
that  prevails  in  Hertfordshire  and  Buckinghamshire  over 
the  adjoining  counties,  without  necessarily  concluding 
that  such  an  ethnological  phenomenon  can  only  have 
been  caused  by  a  remnant  of  the  British  population. 
It  is,  indeed,  an  unlikely  district  for  Celtic  people  to 
have  been  left  in  large  numbers.  On  the  contrary,  in 

1  Ripley,  W.  Z.,  loc.  cit.,  p.  206,  and  Map,  ibid.,  quoting  Arbo. 

2  Ibid.,  p.  208. 

Our  Darker  Forefathers.  107 

view  of  its  excellent  communications,  'it  is  a  country 
where  the  conquest  by  the  early  settlers  might  be 
expected  to  have  been  most  thorough.  Whether  the 
Hertfordshire  and  Buckinghamshire  brunettes  are  partly 
due  to  the  settlement  of  Wends  and  Norwegians  of  the 
dark  type,  as  now  suggested,  or  to  some  other  cause,  the 
British  theory  as  a  complete  explanation,  in  view  of  the 
facts,  appears  improbable.  The  chief  lines  of  the  Anglo- 
Saxon  advance  during  the  early  settlement  were  the 
navigable  rivers  and  the  Rorhan  roads.  The  Scandian 
advances  into  the  country  during  their  conquests  and 
later  settlements  must  have  been  along  the  same  lines  of 
communication.  On  one  occasion,  at  least,  we  read  of 
the  Danish  host  presumably  using  the  Ikenield  way,  on 
the  march  from  East  Anglia  into  Dorset.1 

This  consideration  of  the  probable  origin  of  the  great 
proportion  of  brunettes  in  two  of  the  .south  midland 
counties  of  England  leads  us  to  that  of  colour-names  as 
surnames  and  place-names,  which  may  probably  have 
been  derived  from  their  original  settlers.  For  example, 
there  is  the  common  name  Brown.  This  has  been 
derived  from  the  Anglo-Saxon  brun,  signifying  brown. 
It  is  not  reasonable  to  doubt  that  when  our  forefathers 
called  a  man  Brun  or  Brown,  they  gave  him  this  name 
as  descriptive  of  his  brown  complexion.  The  proba- 
bility that  the  brunettes  were  common  is  supported  by 
the  frequent  references  to  persons  named  Brun  in  Anglo- 
Saxon  literature.  Brun  was  a  name  not  confined  to 
England  in  the  Anglo-Saxon  and  later  periods.  On  the 
contrary,  we  find  that  it  was  a  common  name  in  ancient 
Germany.2  The  typical  place-name  Bruninga-feld  occurs 
in  a  charter  of  ^Ethelstan  dated  A.D.  938,  '  in  loco  qui 
Bruninga-feld  dicitur.'3  Brunesham,  Hants,  is  men- 
tioned in  a  charter  of  Edward  the  Elder  about  A.D.  goo.4 

1  Asser's  '  Life  of  Alfred,'  Bohn's  ed.,  263. 

2  Monumenta  Germaniae,  edited  by  Pertz,  Indices. 

3  Dipl.  Angl.  y£vi  Sax.,  p.  186.  *  Ibid.,  146. 

io8  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

Brunesford  is  another  suggestive  name.1  Brunman  is 
mentioned  as  a  personal  name  in  Anglo-Saxon  records 
of  the  eleventh  century,  and  examples  of  the  name 
Bruning  are  somewhat  numerous  in  documents  of  the 
same  period.2  At  the  present  time  old  place-names,  of 
which  the  word  Braun  forms  the  chief  part,  such  as 
Braunschweig  or  Brunswick,  are  common  in  Germany.3 
The  custom  of  calling  people  by  colour  -  names  from 
their  personal  appearance,  or  places  after  them,  was 
clearly  not  peculiar  to  our  own  country.  It  is  probable 
that  the  name  Brunswick  was  derived  from  the  brown 
complexion  of  its  original  inhabitants.  The  map  pub- 
lished by  Ripley,  based  on  the  official  ethnological  survey 
of  Germany,  shows  that  parts  of  the  country  near  Bruns- 
wick have  a  higher  percentage  of  brunettes  than  the 
districts  further  north.  Beddoe  also  made  observations 
on  a  number  of  Brunswick  peasantry,  and  records  some 
remarkable  facts  relating  to  the  proportion  of  brunettes 
among  those  who  came  under  his  observation.4 

In  view  of  this,  and  the  evidence  relating  to  the  use 
of  the  Anglo-Saxon  word  brun  in  English  place-names, 
we  are  not,  I  think,  justified  in  deciding  that  all  English 
names  which  begin  with  Brun,  modernized  into  Burn 
in  many  cases  by  the  well-known  shifting  of  the  r  sound, 
have  been  derived  from  brun,  a  bourn  or  stream,  rather 
than  from  brun,  brown.  Such  names  as  Bruninga-feld5 
and  Brunesham  point  to  the  opposite  conclusion,  that 
Brun  in  such  names  refers  to  people,  probably  so  named 
from  their  complexions.  If  a  large  proportion  of  the 
settlers  in  the  counties  of  Buckingham  and  Hertford 
were  of  a  brown  complexion,  it  is  clear  that  they  would 
have  been  less  likely  to  have  been  called  Brun  or  Brown 

1  Codex  Dipl.,  Index. 

2  Searle,  W.  G.,  '  Onomasticon  Anglo-Saxonicum.' 

3  Rudolph,  H.,  '  Orts  Lexikon  von  Deutschland.' 

4  Beddoe,  J.,  '  Races  in  Britain,'  207-211. 

5  Dipl.  Angl.  JEvi  Sax.,  186. 

Our  Darker  Forefathers.  109 

by  their  neighbours  than  brunettes  would  in  other 
counties,  where  such  a  complexion  may  have  been  rarer, 
and  consequently  more  likely  to  have  attracted  the 
notice  of  the  people  around  them.  It  is  not  probable 
that  people  who  were  originally'  designated  by  the  colour- 
names  Brown,  Black,  Gray,  or  the  like,  gave  themselves 
these  names.  They  most  likely  received  them  from 

The  evidence  concerning  brown  people  in  England 
during  the  Anglo-Saxon  period  which  can  be  derived  from 
the  place-name  Brun  is  supplemented  by  that  supplied 
in  at  least  some  of  the  old  place-names  beginning 
with  dun  and  duning.  Dun  is  an  Old  English  word 
denoting  a  colour  partaking  of  brown  and  black,  and 
where  it  occurs  at  the  beginning  of  words  in  such  a  com- 
bination as  Duningland,1  it  is  possible  that  it  refers  to 
brown  people  or  their  children,  rather  than  to  the  Anglo- 
Celtic  word  dun,  a  hill  or  fortified  place. 

As  regards  the  ancient  brown  race  or  races  of  North 
Europe,  there  can  be  no  doubt  of  their  existence  in  the 
south-east  of  Norway  and  in  the  east  of  Friesland.2 
There  can  be  no  doubt  about  the  important  influence 
which  the  old  Wendish  race  has  had  in  the  north-eastern 
parts  of  Germany  in  transmitting  to  their  descendants 
a  more  brunette  complexion  than  prevails  among  the 
people  of  Hanover,  Holstein,  and  Westphalia,  of  more 
pure  Teutonic  descent.  We  cannot  reasonably  doubt 
that,  in  view  of  such  a  survival  of  brown  people  as  we 
find  at  the  present  time  in  the  provinces  of  North  Holland, 
Drenthe  and  Overijssel,  which  form  the  hinterland  of 
the  ancient  Frisian  country,  numerous  brunettes  must 
have  come  into  England  among  the  Frisians.  It  would 
be  as  unreasonable  to  doubt  this  as  it  would  to  think 
that  during  the  Norwegian  immigration  into  England 
all  the  brown  people  of  Norway  were  precluded  from 

1  Codex  Dipl.,  No.  283. 

2  Reclus,  E.,  '  Nouvelle  Geographic  Universelle,'  iv.  252. 

no          Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

leaving  their  country  because  they  were  brunettes,  or  that 
the  Wends,  who  undoubtedly  settled  in  England  in 
considerable  numbers,  were  none  of  them  of  a  brunette 

The  survival  of  some  people  with  broad  heads  and  of 
a  brown  type  in  parts  of  Drenthe,  Guelderland,  and 
Overijssel  appears  unmistakable.1  They  present  a  re- 
markable contrast  in  appearance  to  their  Frisian  neigh- 
bours, who  are  of  a  different  complexion  in  regard  to 
hair  and  skin,  and  are  specially  characterized  as  long- 

It  was  in  Gelderland  that  ancient  Thiel  was  situated, 
and  the  men  of  Thiel  and  those  of  Brune  were  apparently 
recognised  as  different  people  from  the  real  Frisians,  for 
in  the  later  Anglo-Saxon  laws  relating  to  the  sojourn  of 
strangers  within  the  City  of  London  it  is  stated  that 
'  the  men  of  the  Emperor  may  lodge  within  the  city 
wherever  they  please,  except  those  of  Tiesle  and  of 

The  evidence  concerning  the  origin  of  the  broad-headed 
Slavonic  nations  connects  them  with  the  broad-headed 
and  still  older  Alpine  brown  race  of  Central  Europe. 
The  most  generally  accepted  theory  among  anthro- 
pologists as  to  the  physical  relationship  of  the  Slavs  is 
that  they  were  always,  as  the  majority  of  them  are 
to-day,  of  the  same  stock  as  the  broad-headed  Alpine 
race.3  This  old  race  has  sometimes  been  called  the  Celtic, 
but  it  is  perhaps  more  accurate  to  say  that  it  is  the  very 
ancient  stock  from  which  the  old  Celtic  race  of  the  British 
Bronze  Age  was  an  offshoot.  This  curious  circumstance, 
consequently,  comes  before  us  in  considering  the  Anglo- 
Saxon  settlement  of  England.  If  the  brunette  character 
of  the  people  of  any  part  of  England  at  the  present  time 
is  due  to  a  survival  of  the  race  characters  of  the  Celts  of 

1  Reclus,  E.,  loc.  cit.,  iv.  252. 

2  Liber  Albus,  ii.  63,  and  ii.  531. 

3  Ripley,  W.  Z.,  loc.  cit.,  355. 

Our  Darker  Forefathers.  1 1 1 


the  British  Bronze  Age,  and  if  this  same  character  has 
been  caused  partly  by  people  of  a  darker  complexion  and 
broad  heads  settling  as  immigrants  among  the  fair- 
haired  and  long-headed  Teutons  in  other  parts  of  England, 
this  racial  character  in  both  cases  can  be  traced  along 
different  lines  to  the  same  distant  source. 

The  consideration  of  the  evidence  that  people  of 
brunette  complexions  were  among  the  Anglo-Saxon 
settlers  in  England  leads  on  to  that  of  people  of  a  still 
darker  hue,  the  dark,  black,  or  brown-black  settlers. 
Probably  there  must  have  been  some  of  these  among 
the  Anglo-Saxons,  for  we  meet  with  the  personal  names 
Blacman,  Blaecman,  Blakernan,  Blacaman,  Blac'sunu, 
Blsecca,  and  Blacheman,  in  various  documents  of  the 
period.1  Blcecca  was  an  ealdorman  of  Lindsey  who 
was  converted  by  Paulinus  ;  Blsecman  was  the  son  of 
Ealric  or  Edric,  a  descendant  of  Ida,  ancestor  of  Ealhred, 
King  of  Bernicia,  and  so  on.2  The  same  kind  of  evidence 
is  met  with  among  the  oldest  place-names.  Blacmanne- 
bergh  is  mentioned  in  an  Anglo-Saxon  charter  ; 3  Blache- 
manestone  was  the  name  of  a  place  in  Dorset,4  and 
Blachemenestone  that  of  a  place  in  Kent.5  Blacheshale 
and  Blachenhale  are  Domesday  names  of  places  in 
Somerset,  and  Blachingelei  occurs  in  the  Domesday 
record  of  Surrey.  The  name  Blachemene  occurs  in  the 
Hertfordshire  survey,  and  Blachene  in  Lincoln.  Among 
the  earliest  names  of  the  same  kind  in  the  charters 
we  find  Blacanden  in  Hants  and  Blacandon  in  Dorset. 
The  places  called  Blachemanestone  in  Dorset  and 
Blachemenestone  in  Kent  were  on  or  quite  close  to  the 
coast,  a  circumstance  which  points  to  the  settlers  having 
come  to  these  places  by  water  rather  than  to  a  survival 
of  black  people  of  the  old  Celtic  race  having  been  left 
in  them. 

1  Searle,  W.  G.,  loc,  cit.  2  Ibid. 

3  Codex  DipL,  No.  730.  *  Domesday  Book,  i.  84  b. 

5  Ibid. 

1 1 2  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

Among  old  place-names  of  the  same  kind  in  various 
counties,  some  of  which  are  met  with  in  later,  but  still  old, 
records,  we  find  Blakeney  in  Gloucestershire ;  Blakeney 
in  Norfolk  ;  Blakenham  in  Suffolk  ;  Blakemere,1  an  ancient 
hamlet,  and  Blakesware,  near  Ware  in  Hertfordshire. 
This  Hertford  name  is  worthy  of  note  in  reference  to 
what  has  been  said  concerning  the  brunettes  in  that 
county  at  the  present  time.  Another  circumstance 
connected  with  these  names  which  it  is  desirable  to  re- 
member is  the  absence  of  evidence  to  show  that  the  Old 
English  ever  called  any  of  the  darker-complexioned 
Britons  brown  men  or  black  men.  Their  name  for  them 
was  Wealas.  So  far  as  I  am  aware,  not  a  single  instance 
occurs  in  which  the  Welsh  are  mentioned  in  any  Anglo- 
Saxon  document  as  black  or  brown  people  ;  on  the  con- 
trary, the  Welsh  annals  mention  black  Vikings  on  the 
coast,  as  if  they  were  men  of  unusual  personal  appear- 

There  is  another  old  word  used  by  the  Anglo-Saxons 
to  denote  black  or  brown-black — the  word  sweart.  The 
personal  names  Suart  and  Sueart  may  have  been  derived 
from  this  word,  and  may  have  originally  denoted  people 
of  a  dark-brown  or  black  complexion.  Some  names  of 
this  kind  are  mentioned  in  the  Domesday  record  of 
Buckinghamshire  and  Lincolnshire.  These  may  be  of 
Scandinavian  origin,  for  the  ekename  or  nickname 
Svarti  is  found  in  the  Northern  Sagas.3  Halfden  the 
Black  was  the  name  of  a  King  of  Norway  who  died  in 
863.  The  so-called  black  men  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  period 
probably  included  some  of  the  darker  Wendish  people 
among  them,  immigrants  or  descendants  of  people  of  the 
same  race  as  the  ancestors  of  the  Sorbs  of  Lausatia  on  the 

1  Chauncy,    Sir    H.,    '  Historical    Antiquities    of    Hertford- 
shire/ 265. 

2  Annales  Cambriae,  A.D.  987. 

3  '  Corpus  Poeticum  Boreale,'  by  Vigfusson  and  York  Powell, 

Our  Darker  Forefathers.  113 

borders  of  Saxony  and  Prussia  at  the  present  day.  Some 
of  the  darker  Wends  may  well  have  been  among  the  Black 
Vikings  referred  to  in  the  Irish  annals,1  as  well  as  in  those 
of  Wales, 2  and  may  have  been  the  people  who  have  left 
the  Anglo-Saxon  name  Blacmanne-berghe,  which  occurs 
in  one  of  the  charters,3  Blachemenestone  on  the  Kentish 
coast,  and  Blachemanstone  on  the  Dorset  coast.  As 
late  as  the  time  of  the  Domesday  Survey  we  meet  with 
records  of  people  apparently  named  after  their  dark 
complexions.  In  Buckinghamshire,  Blacheman,  Suar- 
tinus,  and  others  are  mentioned  ;  in  Sussex,  one  named 
Blac ;  in  Suffolk,  Blakemannus  and  Suartingus ;  and 
others  at  Lincoln.  The  invasion  of  the  coast  of  the 
British  Isles  by  Vikings  of  a  dark  or  black  complexion 
rests  on  historical  evidence  which  is  too  circumstantial 
to  admit  of  doubt.  In  the  Irish  annals  the  Black  Vikings 
are  called  Dubh-Ghenti,  or  Black  Gentiles.4  These  Black 
Gentiles  on  some  occasions  fought  against  other  plunderers 
of  the  Irish  coasts  known  as  the  Fair  Gentiles,  who  can 
hardly  have  been  others  than  the  fair  Danes  or  North- 
men. In  the  year  851  the  Black  Gentiles  came  to  Ath- 
cliath5 — i.e.,  Dublin.  In  852  we  are  told  that  eight  ships 
of  the  Finn-Ghenti  arrived  and  fought  against  the  Dubh- 
Ghenti  for  three  days,  and  that  the  Dubh-Ghenti  were 
victorious.  The  Black  Vikings  appear  at  this  time  to 
have  had  a  settlement  in  or  close  to  Dublin,  and  during 
the  ninth  century  were  much  in  evidence  on  the  Irish 
coast.  In  877  a  great  battle  was  fought  at  Lock-Cuan 
between  them  and  the  Fair  Gentiles,  in  which  Albann* 
Chief  of  the  Black  Gentiles,  fell.6  He  may  well  have 
been  a  chieftain  of  the  race  of  the  Northern  Sorbs  of  the 
Mecklenburg  coast. 

There  is  still  another  way  in  which  men  of  black  hair 

1  Chronicum  Scotorum,  edited  by  W.  M.  Hennessy,  151,  167. 

2  Annales  Cambriae,  A.D.  987.  3  Codex  Dipl.,  No.  730. 
*  Chronicum  Scotorum,  p.  151.  5  Ibid. 

16  Ibid.,  167. 

•  8 

ii4  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

or  complexions  may  have  come  into  England — viz.,  as 
thralls  among  the  Norse  invaders.  In  his  translation 
of  '  Orosius,'  King  Alfred  inserts  the  account  which 
Othere,  the  Norse  mariner,  gave  him  of  the  tribute  in 
skins,  eiderdown,  whalebone,  and  ropes  made  from  whale 
and  seal  skins,  which  the  Northern  Fins,  now  called 
Lapps,  paid  to  the  Northmen.  Their  descendants  are 
among  the  darkest  people  of  Europe,  and  as  they  were 
thralls,  some  of  them  may  have  accompanied  their  lords. 
The  Danes  and  Norse,  having  the  general  race  character- 
istics of  tall,  fair  men,  must  have  been  sharply  distin- 
guished in  appearance  from  Vikings,  such  as  those 
of  Jomborg,  for  many  of  these  were  probably  of  a  dark 
complexion.  There  is  an  interesting  record  of  the  descent 
of  dark  sea-rovers  on  the  coast  of  North  Wales  in  the 
'  Annales  Cambriae,'  under  the  year  987,  which  tells  us 
that  Gothrit,  son  of  Harald,  with  black  men,  devastated 
Anglesea,  and  captured  two  thousand  men.  Another 
entry  in  the  same  record  tells  us  that  Meredut  redeemed 
the  captives  from  the  black  men.  This  account  in  the 
Welsh  annals  receives  some  confirmation  in  the  Sagas  of 
the  Norse  Kings,  one  of  which  tells  us  that  Olav  Tryg- 
vesson  was  for  three  years,  982-985,  King  in  Vindland 
— i.e.,  WTendland — where  he  resided  with  his  Queen,  to 
whom  he  was  much  attached ;  but  on  her  death,  whose 
loss  he  greatly  felt,  he  had  no  more  pleasure  in  Vindland. 
He  therefore  provided  himself  with  ships  and  went  on  a 
Viking  expedition,  first  plundering  Friesland  and  the 
coast  all  the  way  to  Flanders.  Thence  he  sailed  to 
Northumberland,  plundered  its  coast  and  those  of  Scot- 
land, Man,  Cumberland,  and  Bretland — i.e.,  Wales — 
during  the  years  985-988,  calling  himself  a  Russian  under 
the  name  of  Ode.1  From  these  two  separate  accounts 
there  can  be  but  little  doubt,  notwithstanding  the 
differences  in  the  names,  of  the  descent  on  the  coast  of 

1  '  The  Heimskringla,'  translated  by  S.  Laing,  edited  by  Ander- 
son, ii.  no,  in. 

Our  Darker  Forefathers.  115 

North  Wales  at  this  time  of  dark  sea-rovers  under  a 

Scandinavian  leader,  and  it  is  difficult  to  see  who  they 
were  if  not  dark-complexioned  Wends  or  other  allies  of 
the  Norsemen.  It  is  possible  some  of  these  dark  Vikings 
may  have  been  allies  or  mercenaries  from  the  South  of 
Europe,  where  the  Norse  made  conquests. 

As  regards  the  evidence  concerning  black-haired  settlers 
in  England  at  a  still  earlier  date,  there  is  the  story  of 
the  two  Anglian  priests  named  the  Black  and  Fair 
Hewald,  who,  following  the  example  of  Willibord  among 
the  Frisians,  went  into  Saxony  as  missionaries,  and  on 
coming  to  a  village  were  admitted  to  the  house  of  the 
head  man,  who  promised  to  protect  them,  and  send  them 
on  to  the  ealdorman  of  the  district.  They  devoted 
themselves  to  prayer  and  religious  observances,  which  were 
misunderstood  by  the  pagan  rustics,  who  apparently 
were  afraid  of  magical  arts.  At  any  rate,  these  strange 
rites,  so  novel  to  them,  aroused  suspicion  among  the 
people,  who  thought  that  if  these  Angles  were  allowed 
to  meet  the  ealdorman  they  might  draw  him  away  from 
their  gods,  and  before  long  draw  away  the  whole  province 
from  the  observances  of  their  forefathers.  So  they  slew 
both  the  Black  and  Fair  Hewald,  whose  names  in  sub- 
sequent Christian  time  were,  and  still  are,  held  in  high 
honour  in  Westphalia.1  It  is  a  touching  story,  and  one 
that  tells  us  more  than  the  devotion,  inspired  by  Christian 
zeal  to  risk  their  lives,  which  these  missionaries  showed 
for  the  conversion  of  men  of  their  own  race  ;  for,  as  their 
names  indicate,  they  bore  in  their  different  complexions 
evidence  of  the  existence  of  the  fair  and  dark  people 
among  the  Anglo-Saxon  stock. 

As  already  mentioned,  the  name  Brunswick  appears 
to  be  one  of  significance,  and  the  Wendish  names  in  that 
part  of  Germany,  Wendeburg,  Wendhausen,  and  Wenden, 
may  be  compared  with  the  Buckinghamshire  Domesday 
names  Wendovre,  Weneslai,  and  Wandene,  and  with 
1  Bright,  W.,  '  Early  English  Church  History,'  p.  384. 


n6          Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

Wenriga  or  Wenrige  in  Hertfordshire.  The  probable 
connection  of  the  Wends — some  tribes  of  whom,  such  as 
the  Sorbs,  are  known  to  have  been  dark — with  parts  of 
Germany  near  Brunswick,  and  with  parts  of  Herts  and 
Bucks,  is  shown  by  these  names.  Domesday  Book 
tells  us  of  huscarls  in  Buckinghamshire,  and  of  people 
who  bore  such  names  as  Suarting,  Suiert,  Suen,  Suert, 
and  Suiuard,  among  its  land-holders,  and  it  is  difficult 
to  avoid  the  conclusion  that  such  names  refer  to  people 
of  dark  complexions.  Among  the  lahmens  of  Lincoln, 
a  very  Danish  town,  there  were  also  apparently  some 
so-called  Danes  of  a  dark  complexion,  for  Domesday 
Book  mentions  Suartin,  son  of  Gribold ;  Suardine,  son  of 
Hardenut ;  and  Suartine  Sortsbrand,  son  of  Ulf. 

In  view  of  the  facts  pointing  to  settlements  of  Wends 
and  dark-haired  people  in  the  counties  of  Hertford  and 
Buckingham,  the  survival  of  the  custom  of  junior  in- 
heritance at  Cheshunt  and  Hadham  in  Herts  is  of  interest. 
In  cases  of  intestacy  the  land  in  the  eastern  part  of 
Cheshunt,1  or  *  below  bank,'  which  is  by  far  the  greater 
part  of  the  parish,  descends  to  the  youngest  son  by 
ancient  custom,  and  that  custom,  traced  to  its  most 
probable  home,  leads  us  to  Eastern  Germany,  and  to  the 
old  Slavic  tribes  which  once  occupied  it,  as  will  be  fully 
considered  in  a  subsequent  chapter. 

From  the  evidence  mentioned,  the  impression  left  on 
the  mind  is  that  our  Old  English  forefathers  could  not 
have  been  men  of  three  ancient  nations  only,  Jutes, 
Saxons,  and  Angles.  These  names,  in  reference  to  the 
conquest  and  colonization  of  England,  were  but  general 
names  for  tribal  people  in  alliance,  generally  the  name 
of  the  largest  section  of  such  allies.  They  were  no  doubt 
convenient  names,  but  cannot  be  regarded  as  ethnological 
designations.  This  has  become  apparent  from  the  ski 
and  other  remains  found  in  Anglo-Saxon  burial-places. 
The  shapes  and  special  characteristics  of  these  skulls, 
1  Bone,  J.  W.,  Notes  and  Queries,  Seventh  Series,  ix.  206. 

Our  Darker  Forefathers.  117 

whether  from  the  so-called  Anglian  districts  or  Saxon 
parts  of  England,  present  such  marked  contrasts  that 
anthropologists  are  unable  to  ascribe  them  all  to  one  race 
of  people.     A  minority  of  those  found  in  ancient  ceme- 
teries  in  Sussex,  Wiltshire,   and  the  Eastern  Counties, 
present  such  typical  differences  from  the  majority  in  each 
district  as  to  leave  no  doubt  that  they  represent  a  variety 
of  race  or  people  descended  from  a  fusion  of  races.     The 
easiest  explanation  of  this  is,  of  course,  to  turn  to  the 
ancient  Briton,  and  generally  the  remote  Briton  of  the 
Bronze  Age  known  as  the  Round  Barrow  man.    Where 
in  early  cemeteries  Saxon  or  Anglian  skulls  have  been 
found  presenting  characteristics  which  are  clearly  not 
of  the  Teutonic  type,  the  early  British  inhabitant  of  the 
Bronze  Age  has  usually  been  called  in  as  an  ancestor.  The 
typical  old  Teutonic  skull  is  dolichocephalic,  the  skull  of 
the  British  people  of  the  Bronze  Age  in  brachycephalic. 
The  inference  that  there  was  a  fusion  of  race  between  the 
Saxons  and  Angles  and  people  descending  from  men  of 
the  Bronze  Age  is  easily  drawn.    There  is,  however,  one 
difficulty.     The  Britons  of  the  Bronze  Age  lived  about 
500  B.C.,  a  date  which  may  fairly  be  taken  to  represent 
the  time  of  the  Round  Barrow  men.     The  Angles  and 
Saxons  are  usually  said  to  have  come  here  not  earlier 
than  about  500  A.D.    There  are,  therefore,  a  thousand 
years  between  the  two  periods,  and  in  that  interval  was 
the  period  of  the  Roman  rule,  during  which  men  of  almost 
every  Roman  province  served  with  the  legions  in  Britain, 
and  in  many  recorded  cases  some  of  them  settled  here,  and 
presumably  left  descendants.   In  view  of  this  racial  fusion 
which  must  have  gone  on,  it  is  difficult  to  believe  that  the 
Romano-Briton  of  the  early  Anglo-Saxon  period  pos- 
sessed the  same  skull  characteristics  as  the  much  more 
remote  man  of  the  Bronze  Age,  who  may  not  have  been 
his  ancestor  at  all.     Moreover,  the  Welsh  also,  who  may 
be  supposed  to  be  descended  from  this  later  British  stock, 
are  not  broad-headed. 

n8  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

From  what  has  been  said  of  the  presence  of  broad- 
headed  people  of  a  brunette  type  in  parts  of  Norway, 
among  the  much  more  numerous  long-headed  people  of 
a  fair  complexion  who  formed  the  bulk  of  the  Norwegian 
nation,  it  will  be  seen  that  the  facts  point  to  an  early 
broad-headed  brown  race,  some  of  whom  settled  on  the 
Norwegian  coast,  the  long-headed  fair  race  of  the  typical 
Norse  variety  having  perhaps  subsequently  conquered 
them.  In  any  case,  we  find  evidence  sufficient  to  justify 
the  inference  that  probably  the  early  broad-headed 
people  were  brown.  The  same  result  is  obtained  by  the 
study  of  the  broad-headed  people  of  Central  Europe  at 
the  present  day,  the  descendants  presumably  of  the  old 
Alpine  brown  race.  The  same  evidence  is  afforded  by 
the  remnant  of  the  Wends,  whose  skulls  are  broad,  and 
whose  complexions  are  more  or  less  brown  at  the  present 
day,  notwithstanding  their  fusion  with  the  Germans. 
We  have  thus  existing  in  Norway  and  parts  of  Germany 
at  the  present  time  people  whose  ethnological  char- 
acteristics appear  to  agree  with  those  of  a  section  of  the 
Anglo-Saxon  people  in  England.  It  does  not,  of  course, 
admit  of  proof  that  the  broad-headed  skulls,  which  occur 
in  a  small  minority  in  Anglo-Saxon  cemeteries,  were  the 
skulls  of  people  of  a  brunette  complexion.  Similarly,  we 
are  unable  to  prove  that  the  people  who  are  called  Brun, 
Brunman,  or  Bruning,  in  Saxon  charters  or  other  docu- 
ments were  broad-headed  ;  but  in  view  of  the  ethnological 
survival  to  the  present  day  in  various  parts  of  North 
Europe,  from  which  our  Anglo-Saxon  forefathers  came, 
of  broad-headed  people  of  the  brunette  type,  we  can 
point  in  England  to  the  fact  that  broad  skulls  are  found 
in  Anglo-Saxon  graves,  and  to  the  historical  fact  that 
there  were  brown  people  in  England  during  the  Anglo- 
Saxon  period,  and  there  the  evidence  must  be  left.  It 
may,  however,  be  borne  in  mind  that  as  brown  passes 
into  dark  brown  or  black,  the  literary  evidence  con- 
cerning brown  Anglo-Saxons  is  strengthened  by  that 

Our  Darker  Forefathers.  119 

relating  to  the  black  men,  or  to  those  designated  by  the 
old  brown-black  word  sweart,  and  in  some  cases,  perhaps, 
even  by  the  old  word  dun. 

The  evidence  of  brown  people  of  the  Wendish  race  may, 
however,  be  carried  further  by  the  comparison  of  sur- 
viving names  in  North-East  Germany  with  similar  sur- 
viving names  in  England.  Those  of  Wendlesbury, 
Wandsworth  (Wendelesworth),  Windsor  (Wendlesore), 
find  their  parallels  in  names  in  the  old  Wendish  country 
of  Mecklenburg,  where  similar  names  are  to  be  found — 
such  as  Wanden,  the  name  of  a  province  and  place  on 
the  border  of  ancient  Wendland,  and  similar  names  in 
Brunswick,  to  which  some  of  the  Wends  probably  migrated. 
The  name  Wendland  also  survives  in  Hanover,  where  a 
remnant  of  the  Wendish  language  died  out  only  two 
centuries  ago.  In  these  names  we  discern  a  connection 
of  the  places  with  the  Wends,  who  are  at  the  present  time 
the  darkest  people  of  Northern  Germany.  They  were 
Slavs,  whose  line  of  migration  in  some  far-distant  era 
was  from  the  country  around  the  sources  of  the  river 
Oder,  down  the  wide  valley  of  that  river  in  Silesia  to  the 
Baltic  coast  of  Mecklenburg  and  Pomerania.1  This 
migration  is  marked  at  the  present  time  by  a  greater 
percentage  of  people  of  the  brunette  type  2  in  this  district 
than  prevails  on  its  eastern  or  western  sides,  where 
fusion  with  other  fairer-coloured  races  has  been  going 
on  since  the  dawn  of  history.  Whereas  the  country  east 
and  west  of  the  valley  of  the  Oder  was  found  by  the 
German  Ethnological  Survey  to  contain  from  5  to  10  per 
cent,  of  brunettes  among  the  present  population,  the 
country  which  marks  the  migration  of  the  ancient  Wends 
to  the  Mecklenburg  coast  contained  n  to  15  per  cent. 
From  this  evidence  and  that  of  the  complexion  of  the 
Wends  of  Saxony  at  the  present  time  we  are  warranted 
in  considering  the  ancient  Wends  to  have  been  brunettes, 
or  to  have  comprised  tribes  who  were.  It  is  on  account  of 
1  Ripley,  W.  Z.,  loc.  cit.,  p.  244.  2  Ibid. 

I2O          Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

this  historic  migration,  says  Ripley,  that  Saxony,  Bran- 
denburg, and  Mecklenburg  are  less  purely  Teutonic 
to-day  in  respect  to  pigmentation  than  they  once  were.1 
Not  only  is  there  a  greater  percentage  of  brunettes 
in  these  parts  of  Germany  than  is  shown  in  the  purely 
Teutonic  parts  of  that  country,  but  the  whole  East  of 
Germany  contains  a  population  which  is  broader-headed, 
shading  off  imperceptibly  into  countries  where  pure 
Slavic  languages  are  in  daily  use.  The  connection  with 
our  own  country,  in  its  subsequent  consequences,  of  this 
great  migration  of  people  having  broad  heads  and  dark 
complexions  through  Silesia  into  Mecklenburg  is  one  of 
the  most  interesting  considerations  indirectly  concerned 
with  the  Anglo-Saxon  race. 

1   Ripley,  W.  Z.,  loc.  cit.,  p.  245. 



r  I  ^HE  settlement  of  Danes  in  England,  which  began 
before  Bede's  time,  went  on  apparently  more  or 
less  continuously  after  the  eighth  century.  They 
are  mentioned  by  the  name  Dene  in  early  Anglo-Saxon 
records  and  in  the  'Traveller's  Song,'  and  by  various 
names,  such  as  Dacians,  Daucones,  and  Scyldings  in 
other  ancient  writings.  Some  of  them  were  also  known 
by  names  derived  from  the  islands  they  inhabited  or 
their  Scandinavian  provinces,  such  as  Skanians  from 
the  province  of  Skane. 

One  of  the  earliest  traces  of  the  Danish  name  in  England 
is  Denisesburne,  mentioned  by  Bede,  apparently  a  place 
in  Northumberland.  Another  early  name  of  the  same 
kind  is  Denceswyrth  in  Berkshire,1  in  a  Saxon  charter 
about  A.D.  811.  The  Anglo-Saxon  names  Denesig,  now 
Dengey,  in  Essex,2  Denetun  or  Denton  in  Kent,  and 
Densige,  appear  to  have  been  derived  from  those  of 
individuals  or  families  who  were  Danes,  while  the  name 
Dentuninga,  now  Dentun,  in  Northamptonshire,  appar- 
ently denotes  a  kindred  of  the  same  race.  The  Domesday 
Hundred  name  Danais,  or  Daneis,  in  Hertfordshire,  is 
also  apparently  derived  from  the  same  people. 

1  Chron.  Mon.  de  Abingdon,  i.  24. 

2  Dipl.  Angl.  by  B.  Thorpe,  xxxix. 


122  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

Two  English  woodlands  bore  old  Danish  names — viz., 
Danes  Wood,  now  Dean  Forest,  in  Gloucestershire,  and 
part  of  the  Forest  of  Essex,  which  was  called  in  Danish 
literature  '  Daneskoven,'  or  the  Danish  Forest.1  Some 
of  the  tribal  names  of  the  Danes  are  known — viz.,  South 
Dene,  North  Dene,  East  Dene,  and  West  Dene.  Another 
branch  of  the  nation  is  called  by  the  name  Gar  Dene, 
or  Gar  Danes.  The  poem  of  Beowulf  begins  with  a 
reference  to  them  : 

'  What  we  of  Gar  Danes 

In  yore  days 
Of  people  Kings, 

How  the  jEthelings 

Power  advanced 
Of  Scyld-Scefing 

To  the  hosts  of  enemies 
To  many  tribes.' 

Who  these  Gar  Danes  were  cannot  be  with  certainty 
determined.  There  is  a  trace  of  them  to  be  found  in 
England,  as  will  be  stated  later  on,  and  they  are  sup- 
posed to  have  derived  their  name  from  their  distinctive 
weapon,  the  spear.  There  were  Scandinavian  people 
settled  on  the  south  and  east  coasts  of  the  Baltic  among 
the  Slavs  and  Eastmen  who  were  known  by  the  name 
of  Gardar.2  In  the  tenth  and  eleventh  centuries  these 
colonial  settlers  in  Russia  were  strong  enough  to  main- 
tain a  Scandinavian  kingdom,  also  called  Gardar,3  or 
Gardarike,  the  name  being  derived  from  the  many 
castles  and  strongholds  (gardar),  probably  earthworks, 
which  they  made  for  defence.  The  migrations  of  Scan- 
dinavians certainly  began  long  before  the  English  Con- 
quest, and  their  settlements  on  the  east  coast  of  the  Baltic 
point  to  the  probability  of  some  Eastmen  having  been 
among  the  allies  of  the  Danes,  and  perhaps  of  the  Goths, 
in  their  invasions  of  England.  Old  Scandian  colonies 

1  Worsaae,  ].  ].,  'Danes  and  Norwegians  in  England,'  14. 

2  Cleasby  and  Vigfusson,  '  Icelandic  Dictionary,'  Preface. 

3  Ibid.,  and  Rydberg,  Viktor,  '  Teutonic  Mythol.,'  24. 

Danes  and  other  Tribes  from  Baltic  Coast.     123 

have  been  traced  in  Courland  and  Livonia  by  the  dis- 
covery of  sepulchres  similar  to  those  of  the  Iron  Age  in 
Scandinavia.  In  Esthonia,  also,  the  names  of  places 
and  of  the  islands  off  the  coast  point  to  such  settlements — 
Nargo,  Rogo,  Odinsholm,  Nucko,  Worms,  Dago,  and 
Runo.  The  old  Danish  empire  extended  over  all  the 
countries  bordering  on  the  Skagerac,  and  hence  Dane 
became  synonymous  in  English  with  Scandinavian,  and 
the  old  Norrena  language  was  called  the  Donsk,  or 
Danish,  tongue.  The  later  Danish  empire  of  Cnut  com- 
prised part  of  Mecklenburg  as  well  as  the  Cinibric  Cher- 
sonese.1 He  was  thus  King  of  the  Wends  as  well  as  of 
the  Danes.  During  the  time  of  their  supremacy  in  the 
Baltic,  Danes  were  the  natural  leaders  of  any  confedera- 
tion of  the  Baltic  tribes  in  warlike  expeditions  for  con- 
quests or  foreign  settlements,  as  the  Goths  and  Angles 
were  before  them.  Skane,  Halland,  and  Blekinge,  now 
provinces  of  Sweden,  formed  part  of  the  kingdom  of 
Denmark  for  800  years  until  1658,  when  they  were  united 
to  Sweden.2  From  what  has  already  been  said  con- 
cerning the  lands  in  which  the  Angles  lived  before  they 
came  to  England,  it  will  be  seen  that  the  probability  of 
some  Danes  having  come  into  England  with  them  is 
great.  Bede  affirms  as  a  positive  fact  that  some  of  the 
English  in  his  time  were  descended  from  Danes,  and  the 
early  place-names  confirm  his  statement.  They  were  a 
colonizing  race,  and  it  is  probable  that  the  Scandinavian 
settlements  in  the  North- West  of  Russia  began  as  early 
as  the  eighth  century,  which  was  that  in  which  Bede 

The  greater  Denmark  from  which  the  early  settlers 
came  was  that  which  was  known  to  King  Alfred.  When 
sailing  into  the  Baltic,  Othere,  the  Scandinavian  mariner, 
told  the  King  that  he  had  Denmark  on  his  left,  and 
Zealand  and  many  islands  on  his  right.  This  was  the 

1  Seebohm,  F.,  '  Tribal  Custom  in  Anglo-Saxon  Law,'  340. 

2  Otte,  E.  C.,  '  Denmark  and  Iceland,'  p.  69. 

124  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

kingdom  whose  capital  was  Lund  in  Skane,  in  the  south- 
east of  what  is  now  Sweden,  and  it  must  have  been  from 
that  country  that  many  of  those  settlers  came  who  have 
left  their  traces  in  some  old  Danish  place-names  that 
still  cling  to  their  English  homes,  such  as  the  Domesday 
Seen  and  Scan  names,  which  are  only  found  in  England 
in  the  Danish  settled  districts.  Others,  such  as  the  old 
places  named  Lund  in  Lincolnshire  and  the  East  Riding, 
are  apparently  derived  from  their  former  homes  in  Skane. 
As  already  stated,  Dan  and  Angul  are  mentioned  by 
Saxo,  the  twelfth-century  Danish  historian,  as  the 
mythological  ancestors  of  the  Danes,  and  of  these  he 
tells  us  that  Angul  gave  his  name  to  the  Anglians.1  In 
this  tradition  we  may  see  the  probability  of  some  very 
close  connection  in  their  origin  between  the  Anglian  and 
Danish  races.  Although  Zealand  had  become  the  centre 
of  the  Danish  monarchy  when  Saxo  wrote  in  the  twelfth 
century,  yet  Skane  still  formed  an  important  part  of  it, 
and  the  Skanians  are  very  frequently  mentioned  by  him. 
In  the  twelfth  century  there  were  no  doubt  many  more 
historical  runic  inscriptions  existing  within  the  limits 
of  the  ancient  Danish  kingdom  than  the  few  hundreds 
which  still  remain,  for  the  Danes  were  certainly  acquainted 
with  runes. 

Denmark  was  long  divided  into  three  States  or  king- 
doms, and  we  find  three  principal  monuments  connected 
with  the  election  custom  of  their  Kings — viz.,  at  Lund 
in  Skane,  Lethra  in  Zealand,  and  Viburg  in  Jutland.2  It 
has  been  said  that  the  Anglo-Saxon  settlers  were  people 
of  various  tribes  speaking  a  common  language.  This 
was  no  doubt  the  case  to  a  very  large  extent,  but  as 
Skandians  are  proved  to  have  been  among  the  Jutish  and 
Anglian  settlers  by  the  evidence  of  runic  inscriptions,  and 
as  the  names  for  many  objects,  persons,  and  tribes  in 
the  Old  Norrena  or  Donsk  tongue  are  different  from 

1  Saxo  Grammaticus,  translated  by  O.  Elton,  book  L,  15. 

2  Mallet,  M.,  '  Northern  Antiquities,'  edited  by  Percy,  p.  116. 

Danes  and  other  Tribes  from  Baltic  Coast.      125 

their  names  in  the  old  Germanic  languages,  it  would, 
perhaps,  be  more  accurate  to  say  that  the  dialects  of 
the  settlers  were  mutually  intelligible.  The  many 
synonymous  words  which  came  into  use  in  Old  English 
are  proof  that  the  dialects  of  different  tribes  were  blended 
into  that  speech.  The  old  Donsk  tongue  was  the  language 
of  Northern  England,  and  it,  or  something  very  like  it, 
must  have  been  the  speech  of  the  Northern  Angles.  It 
must  have  been  the  dominant  language  used  on  the  coasts 
of  the  Baltic,  and  we  may  therefore  look  to  allies  of  the 
early  Anglian  settlers  in  England,  and  of  the  later  Danish 
ones,  for  traces  of  other  immigrants  from  the  Baltic 

The  earliest  example  of  the  language  of  the  Old  English^ 
or  one  of  the  earliest,  is  the  Saga  and  poem  known  as  the 
'  Beowulf.'  Its  scenery  and  personages  are  Danish,1  and 
by  Danish  we  must  understand  that  early  kingdom  whose 
seat  was  in  what  is  now  Sweden.  Marsh  says  :  '  The 
whole  poem  belongs,  both  in  form  and  essence,  to  the 
Scandinavian,  not  to  the  Germanic  School  of  Art.  The 
substance  of  "  Beowulf,"  either  as  a  Saga  or  as  a  poem, 
came  over,  I  believe,  with  some  of  the  conquerors,  and 
its  existence  in  Anglo-Saxon  literature  I  consider  one  of 
the  many  proofs  of  an  infusion  of  the  Scandinavian 
element  in  the  immigration.'  This  poem  in  its  written 
form  is  of  about  the  eighth  century. 

The  extent  to  which  the  dialects  of  the  old  Northern 
language  were  spoken  in  England  during  the  Anglo-Saxon 
period  has  probably  been  under-estimated.  Wherever 
there  were  Northern  settlers,  some  dialect  of  the  Northern 
speech  must  have  been  used,  and  evidence  will  be  shown 
in  succeeding  chapters  of  its  use  in  other  parts  of  England 
than  the  Northern  and  Eastern  Counties.  To  how  great 
an  extent  this  was  the  language  of  the  Northern  Counties 
in  the  early  part  of  the  tenth  century  may  be  estimated 

1  Marsh,  G.  P.,  '  Origin  and  History  of  the  English  Language,' 

126  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

from  the  statement  in  the  Egils  Saga  that  in  the  reign 
of  .ZEthelstan  almost  every  family  of  note  in  Northern 
England  was  Danish  on  the  father's  or  mother's  side.1 

In  the  account  of  the  early  history  of  the  Danes  which 
Saxo  gives  us,  we  read  of  the  part  which  other  nations 
of  the  Baltic  coasts  took  in  the  war  between  them  and  the 
Swedes.  There  were  Kurlanders,  Esthonians,  Livonians, 
and  Slavs,2  from  the  eastern  or  southern  coasts  of  the 
Baltic  Sea  engaged  in  that  war,  and  it  is  by  such  alliances 
rendered  probable  that  in  expeditions  against  England 
the  Danes  or  Northmen  also  had  Eastmen  of  these 
maritime  nations  acting  with  them.  If  alliances  could 
exist  in  the  later  Anglo-Saxon  period,  there  is  no  reason 
why  they  might  not  have  existed  during  the  time  when 
the  Danes  were  fighting  for  new  homes  and  largely 
settling  in  England,  or  that  some  of  these  Baltic  allied 
people  may  not  have  settled  in  England  with  them  under 
the  Danish  name.  Under  that  name  Fins  also  may 
have  come  among  other  so-called  Danes,  and  there  is 
evidence  that  a  few  of  them  did  come.  Finland,  the 
most  northern  of  the  Baltic  countries,  inhabited  by  people 
allied  to,  or  perhaps  even  descended  in  part  from,  the 
old  Gothic  and  Scandinavian  stock,  has  been  through  the 
range  of  history,  and  still  is,  more  advanced  in  the  arts 
of  civilization  than  its  Slavic  neighbours,  and  its  geo- 
graphical position  in  ancient  time  brought  it  into  com- 
mercial intercourse  with  Scandinavia  and  Denmark. 

There  are  reasons  for  believing  that  the  Finnic  race 
occupied  part  of  the  Northern  peninsula  at  an  early 
period  in  the  history  of  Scandinavia.  At  a  remote  time, 
which  tradition  places  at  the  beginning  of  the  Iron  Age 
in  that  country,  but  which  may  have  been  much  earlier, 
the  country  was  overrun  by  people  of  a  different  race 
from  its  aboriginal  inhabitants — i.e.,  by  tribes  of  similar 
racial  characters  to  those  of  the  early  Gothic  or  Teutonic 

1  Cleasby  and  Vigfusson,  loc.  cit.,  Preface. 

2  Saxo  Grammaticus. 

Danes  and  other  Tribes  from  Baltic  Coast.     127 

stock.  These  newcomers  are  supposed  to  have  driven 
the  aborigines,  who  are  believed  to  have  been  of  Ugrian 
descent,  northwards,  where  a  remnant  still  exists,  and 
are  known  as  Lapps.  These  were,  however,  in  ancient 
time  also  called  Fins,  and  the  name  Finmark  as  the 
boundary  of  their  country  has  come  down  to  our  time. 
The  Fins  of  the  Baltic,  the  inhabitants  of  the  present 
Finland,  are,  however,  now  a  different  race  from  the 
so-called  Northern  Finns  or  the  Lapps,  and  although  they 
have  affinity  in  language,1  they  were  known  as  distinct 
in  the  time  of  King  Alfred. 

The  Fins  of  Finland  are  for  the  most  part  blonde, 
and  a  longer-headed  race  than  the  Slavs,  like  the  long- 
headed Letts  and  Lithuanians,  and,  like  them,  are  of 
mixed  descent.  They  are  apparently,  from  all  the 
evidence  available  concerning  them,  an  offshoot  from  the 
same  trunk  as  the  Teutons,2  or  at  least  of  the  Aryan 

The  Fins,  who  called  themselves  Quains,3  are  the  same 
people  as  the  Cwsens,  which  was  their  native  name  men- 
tioned by  King  Alfred.  In  his  '  Orosius  '  Alfred  mentions 
both  Fins  and  Scride  Fins  or  Lapps,  and  describes  the 
locality  of  each  race.  After  mentioning  the  country  of  the 
Swedes  and  the  Esthonian  arm  of  the  sea,  he  says  : '  To  the 
north  over  the  waste  is  Cwenland,  and  to  the  north-west 
are  the  Scride  Finns,  and  to  the  west  the  Northmen.'4  In 
the  Anglo-Saxon  times  some  of  the  Cwsens  or  Fins 
occupied  part  of  the  Scandinavian  peninsula  as  far  south 
as  Helsingland,  on  the  east  of  Sweden,  opposite  to  Fin- 
land, where  the  name  Helsingfors  probably  denotes  some 
ancient  connection  with  Helsingland.  As  the  Lapps  were 
called  Skidfinnen  by  the  Norse,  and  are  still  called  Fins 
by  them,  some  confusion  has  arisen  in  the  use  of  this 

1  Sweet,  H.,  '  History  of  Language,'  113. 

2  Ripley,  W.  Z.,  '  Races  of  Europe,'  365. 

3  Latham,  R.  G.,  '  Ger mania  of  Tacitus,'  xv. 

*  King  Alfred's  '  Orosius,'  edited  by  Bosworth,  38,  39. 

128  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

name.  As  applied  to  natives  of  Finland  it  is  not  a 
native  name.  We  may,  however,  look  for  traces  of  them 
in  England  under  the  name  Cwe"n  or  Quen,  as  well  as 
Fin,  as  we  may  of  the  Wends  under  their  Northern  name 
of  Vinthr.  If  any. Fins  took  part  in  the  colonization  of 
England,  it  must  necessarily  have  been  as  members  of 
a  body  of  settlers  under  another  name,  probably  with 
Swedes  or  Danes.  As  the  true  Fins  have  a  connection 
with  the  Teutons  in  race,  some  of  them  may  have  been 
included  in  the  Anglian  or  Danish  hosts,  and  without 
the  alliance  or  friendship  of  these  nations,  who  at  different 
times  were  masters  of  the  Danish  islands,  it  is  not  likely 
that  any  of  them  would  have  left  the  Baltic.  It  is  in 
some  of  those  parts  of  England  which  were  occupied  by 
Danes  that  traces  of  Fins,  Lechs,  and  other  Eastmen 
from  the  Baltic  are  found,  where  they  may  well  have 
settled  as  Danish  allies. 

Among  European  nations  generally  the  skull  is  orthog- 
nathous — i.e.,  the  plane  of  the  face  traced  downwards 
forms  an  angle  more  or  less  approaching  a  right  angle 
with  the  plane  of  the  base  of  the  skull.  Among  some 
of  the  tribes  of  Russia,  of  Ugrian  or  Mongol  descent, 
prognathous  skulls  —  i.e.,  with  this  angle  less  than  a 
right  angle,  and  consequently  with  the  lower  and  upper 
jaw-bones  projecting  forwards — may  be  observed,  and 
to  a  less  extent  the  same  ethnological  characteristic  is 
met  with  among  some  of  the  Russian  races  of  mixed 
descent,  whose  ancestors  presumably  were  at  one  time 
nearer  neighbours  to  the  Mongol  tribes.  This  charac- 
teristic of  prominent  jaw-bones  is  of  some  importance 
in  considering  the  evidence  of  the  migration  of  the 
Mongols  and  their  admixture  with  other  races,  seeing 
that  examples  of  prognathous  skulls  have  been  found 
in  Britain,  and  a  decided  tendency  to  prognathism  may 
still  occasionally  be  observed  in  individuals  of  Northern 
European  races. 

The  Esthonians  of  the  Baltic  coast  south  of  the  Gulf  of 

Danes  and  other  Tribes  from  Baltic  Coast.      129 

Finland  are  a  people  more  or  less  allied  -to  the  Fins  on 
its  northern  shore.  De  Quatrefages,  who  examined 
some  skulls  of  Esthonians,  discovered  that  one  in  three 
under  his  observation  showed  a  well-marked  prognathism . 
He  says  :  '  Orthognathism  being  considered  one  of  the 
attributes  of  the  white  race,  the  existence  of  a  prog- 
nathism very  frequent  and  very  pronounced  appears  to 
me  difficult  to  understand.'  He  goes  on  to  say  :  '  It 
becomes  easy  if  we  admit  that  it  (prognathism)  was,  if 
not  general,  at  least  very  frequent  in  the  race,  which  was 
the  first  people  of  Western  Europe,  and  that  it  is  still 
represented  among  us  by  their  more  or  less  mixed 
descendants.'1  In  order  to  explain  the  phenomena  of 
the  prognathous  skull,  he  thus  supposes  the  characteristic 
to  be  a  most  ancient  one,  and  to  have  descended  to  indi- 
viduals of  the  present  European  races  from  some  very 
remote  Mongol  ancestors.  These  characters  are  still 
represented  by  certain  Mongol  tribes  in  Russia,  who  at 
a  very  early  period  may  have  extended  further  west- 
ward, or  have  been  among  the  remote  ancestors  of  the 
Esthonians  and  Fins,  whose  language  at  the  present  time 
is  allied  to  the  Ugrian. 

This  may  be  interesting  to  the  ethnologist,  but  the 
ordinary  reader  may  reasonably  ask  what  it  has  to  do  with 
the  Anglo-Saxon  settlement.  Eight  skulls  out  of  twelve 
from  West  Saxon  graves  were  found  by  Horton-Smith 2 
to  be  orthognathous,  one  was  mesognathous,  and  the 
other  three  were  on  the  border  of  meso-  and  prognathism. 
Horton  -  Smith  found  himself  in  a  difficulty  in  being 
unable  to  see  where  the  prognathous  tendency  could  have 
come  from.  He  rightly  said  that  prognathism  could  not 
have  been  due  to  admixture  of  Saxons  with  the  de- 
scendants of  Celts  of  the  round  barrow  type,  seeing  that 
these  broad-headed  Celtic  people  were  almost  orthog- 

1  De   Quatrefages,  '  Sur  cranes  d'Esthoniens,'  Bulletins  de  la 
Society  d'Anthropologie  de  Paris,  ii.  serie,  tome  i. 

2  Horton-Smith,  R.  J.,  Journal  Anthrop.  Inst.,  xxvi.  87. 


130          Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

nathous,  and  that  the  difficulty  remained  no  nearer 
solution,  inasmuch  as  there  were  no  prognathous  races 
in  Britain  at  that  time.  Anglo-Saxon  or  Danish  settlers 
with  these  facial  characteristics  may,  however,  have 
come  in  as  individuals,  partly  of  Finnish  and  partly  of 
Ugrian  descent.  The  Esthonians  are  closely  allied  to 
the  Fins,  and  prognathism  has  been  found  to  be  a  char- 
acteristic of  some  of  their  skulls.  In  dealing  with  this 
subject,  we  have  only  to  consider  it  so  far  as  it  may  be 
concerned  with  the  question  of  the  settlement  of  England, 
and  that  question  is  :  Did  the  Fins,  Esthonians,  or  other 
Eastmen  take  any  part  in  that  settlement  ?  A  well- 
marked  tendency  to  prognathism  is  also  exhibited  by 
certain  skulls  from  Anglo-Saxon  graves  at  Winklebury, 
Dorset,  as  described  by  Beddoe,  as  well  as  in  those 
described  by  Horton-Smith.  Beddoe  says  that  the 
Saxon  skulls  found  at  Winklebury  are,  on  the  whole,  more 
prognathous  than  the  Romano-British  skulls  found  in 
the  same  neighbourhood.  The  same  prognathous  char- 
acteristic may  be  observed  rarely  even  now  among 
English  people  individually,  and  these  individual  peculi- 
arities must  have  been  caused  by  some  racial  fusion.  It 
may  have  been  due  to  some  ancestor  in  recent  centuries 
marrying  a  prognathous  Asiatic,  or  it  may  be  a  race- 
characteristic  of  a  very  remote  ancestor,  which,  as  is 
well  known,  often  shows  itself  after  many  generations. 

The  existence  of  a  physical  character  such  as  this  in 
some  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  people  cannot  be  passed  by. 
On  this  subject  Beddoe  says  :  '  There  are  in  my  lists  more 
than  40  persons  who  are  noted  as  prognathous.  Of  these, 
29  are  English,  5  Welsh,  and  u  Irish.'1  This  refers  to  indi- 
viduals who  actually  came  under  his  observations.  He 
mentions  also  three  skulls  from  the  Phoenix  Park  tumuli, 
of  which  two  are  figured  in  the  '  Crania  Britannica,'  and 
others  from  the  bed  of  the  Nore  at  Borris,  figured  in 
Laing  and  Huxley's  '  Prehistoric  Remains  of  Caithness, ' 
which  show  the  tendency  to  prognathism  to  be  of  remote 
1  Beddoe,  J.,  '  Races  of  Britain,'  p.  10. 

Danes  and  other  Tribes  from  Baltic  Coast.  1 3 1 


date.  These  ancient  examples,  however,  among  the 
prehistoric  people  of  Ireland  and  Caithness  can  scarcely 
account  for  the  tendency  to  prognathism  shown  by  the 
skulls  from  West  Saxon  graves.  That  characteristic 
would  be  more  likely  to  have  been  brought — into  some 
parts  of  England,  at  least — by  settlers  from  Baltic  lands 
in  near  proximity  to  prognathous  people,  than  to  have 
been  derived  from  remote  prehistoric  people  who  may  be 
traced  in  Ireland  or  Caithness.  Great  indeed  must  have 
been  the  time  which  separated  the  Anglo-Saxon  period 
from  the  remote  era  when  people  of  Mongol  descent  may 
possibly  have  inhabited  parts  of  Western  Europe. 

That  the  Esthonians  or  Eastmen  and  Fins  had  some 
connection  with  the  Anglo-Saxons  appears  probable  from 
other  circumstances,  such  as  the  similarity  of  the  objects 
found  in  Livonia  with  those  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  period 
in  England,  and  from  a  resemblance  of  certain  inci- 
dents in  Esthonian  folklore  to  those  found  in  Kent. 
Wagner  also  mentions  the  Ogishelm — i.e.,  the  Helmet  of 
Terror,  the  name  being  derived  from  the  King  of  the 
Ocean.  The  front  of  this  helmet  was  adorned  with  a 
boar's  head,  which  yawned  open-mouthed  at  the  enemy. 
The  Anglo-Saxons  and  Esthonians  of  the  Baltic  alike 
wore  helmets  of  this  sort.1 

In  considering  the  probability  that  there  were  some 
Fins  among  other  Northern  settlers,  we  must  remember 
their  ancient  names,  Cwens  or  Quens.  There  are  some 
Old  English  place-names  which  have  been  apparently 
derived  from  this  source,  such  as  Quenintone  and  Quenin- 
tune,  in  separate  hundreds  in  Gloucestershire.  Both  are 
mentioned  in  Domesday  Book.  Cwuenstane,  also,  is 
mentioned  among  the  boundaries  of  Selsea,  in  Sussex,  in 
a  charter  dated  A.D.  975.2  Quintone  or  Quenton,  in 
Northamptonshire,  occurs  twice  in  Domesday  Book, 
and  other  places  of  the  same  name  are  recorded  in 

1  Wagner,  W.,  '  Asgard  and  the  Gods,'  translated  by  Anson,  242. 
3  Cart.  Sax.,  iii.  193. 


132  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

Wiltshire  and  Warwickshire.  Quenfell  in  Westmore- 
land, Queningburgh  in  Leicestershire,  and  Quenhull  in 
Worcestershire,  are  met  with  in  later  records.1  Ingulf 
in  his  chronicle  mentions  a  place  called  Finset,  and  similar 
names,  such  as  Finborough  and  Finningham,  occur  in 
the  eastern  counties.  Still  earlier  references  to  Finset 
and  Finbeorh  occur  in  the  Saxon  charters,  the  former 
in  Northamptonshire,  the  latter  in  Wiltshire.2 

As  regards  the  more  general  name  Eastmen,  there  are 
some  very  old  names  which  apparently  denote  settlements 
of  them.  The  '  regione  Eastregena,'  also  called  Eosterge 
— i.e.,  the  present  hundred  of  Eastry  in  Kent — is  men- 
tioned in  a  Saxon  charter.  In  the  same  county  there  are 
other  Domesday  names  apparently  referring  to  Eastmen . 

There  is  another  aspect  from  which  the  probability  of 
settlers  from  the  east  coast  of  the  Baltic  having  been 
among  the  later  colonists  of  England  may  be  considered. 
Nestor,  the  historian  of  the  early  Slavs  of  Russia,  tells 
us  that  the  Swedes  (Russ  or  Varangians),  having  become 
the  dominant  class  on  the  eastern  shores  of  the  Baltic, 
were  invited  by  the  Slavonians  about  A.D.  862  to  settle 
in  Russia,  in  order  to  put  an  end  to  the  internal  strife  in 
that  country,  a  movement  which  led  to  the  first  founda- 
tion of  the  Russian  State.3  Nestor  died  about  1115,  and 
wrote,  consequently,  comparatively  near  the  date  he 
mentions.  Many  Swedish  inscribed  runic  stones  tell  of 
warriors  '  who  fell  in  battles  in  the  East ;'  and  in  the 
interior  of  Russia,  western  coins  have  been  found  in 
barrows  over  chiefs,  among  which  are  Anglo-Saxon 
coins,  part  very  likely  of  the  Danegeld,4  which  the  Anglo- 
Saxons  paid,  and  which  fell  to  the  share  of  Danish  allies 
from  the  east  coasts  of  the  Baltic. 

It  appears  from  Nithard  that  there  was  a  consider- 
able infusion  of  the  Slavonic  element  among  the  English 

1  Cal.  Inq.,  Post-mortem,  Edward  III. 

2  Codex  Dipl.,  Nos.  66  and  468. 

3  Metcalfe,    F.,    '  The    Englishman    and    the    Scandinavian,' 
p.  197,  quoting  Nestor.  *  Ibid..  202. 

Danes  and  other  Tribes  from  Baltic  Coast.     133 

inferior  tenants  called  lats ;  and  Othere,  the  Norse 
mariner,  informed  King  Alfred  that  the  majority  of 
gafol-geldas,  or  tenants  paying  some  kind  of  rent,  among 
the  Northmen  in  his  days  were  Lapps  of  the  so-called 
Finnish  race.1  Having  this  evidence  in  view,  it  seems 
very  unreasonable  to  doubt  that  some  of  them  were 
introduced  into  England  among  the  Northmen  who  were 
their  lords. 

In  considering  the  evidence  which  may  point  to  the 
settlement  in  England  of  some  people  of  other  tribes 
ethnologically  allied  to  the  Fins  from  the  eastern  coasts  of 
the  Baltic,  we  must  not  forget  that  the  Livonians  of  the 
Gulf  of  Riga  are  a  race  partly  of  Teutonic  extraction. 
Livonia  is  south  of  Esthonia,  and  near  the  Livs  are  the 
Letts  and  Lithuanians,  who  also  are  not  pure  Slavs. 
That  the  Livonians  are  of  Teutonic  affinity  or  descent 
receives  support  from  the  head-shape  of  the  race  at 
the  present  day.  They  are  long-headed,  as  all  purely 
Teutonic  races  are,  their  cephalic  index  ranging  from 
77-8  to  79.2  There  was  an  early  settlement  of  Teutons 
on  this  part  of  the  east  coast  of  the  Baltic,  and  their  early 
civilization  must  have  resembled  that  of  the  tribes  which 
sent  colonists  to  England  and  became  the  founders  of 
the  Anglo-Saxon  race.  Among  the  collection  of  Anglo- 
Saxon  relics  in  the  British  Museum  there  are  similar 
objects  found  in  Livonia,  placed  among  the  English  collec- 
tion for  comparison,  and  consisting  of  axe-  and  spear- 
heads, buckles,  chains  for  the  neck,  and  other  personal 
ornaments,  which  resemble  those  of  the  Anglo-Saxon 
period.  Anglo-Saxon  coins,  in  date  from  A.D.  991  to 
1036,  were  found  with  these  objects,3  thus  proving  some 
intercourse  between  England  and  Livonia.  The  south 
part  of  Livonia  is  within  the  area  of  Lettish  territory. 
The  Lettish  language  is  spoken  in  Courland,  and  there 

1  Robertson,  E.  W.,  '  Scotland  under  her  Early  Kings,'  i.  257, 
quoting  Nithard,  '  Hist.,'  i.  4,  A.D.  843. 

2  Ripley,  W.  Z.,  loc.  cit.,  p.  340. 

3  Bahr,  J.  C.,  '  Die  Graber  der  Liven.' 

134  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

are  some  Letts  within  Prussia  at  Koenigsberg.1  From 
their  race  connection,  some  Livonians,  Letts  or  Lechs, 
and  other  Eastmen,  may  well  have  come  to  England  with 
Fins  among  the  Angles,  Jutes,  or  the  later  Danes.  There 
can  be  no  doubt,  from  the  Anglo-Saxon  coins  found,  of 
communication  between  England  and  their  country. 
In  numerous  instances  people  from  Scotland  were  called 
Scot  by  Englishmen  among  whom  they  lived,  others  were 
called  Waring  from  the  Waring  tribe,  and  Fleming  from 
the  Flemings.  Similarly,  the  persons  called  Lyfing, 
Livingus,  and  Leving,  in  the  Anglo-Saxon  records2 
may  very  likely  have  obtained  their  names  from  the 
ancient  Livs  or  Livonians,  a  name  as  old  as  Anglo- 
Saxon  times. 

The  place-names  supply  a  few  traces  of  Lechs,  under 
which  names  Livonians,  some  of  whom  still  speak 
Lettish,  may  have  been  included.  These  Lech  names 
occur  in  only  a  few  parts  of  England,  and  these  where 
Danes  and  other  tribal  people  from  the  Baltic  settled. 
That  some  representatives  of  the  Lechs  and  other  tribes 
of  the  Baltic  near  them  may  have  settled  in  England  is 
not  improbable.  The  records  of  St.  Edmund's  Abbey 
certainly  tell  us  of  an  invasion  of  Britain  by  tribes  from 
the  Vistula,3  and  the  Anglo  -  Saxon  Chronicle  tells  us 
of  an  invasion  in  the  year  1064  of  Rythrenan,  probably 
ancestors  of  the  Ruthenians  of  Russia,  into  the  country 
around  Northampton.4 

In  Domesday  Book  there  is  a  record  of  a  man  named 
Fin  holding  land  at  Cetendone  in  Buckinghamshire. 
Over  his  name  the  word  '  dan'  is  written,  apparently 
for  explanation  in  the  usual  way  that  he  was  a  so-called 
Dane.  During  the  later  Saxon  period  all  the  immigrants 
into  England  from  Baltic  countries  probably  came  under 

1  Sweet,  H.,  Philological  Soc.  Trans.,  1877-1879,  p.  47. 

2  Codex  Dipl.,  No.  956,  and  Searle,  W.  G., '  Onomasticon  Anglo- 

3  '  Memorials  of  St.  Edmund's  Abbey,'  edited  by  T.  Arnold, 
Index,  and  ii.  113. 

*  Anglo-Saxon  Chron.,  MS.,  Cott.  Tib.,  book  iv. 

Danes  and  other  Tribes  from  Baltic  Coast.     135 

the  Danish  name,  and  some  of  them  may  have  been 
descendants  ol  Baltic  colonists  of  Danish  origin. 

It  is  difficult,  therefore,  to  avoid  the  conclusion  that 
the  tendency  to  prognathism  which  certainly  existed 
among  some  of  the  early  Anglo-Saxons  came  into  this 
country  through  people  of  a  more  or  less  mixed  race  from 
the  Baltic  coasts.  The  remarks  of  Beddoe  on  the  Shet- 
landers1  are  of  interest  in  connection  with  this  subject. 
He  describes  them  '  as  probably  the  fairest  people  of  the 
British  Isles.  Black  hair,  however,  does  occur,  and  not 
very  unfrequently.  It  is  usually  found  in  persons  of  a 
decidedly  Ugrian  aspect  and  melancholic  temperament. 
The  same  type  may  be  found  at  Wick.  These  people  may 
be  relics  of  the  Ugrian  thralls  of  the  Norse  invaders,  or 
possibly  descendants  of  some  primitive  Ugrian  tribe.' 
Having  in  view  the  traces  of  Fins,  which  have  been 
stated,  the  question  may  be  asked,  Is  it  not  probable  that 
there  were  settlements  here  and  there  of  Fins  among 
our  Old  English  forefathers?  They  were  an  ancient 
maritime  race,  as  they  are  at  present.  They  were  closely 
connected  with  Sweden,  and  were  at  one  time  partly 
located  in  it.  Their  country  did  not  cease  to  be  Swedish 
until  about  a  century  ago.  The  ancient  nations  of  the 
Baltic  were  all  in  maritime  communication.  Their 
increasing  populations  must  have  made  new  settlements 
or  emigration  as  much  a  necessity  in  ancient  times  as 
in  modern.  The  fitting  out  of  expeditions  against  the 
British  coasts  by  the  Angles  and  Goths  of  the  earlier 
period,  and  the  Danes  of  the  later,  must  have  been  known 
all  along  the  Baltic  coasts.  Would  it  not  have  been  sur- 
prising if,  amidst  such  maritime  activity  and  pressure 
of  population  urging  them  on,  some  Fins,  Helsings,  and 
other  Swedes,  had  not  joined  in  these  expeditions  ? 

The  parallelism  arises  between  the  Anglo-Saxon  settle- 
ment in  England  and  the  greater  Anglo-Saxon  settle- 
ment that  has  gone  on,  and  is  going  on,  in  the  United 
States.  There  was  a  settlement  of  Fins  among  the 
1  Beddoe,  J.,  loc.  cit.,  239. 

136  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

Swedish  settlers  in  America  and  another  of  Dutch  people 
near  the  river  Delaware  in  Pennsylvania  in  the  seven- 
teenth century.1  These  settlers  were  soon  absorbed 
among  the  English-speaking  colonists  and  their  dis- 
tinctive ethnological  characters  lost.  So  it  must  have 
been  in  England,  the  dialects  of  the  tribal  settlers  from 
the  Baltic  and  their  ethnological  characters  became  in 
a  few  generations  absorbed  in  the  Old  English. 

The  Fins  have  left  the  name  by  which  they  were  called 
by  the  Frisians,  Saxons,  and  other  Germans,  in  some  Fin 
place-names  in  England,  which  are  mentioned  in  Anglo- 
Saxon  charters  and  other  early  records.  Whether 
these  places  were  so  -called  after  individual  settlers 
called  by  the  tribal  name  or  after  a  community, 
the  significance  is  the  same.  They  have  also  left  their 
own  name,  by  which  they  were  known  to  the  Goths, 
Norse,  and  Danes  who  spoke  the  Old  Northern  language 
— the  name  Cwsen — in  a  number  of  English  place-names 
which  have  a  similar  significance,  but  with  this  difference  : 
where  we  find  a  place  mentioned  apparently  as  the 
abode  of  a  Fin  or  Fins  we  may  look  for  Saxon  or  German 
neighbours,  and  where  Cwsen  or  Quen  occurs  as  an 
equivalent,  we  may  look  for  neighbours  who  were 

It  should  be  remembered  that  King  Alfred,  in  describing 
the  voyage  up  the  Baltic,  gives  some  account  of  the 
Esthonians  and  their  customs,  thus  leading  us  to  suppose 
he  must  have  thought  this  information  would  be  of 
interest  to  his  countrymen. 

The  ancient  nations  known  as  the  Eastmen,  on  the 
east  of  the  Baltic  Sea  and  south  of  the  Gulf  of  Finland — 
i.e.,  the  Esthonians,  Livonians,  Lechs,  and  Lithuanians — 
were,  without  doubt,  partly  allied  in  race  to  those  other 
old  nations  and  tribes  from  which  the  bulk  of  the  settlers 
in  England  came.  Their  ethnological  characteristics  of 
the  present  day,  their  dialects  or  language,  and  their 

1  Winsor,  Justin,  '  History  of  America,'  iv.  452,  496,  etc., 
and  State  Papers,  Colonial  Series,  1677-1680,  p.  623. 

Danes  and  other  Tribes  from  Baltic  Coast.     137 

folk-lore,  all  point  to  such  a  connection.  As  among  all 
pagan  Teutonic  tribes,  water-worship  existed  among  the 
Eastmen,  and  still  survives  in  these  Baltic  countries. 
In  Livonia  there  is  a  holy  rivulet  whose  source  is  in  a 
sacred  grove,  within  whose  bounds  no  one  dares  to  cut 
a  tree.1  Traces  of  water-worship  also  survive  among  the 
Lechs.2  The  heathen  reverence  for  wells  and  fountains 
was  one  of  the  most  persistent  of  Anglo-Saxon  super- 
stitions. As  it  could  not  be  abolished,  it  was  modified 
by  the  dedication  of  wells  to  Christian  saints,  and  the 
existence  of  holy  wells  in  all  parts  of  England  at  the 
present  time  is  evidence  of  the  ancient  reverence  for 
them.  The  most  remarkable  custom,  however,  which  the 
ancient  Livonians  had  in  common  with  the  Scandina- 
vians and  Germans  was  a  kind  of  pagan  infant  baptism, 
by  which  water  was  poured  on  the  head  of  a  new-born 
child  and  a  name  was  at  the  same  time  given  him.3 

Some  other  remarkable  customs  which  the  Old  English 
had  inxcommon  with  Fins  and  Esthonians  were  those  con- 
nected with  midsummer.  It  is  scarcely  possible  for  us 
to  realize  the  full  extent  to  which  customs  connected 
with  the  summer  solstice  prevailed  among  our  tribal 
forefathers.  Their  vitality  caused  them  to  survive  in 
England  for  more  than  a  thousand  years.  The  mid- 
summer fires  were  lighted  in  many  parts  of  our  country, 
as  they  were  in  numerous  districts  in  Northern  Europe. 
The  customs  connected  with  the  solstice  must  have  been 
most  strongly  adhered  to,  if  they  had  not  indeed  origi- 
nated, in  Northern  lands.  In  the  North  of  Britain,  as 
in  Finland,  Esthonia,  and  the  greater  part  of  Sweden  and 
Norway,  the  evening  gloam  of  midsummer  passes  into 
the  morning  dawn  and  there  is  no  real  night. 

It  is  from  the  Fins  and  Esthonians  that  we  derive  one 
of  the  most  interesting  of  midsummer  legends  : 

*  Wanna  Issi  had  two  servants,  Koit  and  Ammarik, 
and  he  gave  them  a  torch  which  Koit  should  light  every 

1   Grimm,  J.,  '  Teutonic  Mythology,'  ii.  598.  2   Ibid. 

3  Mallet,  M.,  lo:.  cit.,  ed.  1847,  p.  206. 

138  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

morning  and  Ammarik  should  extinguish  every  evening. 
In  order  to  reward  their  faithful  services,  he  told  them 
they  might  be  man  and  wife,  but  they  asked  Wanna  Issi 
that  he  would  allow  them  to  remain  for  ever  bride  and 
bridegroom.  Wanna  Issi  assented,  and  henceforth  Koit 
handed  the  torch  every  evening  to  Ammarik,  and  Ammarik 
took  it  and  extinguished  it.  Only  during  four  weeks  in 
the  summer  they  remain  together  at  midnight.  Koit 
hands  his  dying  torch  to  Ammarik,  but  Ammarik  does 
not  let  it  die  ;  she  lights  it  again  with  her  breath.  Then 
their  hands  are  stretched  out,  and  their  lips  meet,  and 
the  blush  on  the  face  of  Ammarik  colours  the  midnight 
sky.'1  The  interest  of  the  legend  is  increased  by  the 
meaning  of  the  names.  Wanna  Issi  in  Esthonian  means 
the  Old  Father,  Koit  means  the  dawn,  and  Ammarik  means 
the  gloaming,  in  the  language  of  the  common  people.2 

The  names  Eastmen  or  Esterlings  occur  in  early  records 
as  names  referring  in  a  general  way  to  people  coming  into 
England  from  the  East.  The  name  Osgotbi,3  which  is 
mentioned  in  two  Saxon  charters  as  the  name  of  a  place 
in  Lincolnshire,  now  Osgodby,  is  more  definite.  The 
name  Osgotecrosse  is  mentioned  in  the  Hundred  Rolls 
of  Yorkshire.4  The  name  Osmington,  or  Osmenton,  as 
that  of  an  old  place  in  Dorset,  is  mentioned  in  a  Saxon 
charter  and  in  Domesday  Book.  The  Osgothi  could 
scarcely  be  other  than  the  Eastern  Goths — i.e.,  the 
Goths  on  the  eastern  coast  of  Sweden,  or  east  of  the 
Vistula,  or  some  people  of  that  race.  The  purest 
remnant  of  the  old  Gothic  stock  are  the  Dalecarlians, 
sometimes  called  the  Swedish  Highlanders,  who  inhabit 
the  secluded  district  that  stretches  westwards  from  the 
Silian  Lake  to  the  mountains  of  Norway.  They  have 
preserved  comparatively  unchanged  the  manners  and 
customs  of  their  Gothic  forefathers,  and,  as  Bosworth 
has  pointed  out,  a  peculiarity  of  the  old  Gothic  language 

1  Max  Mii Her,  '  Chips  from  a  German  Workshop,'  iv.  191, 
quoting  Grimm,  etc.  2  Ibid. 

3  Codex  Dipl.,  Nos.  906  and  964.  4  H.  R.,  i.  129. 

Danes  and  other  Tribes  from  Baltic  Coast.     139 

— viz.,  the  aspiration  of  the  letters  /  and  w.  By  this  they 
bear  witness  in  their  tongue  to  the  present  day  of  their 
descent,  for  these  peculiarities  are  an  infallible  charac- 
teristic of  the  Mceso-Gothic,  Anglo-Saxon,  and  Icelandic 
languages.1  The  Anglo-Saxon  people  must  have  derived 
this  peculiarity  from  a  Northern  source,  for  Bosworth 
tells  us  that  the  Danes  and  Germans  cannot  pronounce 
these  aspirated  letters. 

The  history  of  the  Goths  and  Swedes  in  the  Scandi- 
navian peninsula  shows  that  the  latter  became  the  pre- 
dominant race  in  the  ninth  century,  and  subsequently 
the  two  nations  were  gradually  blended  into  one.  During 
the  period  when  England  received  so  many  settlers  from 
the  North,  we  must  look  for  traces  of  Goths  and  Swedes 
under  their  own  tribal  or  national  names.  One  of  these 
was  the  tribe  known  as  the  Helsingi,  whose  homeland 
was  the  east  coast  of  the  Baltic,  opposite  to  Finland,  and, 
as  the  name  Helsingfors  shows,  must  have  been  con- 
nected with  the  Fins.  They  were  also  known  as  the 
Heslengi,2  and  under  the  name  Helsings  are  mentioned 
in  the  'Traveller's  Tale'  in  connection  with  Wade  and 
his  boat,  a  mythical  hero,  like  Weland  the  Smith.  As  a 
Northern  nation  their  name  must  have  been  familiar  to 
the  Old  English.  One  of  the  peculiarities  of  the  old 
dialect  of  the  Gothic  people  of  Dalecarlia  that  has  sur- 
vived is  the  transposition  of  syllables,  as  jasel  for  selja, 
and  lata  for  tala.3  The  transposition  of  consonant  sounds, 
as  in  Helsingi  and  Heslengi,  is  well  known.  The  sur- 
vival of  the  name  of  this  ancient  tribe  in  those  of  Hel- 
singborg  on  the  west  coast  of  Sweden,  Helsingfors  on 
the  coast  of  Finland,  and  Helsinore,  or  Elsinore,  on  the 
coast  of  Zealand,  points  to  the  probability  of  their  having 
been  a  maritime  people,  and  as  such  likely  to  have  taken 
part  in  maritime  expeditions.  In  England  such  names 

1  Bosworth,   J.,   '  Origin  of  the  English,  German,  and    Scan- 
dinavian Languages,'  159,  160. 

2  Magnus,  O.,  '  Hist,  of  Goths,  Swedes,  and  Vandals,'  ed.  1658, 
p.  ii.  3  Bosworth,  J.,  loc.  ciL 

140  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

as  Helsington,  near  Kendal,  and    others  may  possibly 
refer  to  settlements  of  them. 

It  is  in  that  part  of  Scandinavia  which  was  the  old 
country  of  the  Helsings  that  commemorative  stone 
monuments  abounded  when  O.  Magnus  wrote  his  history 
of  the  Goths  and  Swedes.  He  says  that  '  these  pillars 
are  found  among  the  Heslengi  in  greater  quantity  than 
elsewhere  in  the  North,'  and  that  '  obelisks  of  high  stones 
are  seen  nowhere  more  frequently  than  in  the  public 
highways  among  the  Ostrogoths,  the  Vestrogoths,  and 
the  Sweons  or  Swedes.'1  Some  of  the  runic  inscriptions 
on  the  stone  monuments  still  existing  in  Sweden  in  which 
England  is  mentioned  are  of  great  interest.  They  tell 
us  of  men  '  who  died  in  England,'  of  a  worthy  young 
man  '  who  went  to  England,'  and  of  others  who  set  out 
for  the  same  country,  that  being  all,  apparently,  that  was 
known  of  them  after  they  left  their  native  districts. 
In  one  case  we  read  of  a  memorial  set  up  by  his  children 
to  an  English  settler  :  '  To  their  father,  Feiri,  who  re- 
sided westward  in  England.'2  In  another,  to  one  who 
had  died  in  England,  and  '  Urai  his  brother  set  up  this 
stone  to  his  memory.'3  The  inscriptions  mentioned 
prove  that  Swedes  must  certainly  be  included  among 
English  colonists  and  among  the  forefathers  of  the  Old 
English  race.  Such  Anglo-Saxon  names  as  Suanescamp, 
Kent ;  Swanesig,  Berks  ;  Swanetun,  Norfolk ;  Swonleah, 
Hants  ;  and  Swonleah,  Oxfordshire,  are  probably  traces 
of  them.4  In  searching  for  traces  of  Swedes  in  England 
we  must  look  for  them  in  proximity  to  Goths,  Norse,  or 
Danes,  with  whom  they  probably  migrated,  and  look  for 
traces  of  their  names  under  the  names  Svear,  Sweon, 
Swein,  and  perhaps  Swin.  The  latter  name  appears  in 
the  Orkney  and  Shetland  dialect  to  be  a  corruption  of 

1  Magnus,  O.,  loc.  cit. 

2  Memoires  de  la   Socieie   Royale   des  Antiquaires  du  Nord, 
1845-1849,  p.  333. 

3  Ibid. 

*  Codex  Dipl.,  Nos.  38,  1276,  785,  556,  and  775. 

Danes  and  other  Tribes  from  Baltic  Coast.     141 

Swein.1  In  addition,  Stephens  tells  us  *of  the  words 
suin,  suain,  and  suen  being  used.2 

There  was  another  ancient  Baltic  nation  that  may  well 
have  sent  emigrants  to  England,  the  Burgundians  of 
Bornholm  and  the  country  near  the  Vistula.  They  were 
closely  allied  in  race  to  the  Northern  Goths.  The 
island  of  Bornholm,  called  Burgunda-ea3  by  Wulfstan  in 
the  time  of  King  Alfred,  was  named  after  them.  They 
were  a  tall,  blonde  people,4  and  we  know  that  there  is 
historical  evidence  of  the  Emperor  Probus  having  trans- 
ported a  great  number  of  them  from  the  Continent  to 
Britain.  Some  of  these  may  have  been  among  the 
ancestors  of  the  English  race,  as  well  as  others  who  may 
have  come  in  with  the  Angles,  Jutes,  or  Danes. 

We  read  in  the  old  chronicles  of  Danes  and  Northmen, 
but  there  are  few  references  to  Swedes.  They  must, 
however,  have  been  among  the  Danish  forces,  and  were 
probably  included  under  the  names  of  Danes  or  North- 
men. The  rare  mention  of  the  Swedish  name  points 
either  to  the  relative  weaker  state  of  the  Swedes  at  the 
period  of  the  settlement  of  England,  or  to  their  expan- 
sion on  the  east  side  of  the  Baltic.  At  that  time  the 
Northern  Goths  were  the  more  important  race,  but  later 
on  the  Swedish  tribes  advanced  in  power,  and  the  Goths 
in  the  Scandian  peninsula  declined  in  relative  importance. 
The  more  study  we  give  to  the  Anglo-Saxon  settlement, 
the  more  clearly  we  see  evidence  of  a  greater  part  having 
been  taken  in  that  settlement  by  Baltic  races  than  has 
been  commonly  ascribed  to  them.  The  oldest  settlement 
was  not  all  German.  Even  the  poem  of  Beowulf,  one 
of  the  oldest  examples  of  Anglo-Saxon  literature,  the 
scene  of  which  is  largely  in  Sweden,  bears  witness  to 
this,  for  its  substance  must  have  come  over  with  the 
conquerors,  and  its  existence  in  Old  English  literature 

1  Tudor,  J.  R.,  '  The  Orkneys  and  Shetlands,',p.  344. 

2  Loc.  cit.,  i.  24. 

3  Alfred's  '  Geography  of  Europe,'  p.  55. 

4  Ripley,  W.  Z.,  loc.  cit.,  p.  144. 

142  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

is  one  of  the  many  proofs  of  an  early  infusion  of  the 
Scandinavian  element  in  the  immigration.1 

The  old  provinces  of  what  is  now  Sweden,  which 
extended  along  the  Baltic  coast  or  lay  near  the  entrance 
of  that  sea,  were  Vestergotland,  Halland  (opposite  to  the 
Danish  Isles),  Skane,  Blekinge,  Smaland,  Ostergotland, 
Sodermanland,  Upland  (which  contained  the  city  of 
Upsala),  Gestrikland,  Helsingland,  and  Angermanland. 
Names  of  places  derived  from  the  names  of  some  of  these 
old  provinces  or  tribal  districts  are  certainly  to  be  found 
in  England.  There  is  also  the  old  boundary-name  near 
Lake  Wetter,  formerly  called  the  Wedermark.  This 
was  the  country  of  some  of  the  Eastern  Goths  called 
Wederas,  and  their  name  apparently  survived  in  England 
in  those  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  names  Wederingsete,2  in 
Suffolk,  Vedringmuth  in  Sussex,  and  others.  The 
settlement  of  people  who  took  their  name  from  the  head 
of  a  family  named  after  his  tribe  may  perhaps  be  in- 
ferred from  the  ninth-century  place-name  Bleccingdenn3 
in  Kent,  which  closely  resembles  that  of  the  old  province 
of  Blekinge  in  part  of  Scandinavian  Gothland. 

Stephens  draws  attention  to  the  name  Salua  in  a 
Northern  inscription,  which  word  he  interprets  as  of  the 
Sals,  or  of  the  Salemen,  a  clan  or  tribe  of  Northern 
people.4  As  an  instance  of  the  connection  of  these 
people  with  England  he  refers  to  the  district  of  the 
Saelings  in  Essex.  The  personal  name  Saleman  is 
found  in  the  Hundred  Rolls,  and  may  be  traced  from 
the  Anglo-Saxon  period  downwards.  The  name  reminds 
us  of  the  Danish  Isle  of  Sealand,  and  of  a  number  of 
old  Sele  and  Sale  names  in  our  own  country,  such  as 
the  Domesday  name  Salemanesberie  or  Salmonesberie. 
There  was  also  in  Gloucestershire  a  hundred  at  the  time 
of  the  Domesday  Survey  named  Salemannesberie- 
Hundred,  apparently  after  the  same  place  as  that  called 

1  Marsh,  G.  P.,  loc.  cit.,  p.  101.       2  Codex  Dipl.,  Nos.  904,  932. 

3  Dipl.  Angl.,  edited  by  Thorpe,  Index. 

4  Stephens,  G.,  loc.  cit.,  ii.  697. 

Danes  and  other  Tribes  from  Baltic  Coast.      143 

Sulmonnesburg  on  the  upper  course  of  the  Windrush  in 
a  charter  of  Off  a  dated  779. *  The  four  Danish  islands 
Sialand,  Mon,  Falster,  and  Laland,  at  one  time  are  said 
to  have  formed  a  separate  kingdom  called  Withesleth, 
over  which  the  mythical  Dan  was  the  first  King,  who 
by  tradition  was  one  of  the  three  sons  of  a  King  of 
Svethia  or  Sweden.2  The  inhabitants  of  these  islands 
were  probably  all  known  by  separate  tribal  names, 
derived  from  the  names  of  the  islands,  and  some  of  them 
may  perhaps  be  traced  in  England. 

If  we  had  no  records  of  settlements  in  the  United 
States  during  the  last  three  centuries,  the  names  of  some 
of  the  settlements  alone  would  tell  us  of  the  countries 
and  places  from  which  some  of  the  colonists  probably 
came.  Of  such  are  the  old  names  New  Sweden  and 
New  Netherland,  and  the  existing  names  New  York, 
New  Orleans,  Montpelier,  New  London,  Boston,  New 
Hampshire,  Andover,  Gloucester,  Hampton,  Bristol, 
New  Milford,  Newcastle,  Barnstaple,  Norwich,  Belfast, 
Plymouth,  Beverley,  Lancaster,  and  many  others. 
Some  of  these  names  at  least  were  given  to  the 
settlements  by  the  earliest  colonists  to  keep  fresh 
in  their  memories  the  countries  and  places  they  had 
left.  Similarly,  nearly  a  thousand  years  earlier,  some 
Scandinavian  and  other  settlers  in  England  from  the 
Baltic  coasts  appear  to  have  called  some  of  their  new 
homes  Lund,  Upsale,  Rugenore,  Gilling,  Rye,  Dover, 
Grinsted,  Linby,  Risberga,  Eldsberga,  Billing,  and  others, 
after  places  in  Denmark  or  other  countries  on  the  Baltic 
they  had  left.  Human  nature  in  regard  to  the  memory 
of  the  fatherland  has  been  much  the  same  in  all  ages  of 
the  world.  In  the  history  of  our  own  race  the  descendants 
of  the  Old  English  have  in  this  respect  shown  evidence 
of  a  sentiment  common  to  themselves  and  their  remote 
Scandinavian  forefathers. 

1  Cart.  Sax.,  i.  320.        , 

2  Chron.  Erici  reg.  ap.  Langeb.,  quoted  by  Latham,  'Germania,' 



WE  must  now  consider  a  subject  of  great  impor- 
tance to  this  inquiry.  The  customs  by  which 
lands  and  tenements  in  various  parts  of 
England  are  inherited  in  some  way  different  from  the 
general  law  of  primogeniture  are  many  and  various. 
None  of  these  have  arisen  through  any  legal  enact- 
ment, but  have  all  come  down  from  a  remote  antiquity, 
and  are  of  prescriptive  origin.  Their  existence  in  some 
manors  and  boroughs  can  be  traced  back  to  the 
Anglo-Saxon  period.  In  addition  to  these  exceptional 
rules  of  succession  which  are  so  marked  in  many 
separate  places,  there  are  other  customs  that  differ 
from  the  general  law  which  either  have,  or  had,  by  long 
usage  all  the  force  of  law  over  great  districts.  Some 
old  manors  were  so  extensive  as  to  have  been  large 
areas,  including  many  parishes.  Since  the  sixteenth 
century,  however,  the  manorial  system,  as  it  came  down 
from  the  Old  English  and  later  periods,  has  been  passing 
away,  and  what  remains  of  it  marks  only  its  extreme 
decay.  For  the  purpose  of  our  present  inquiry  it  is  of  little 
importance  whether  a  local  custom  is  still  in  operation,  or 
in  a  state  of  decay,  or  has  entirely  gone,  provided  that 
it  can  unmistakably  be  traced  in  a  particular  locality. 
As  the  settlers  in  England  came  from  Continental 
countries,  the  comparison  of  customs  prevailing  in 


Customs  of  Inheritance.  145 

England  with  those  that  are  known  to  have  existed  in 
the  lands  from  which  they  migrated  is  important,  for 
it  is  only  reasonable  to  suppose  that  tribal  settlers 
brought  with  them  to  England  their  old  rules  of  family 
inheritance,  whatever  they  may  have  been.  These 
ancient  laws  of  inheritance  enable  us  to  trace,  with 
some  degree  of  certainty,  the  settlement  of  people  of 
different  tribes  or  races  in  various  parts  of  our  country. 
It  is  certain  that  old  customs,  especially  those  of  inherit- 
ance, were  very  persistent,  and  are  exemplified  by  the 
survival  until  the  present  day  of  many  ancient  manorial 
usages.  Various  customs  of  inheritance  on  the  Conti- 
nent can  be  traced  back  to  the  most  ancient  legal  codes 
which  arose  out  of  the  primitive  folk-laws,  and  some  of 
these  still  exist.  In  only  two  of  them %  is  a  distinction 
made  between  movable  and  immovable  property — viz.,  in 
the  Thuringian  law  and  in  the  Salic  law.  Some  of  the  early 
Thuringians  were  located  on  the  lower  Elbe,1  near  some 
of  the  Angles,  and  in  the  Thuringian  law  land  was  in- 
herited only  by  males  of  the  male  stem,  while  personalty 
went  first  to  sons,  and  failing  these,  to  daughters.  In  the 
Salic  law  sons  preceded  daughters  in  succession,  and 
daughters  were  excluded  from  succession  to  land,  although 
they  shared  with  sons  in  movables.2  Among  the  Angles 
and  the  Saxons  on  the  Continent  male  inheritance  was 
the  rule.  Among  the  Goths  and  Frisians  daughters 
appear  from  an  early  period  to  have  shared  the  inherit- 
ance with  the  sons. 

The  early  writer  on  the  laws  and  customs  of  England, 
Henry  de  Bracton,  who  lived  in  the  thirteenth  century, 
tells  us  that  England  in  his  day  differed  from  other 
countries  in  regard  to  the  following  of  old  customs.  He 
says  :  '  Whereas  in  almost  all  countries  they  use  laws 
and  written  right,  England  alone  uses  within  her  boun- 

1  Droysen,  G.,  '  Allgemeiner  Historische  Handatlas.' 

2  Lodge,  H.  C.,  '  Essays  in  Anglo-Saxon  Law,'  p.  137,  quoting 
'  Lex  Salica,'  59. 


146  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

daries  unwritten  right  and  custom.  In  England,  indeed, 
right  is  derived  from  what  is  unwritten,  which  usage 
has  approved.'  He  continues  : '  There  are  also  in  England 
several  and  diverse  customs  according  to  the  diversity 
of  places,  for  the  English  have  many  things  by  custom 
which  they  have  not  by  (written)  law,  as  in  divers 
counties,  cities  and  boroughs,  and  vills,  where  it  will 
always  have  to  be  inquired  what  is  the  custom  of  the 
place,  and  in  what  manner  they  who  allege  the  custom 
observe  the  custom.'1 

Another  and  still  earlier  legal  author,  Glanville,  who 
wrote  in  the  time  of  Henry  II.,  tells  us  in  his  chapter  on 
inheritance  that  primogeniture  was  the  rule  of  common 
law.  In  reference  to  the  land  of  a  '  free  socman,'  how- 
ever, he  tells  us  that  it  has  to  be  ascertained  whether 
the  land  was  partible  by  ancient  custom.  If  so,  the 
sons  take  equally,  saving  that  the  first-born  has  the  chief 
dwelling-house  on  the  terms  of  making  recompense  in 
value  to  the  others.  If  the  land  is  not  partible,  then, 
according  to  the  custom  of  some,  the  first-born  shall 
have  the  whole  inheritance  ;  according  to  the  custom  of 
others,  however,  the  last-born  is  heir.2 

If  a  man  owning  houses  or  tenements  within  the  city 
of  Gloucester  at  the  present  time  dies  intestate,  his 
youngest  son,  and  not  the  eldest,  succeeds  to  the  property. 
This  is  a  remarkable  survival,  and  a  similar  custom  for- 
merly prevailed,  or  still  does,  in  Leeds,  Derby,  Leicester, 
Nottingham,  Stafford,  and  Stamford.3  It  prevailed  not 
only  in  these  boroughs,  but  in  many  manors  in  various 
counties,  especially  in  Sussex,  Suffolk,  Surrey,  Essex, 
Norfolk,  Middlesex,  and  in  a  special  part  of  Somerset. 
It  still  exists,  or  has  been  shown  to  have  existed,  also,  to 

1  Bracton,  H.  de,   '  De   legibus  et  consuetudinibus  Angliae,' 
edited  by  Twiss,  i.  45. 

2  Glanville,  R.  de,  'Tract,  de  leg.  et  cons.  reg.  Angl.,'  Ivii., 
and  Pollock,  F.,  '  Land  Laws,'  Appendix,  214,  215. 

3  Elton,  C.  I.,  '  Gavelkind,'  Index  ;    Ibid.,  '  Origins  of  English 
History,'  184. 

Customs  of  Inheritance.  147 

a  less  extent,  on  some  few  manors  in  Hampshire,  Notting- 
hamshire, Lincolnshire,  Huntingdonshire,  Hertfordshire, 
Northamptonshire,  Oxfordshire,  Kent,  Devon,  Cornwall, 
Rutland,  Herefordshire,  Berkshire,  Shropshire,  and  Mon- 
mouthshire. In  Sussex  it  prevailed  on  140  manors, 
chiefly  in  the  Rape  of  Lewes,  where  the  custom  was  almost 
an  exclusive  one.  This  junior  right  or  inheritance  of  the 
youngest  son,  or  borough-English,  as  it  has  been  com- 
monly called,  also  prevailed  in  parts  of  Glamorganshire, 
where  its  occurrence  will  be  considered  in  connection 
with  the  settlement  of  the  English  on  the  Welsh  border. 
There  is  no  trace  of  any  similar  custom  under  which  the 
youngest  son  is  the  sole  heir  in  the  ancient  laws  of  Wales. 
It  is  certain  that  this  custom  could  not  have  arisen 
spontaneously  in  so  many  places  and  districts  widely 
separated  from  each  other.  It  has  probably  come  from 
some  general  race  custom,  and  has  been  preserved  in  the 
localities  where  it  has  survived  by  the  attachment  of 
the  people  to  the  usages  of  their  ancestors.  Nothing  is 
more  remarkable  in  the  history  of  mankind  than  the 
attachment  of  people  of  all  races  to  the  customs  which 
have  been  handed  down  to  them  from  their  forefathers. 
That  junior  right  was  preserved  in  the  boroughs  and 
manors  in  which  it  survived  through  all  the  period  of 
the  Middle  Ages,  when  the  tendency  was  one  ever  growing 
stronger  in  favour  of  primogeniture,  is  remarkable  testi- 
mony to  its  vitality,  and  the  attachment  to  it  of  those 
who  lived  under  it.  If  we  can  thus  trace  it,  as  we  may, 
as  far  back  as  the  Old  English  period,  when  people 
certainly  were  as  tenacious  of  their  ancient  customs  as 
their  descendants  were,  it  is  reasonable  to  conclude  that 
those  who  lived  under  it  in  the  Saxon  period  also  inherited 
it  from  some  earlier  forefathers.  The  custom  of  junior 
right  is  no  more  likely  to  have  been  invented  here  and 
there  in  certain  early  boroughs  and  manors  of  Saxon 
England  than  of  Mediaeval  England.  We  must  look  for 
its  origin  in  the  Continental  homes  of  our  oldest  English 

10 — 2 

148  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

forefathers.  Some  of  the  evidence  which  shows  that  the 
Anglo-Saxons  had  forefathers  of  many  different  tribes 
has  already  been  brought  forward,  and  the  survival  on 
our  manors  of  so  many  different  examples  of  ancient 
customary  inheritance  points  to  the  same  conclusion. 
On  the  Continent  we  find  that  junior  right  existed  in 
various  degrees,  ranging  from  the  descent  of  the  whole 
inheritance  to  merely  articles  of  household  furniture,  in 
Picardy,  Artois  and  Hainault,  in  Ponthieu  and  Vivier, 
in  the  districts  round  Arras,  Douai,  Amiens,  Lille  and 
Cassel,  and  in  the  neighbourhood  of  St.  Omer.  It  has 
also  been  noted  at  Grimberghe  in  Brabant.1 

Similar  customs  prevailed  in  a  part  of  Friesland,  the 
most  notable  of  which  was  the  '  Jus  Theelacticum,'  or 
custom  of  the  Theel  lands,  doles,  or  allottable  lands  in 
East  Friesland,  not  far  from  the  mouth  of  the  Ems. 
There  an  inherited  allotment  was  indivisible  ;  on  the 
death  of  the  father  it  passed  intact  to  the  youngest  son, 
and  on  his  death  without  issue  it  fell  into  the  posses- 
sion of  the  whole  community.2  This  was  an  exception  to 
the  more  general  Frisian  plan  by  which  the  inheritance  was 
divided.  Similar  customs  which  are  not  superseded  by 
the  civil  code  existed  in  Westphalia  and  parts  of  the  Rhine 
provinces,  and  also  in  the  Department  of  Herford  near 
Minden,  where,  so  strong  is  the  hold  of  the  custom,  that 
until  quite  recently  no  elder  child  ever  demanded  his  legal 
obligatory  share,  and  the  children  acquiesced  in  the  suc- 
cession of  the  youngest.3  The  same  custom  also  prevailed 
in  Silesia  and  parts  of  Bavaria,  where  the  newer  laws  of 
inheritance  failed  to  break  down  the  time-honoured  suc- 
cession of  the  youngest,  the  rights  being  preserved  by  a 
secret  settlement  or  by  the  force  of  opinion.  Similar 
customs  prevailed  in  the  forest  of  Odinwald  and  in  the 
thinly-populated  district  to  the  north  of  Lake  Constance. 

1   Elton,   C.    I.,    '  Origins  of  English   History,'   p.    190,   note, 
quoting  references. 
a   Ibid.,  191.  3  Ibid.,  192. 

Customs  of  Inheritance.  149 

Many  examples  may  be  found  in  Suabia,  in  the  Orisons, 
in  Elsass,  and  other  Teutonic  or  partly  Teutonic  countries, 
where  old  customs  of  this  kind  still  influence  the  feelings 
of  the  peasantry,  although  they  have  ceased  to  be  legally 

The  youngest  son  has  his  privilege,  also,  in  the  island 
of  Bornholm,  and  a  similar  right  has  been  observed  in 
the  territory  of  the  old  Republic  of  Liibeck,2  a  district 
where  a  Slavonic  people  formerly  lived.  Junior  right  also 
prevails  in  Saxe-Altenburg,  which  has  an  agricultural 
population  of  Slavonic  extraction.3 

It  may  be  noted  from  this  list  of  localities  that  the 
custom  in  Germany,  North-Eastern  France,  and  Belgium, 
survives  in  separated  districts  rather  than  in  whole  terri- 
tories, and  it  is  not  to  be  necessarily  understood  that  it 
survives  in  all  places  in  the  districts  named.  In  Germany 
also  it  should  be  noted  that  it  survives  where  Slavonic 
influence  has  been  felt,  such  as  in  Oldenburg,  Saxe-Alten- 
burg, parts  of  Bavaria,  and  in  Silesia.  The  same  custom 
survives  in  parts  of  Pomerania,  mingled  in  other  places 
with  primogeniture.4 

Pomerania  was  Slavonic,  Oldenburg  had  an  intrusive 
Slav  settlement,  and  Saxe-Altenburg  and  parts  of  Bavaria 
have  in  a  similiar  way  had  Slav  immigrants,  or  preserved 
a  remnant  of  the  older  race  from  which  the  Slavs  probably 
descended.  The  custom  of  junior  right  is  clearly  not  a 
Germanic  institution.  It  prevails  in  parts  of  Germany 
indeed,  but  it  can  be  traced  to  no  old  German  code  of  laws 
or  general  custom,  as  far  as  I  have  been  able  to  discover. 
On  the  contrary,  Tacitus  tells  us  that  equal  division  among 
the  sons  was  the  custom  of  succession  among  the  ancient 
Germans.  Germany  was  undoubtedly  in  the  early  cen- 
turies of  our  era  much  influenced  by  the  hordes  of  Slavs 

1  Elton,  C.  I.,  loc.  cit.,  p.  193. 

2  Ibid.,  p.  193. 

3  Hall,  H.,  Notes  and  Queries,  Seventh  Series,  ix.  449. 

*  Ripley,  W.  Z.,  '  Races  of  Europe,'  248,  quoting  Baring-Gould. 

1 50          Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

on  its  eastern  borders,  and  received  many  intrusive 
colonies  of  that  race.  There  is  evidence  to  show  that 
junior  right  spread  through  the  parts  of  Germany  where 
it  prevailed,  owing  to  the  migrations  of  the  Slavs,  or  people 
of  mixed  Slavic  and  Teutonic  descent.  No  instances  of 
this  custom  occur  in  Scandinavia,  and  at  the  same  time 
no  instances  can  be  adduced  of  Slav  settlements  in 
that  peninsula.  The  custom  of  junior  right  is  found  in 
the  early  Russian  code,  by  which  the  inheritance  of  the 
father  appears  to  have  passed  to  males  in  preference  to 
females,  and  the  youngest  son  was  always  to  take  the 
paternal  house. 

This  early  Russian  code  of  laws,  known  as  "  The 
Rousskaia  Pravda  of  Yaroslav,"  which  is  preserved  in 
the  Chronicle  of  Novgorod,  shows  that  the  early  Slavs 
had  much  the  same  institutions,  such  as  trial  by  ordeal 
and  by  wager  of  battle,  compensations  for  injuries,  etc., 
as  prevailed  among  other  European  nations  at  the  same 
time.1  Primogeniture  is  alien  to  the  spirit  of  Slavonic 
institutions.2  It  was  first  introduced  into  Russian  law  by 
Peter  the  Great,  but,  having  been  found  unworkable,  was 
abolished  by  the  Empress  Anne.  It  was  so  far  restored 
by  the  Emperor  Nicholas  in  1830  that  a  father  was  then 
aUowed  to  make  his  eldest  son  his  heir  if  he  chose  to  do  so.3 
The  Slavs  are  essentially  agriculturists,  and  the  tendency 
of  the  race  is  in  the  direction  of  co-operation.  The 
primary  element  of  organization  in  Russia — the  village 
community,  or  mir,4  under  which  the  youngest  son  has  a 
preference — is  a  survival  of  the  old  tenure  of  village  com- 
munities that  at  one  time  must  have  been  widely  pre- 
valent in  Europe.  When  first  we  meet  with  the  Slavs 
in  history,  we  find  them  living  in  communities.  Having 
all  these  facts  in  mind,  we  may  reasonably  look  eastward 
of  Germany  for  the  origin  of  the  custom  by  which  the 

1  Morfill,  W.  R., .'  Slavonic  Literature,'  p.  84. 

2  Morfill,  W.  R.,  '  Russia,'  p.  192.  3  Ibid.  284. 
*  Ibid.,  350. 

Customs  of  Inheritance.  1 5 i 

youngest  son  inherits.  Nowhere  else  in  Europe,  except 
among  the  Slavs,  can  it  be  traced,  so  far  as  is  known,  in 
an  early  code  of  laws.  It  can  indeed  be  traced  still  further 
eastward  among  the  Mongols  of  Asia,  but  it  is  unneces- 
sary to  follow  it  so  far,  for  it  is  possible  that  it  may  have 
been  derived  by  the  Slavs  from  the  earlier  broad-headed 
Alpine  race,  of  which  they  were  probably  an  offshoot. 

If  we  turn  now  to  our  own  country,  and  consider  such  a 
case  as  that  of  the  manor  of  Merdon  in  Hampshire,  although 
the  name  of  the  village  has  for  many  centuries  been 
changed  to  Hursley,  we  find  that  inheritance  by  the 
youngest  son  is  still  a  living  custom  among  the  copyholders,' 
and  this  on  a  manor  with  a  name  identical  in  part  with  that 
of  the  primitive  mir,  which  may  be  only  an  accidental  co- 
incidence. In  Sussex,  where  of  all  the  English  counties 
junior  right  most  largely  survives,  mer,  as  part  of  place 
names,  is  also  most  largely  represented.  Some  of  them  in 
their  old  forms  are  Keymer,  Angermer,  Stanmer,  Falmer, 
Jonsmere,  Cuckmere,  Bormer,  Burgemere,  Udimer,  and 
Ringmer,  and  they  will  be  again  referred  to.  These  names 
may  be  considered  for  what  they  are  worth  side  by  side 
with  the  existence  of  junior  right  in  Sussex ;  they  may  be  a 
coincidence,  and  no  undue  stress  should  be  laid  upon  them. 
That  mer  or  mir  is,  however,  the  name  of  a  primitive 
agricultural  community  appears  from  the  survival  of  the 
name  in  Russia,  and  it  is  certain  that  such  communities 
came  into  England  from  Continental  lands  during  the 
English  settlement.  All  our  available  evidence,  there- 
fore, points  to  Eastern  Germany,  to  old  Slavic  lands,  and 
German  territories  which  were  influenced  by  Slavs,  as  the 
source  or  sources  of  English  junior  right.  It  was  appar- 
ently a  custom  that,  when  once  ingrained  into  the  life  of  a 
tribe,  would  remain  under  more  settled  conditions  of  agri- 
cultural life,  and  be  passed  on  from  age  to  age  and  from 
country  to  country. 

Turning  now  to  the  custom  of  primogeniture,  it  will 
help  us  in  our  inquiry  if  we  bear  in  mind  that  the  eldest 

152  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

son  was  nearly  always  preferred  in  the  common  law  of 
Scotland,1  and  the  Scotch  along  the  east  and  south-east 
coasts  are  largely  descended  from  Anglians  and  Norse. 
The  eldest  son  had  a  preference  by  the  common  custom  of 
inheritance  in  the  Isle  of  Man,  which  was  peopled  by  Norse 
colonists  ;  and  there,  by  the  common  law  of  the  island, 
the  eldest  daughter,  in  default  of  brothers,  succeeded  to 
the  inheritance.2  Similarly,  over  a  great  part  of  Cumber- 
land, which  was  colonized  by  the  Norse,  in  default  of  sons 
the  eldest  daughter  succeeded  to  the  paternal  estate.3 
Primogeniture  was  the  rural  custom  of  Normandy  before 
the  conquest  of  England.  Bede  tells  us  that  in  his  time 
the  eldest  son  had  some  preference  or  birthright  in 
Northumbria,4  and,  considering  that  Northumbria  was 
occupied  by  Anglians,  Frisians,  and  Norwegians,  this  is 
not  surprising,  for  all  these  instances  of  rustic  primo- 
geniture point  to  Norway  and  the  Scandian  land  as  one 
of  its  homes.  The  Normans  of  Normandy  originally 
came  from  these  northern  lands,  and  the  Manx  and 
Cumberland  men  came  from  Norway,  where  the  custom  of 
preferring  the  eldest  daughter  in  default  of  sons6  is  an 
ancient  one  of  the  country.  The  evidence  of  south- 
eastern Scotland  also  points  to  Norway  and  the  earlier 
Anglian  lands,  as  does  that  additional  evidence  derived 
from  isolated  districts  or  manors  in  England  in  which,  in 
default  of  sons,  the  eldest  daughter  succeeds  to  the 
paternal  estate.  The  evidence  of  this  eldest  daughter 
custom  is  so  strong  that  we  shall  probably  be  right  in 
locating  a  Norwegian  settlement  in  places  where  it  prevails 
or  has  prevailed.  It  existed  in  Surrey  at  Chertsey, 
Beaumond,  Farnham,  Worplesdon,  and  Pirbright ;  in 
Buckinghamshire  at  West  Wycombe  ;  in  Berkshire  at 

1  Cecil,    Evelyn,    '  Primogeniture,'    p.    61,    quoting    Erskine, 
'  Inst.,'  book  iii.,  8,  6. 

2  Ibid.,  pp.  66,  67. 

3  Elton,  C.  I.,  '  The  Law  of  Copyholds,'  p.  134. 

4  Beda,  '  Life  of  St.  Benedict,'  s.  n. 

5  du  Chaillu,  P.  B.,  '  Land  of  the  Midnight  Sun,'  ii.  289,  290. 

Customs  of  Inheritance.  153 

Bray  ;  in  Hertfordshire  at  Cashiobury  and  St.  Stephens  ; 
in  Northamptonshire  at  Middleton  Cheney  ;  in  Hereford- 
shire at  Marden  ;*  and  in  the  great  manor  and  hundred  of 
Crondal  in  Hampshire,2  close  to  the  border  of  Surrey. 

After  the  Norman  Conquest,  as  is  well  known,  under  the 
Norman  influence  and  the  growth  of  feudalism,  primo- 
geniture overpowered  the  other  customary  rights  of  succes- 
sion, and  became  the  general  law  of  the  country  ;  but 
before  that  time  there  existed,  as  these  surviving  instances 
show,  a  rustic  primogeniture  of  remote  origin,  which,  like 
the  custom  of  Normandy,  can  be  traced  to  Norway 

This  succession  by  the  eldest  daughter  in  default  of  sons 
is  a  remarkable  usage,  and  may  be  a  survival  in  an  altered 
form  of  an  archaic  rule,  by  which  inheritances  passed 
through  the  female  in  preference  to  the  male  line. 
S.  Baring-Gould3  has  drawn  attention  to  a  custom  that 
prevails  in  parts  of  the  Black  Forest,  where  land  always 
descends  through  a  female  hand.  It  goes  to  the  eldest 
daughter,  and  if  there  be  no  daughters,  to  the  sister  or  the 
sister's  daughter.  The  Black  Forest  is  within  the  parts 
of  Central  Europe  where  descendants  of  the  broad-headed 
Alpine  race  may  be  traced,  and  if  this  custom  is  pre- 
historic, which  is  extremely  likely,  its  origin  must  prob- 
ably be  ascribed  to  that  race.  There  are,  however,  in 
Norway  traces  of  a  broad-headed  brown  race,  distinct 
from  the  Lapps,  the  existence  of  whom  has  been  already 
mentioned,  and  they  have  been  described  by  Ripley  as 
probably  of  the  Alpine  stock.  It  is  quite  conceivable  that 
this  eldest  daughter  custom  in  Norway  may  have  been 
derived  from  these  older  Norwegian  people  and  preserved 
in  its  present  form  in  parts  of  that  country. 

After  the  Norman  Conquest  the  strict  rule  of  Norman 
feudal  primogeniture  was  deliberately  applied  by  the 

1  Elton,  C.  I.,  '  The  Law  of  Copyholds,'  p.  134. 

2  Baigent,  F.  J.,  '  The  Hundred  and  Manor  of  Crondall,'  p.  163. 

3  Baring-Gould,  S.,  '  Germany,  Past  and  Present,   p.  69. 

154  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

Norman  Kings  wherever  possible,  not  only  to  English 
military  fiefs,  but  to  agricultural  holdings  of  all  kinds. 
The  urban  customs  of  the  French  portions  of  Hereford  and 
Nottingham  appear  to  have  been  altered  in  this  way. 
The  rural  primogeniture  of  Normandy  and  Picardy,  how- 
ever, long  remained  in  an  exceptionally  vigorous  form, 
which  may,  perhaps,  have  been  due  to  the  Scandinavian 
origin  of  the  Normans,  and  to  the  vitality  of  their  ancient 
customs  among  the  people.  It  is  certain  also  that  this 
rustic  primogeniture  has  survived  over  a  wide  area  of 
Cumberland,  of  which  the  continued  existence  of  the  right 
of  the  eldest  daughter,  in  default  of  sons,  is  sufficient  proof. 
That  this  part  of  the  custom,  which  is  one  of  the  marks 
that  distinguishes  it  from  the  feudal  primogeniture,  sur- 
vived at  all  in  England  is  proof  of  its  vitality,  and  evidence 
that  it  must  have  come  with  the  Norse  people  of  Cumber- 
land from  Norway,  where  it  prevails  to  the  present  day, 
and,  so  far  as  known,  nowhere  else  in  Northern  Europe, 
except  in  similar  ancient  Norwegian  colonies.  It  was  a 
custom  in  parts  of  Saxon  England,  and  helps  us  to  trace 
the  origin  of  the  English  people  of  these  districts.  Its 
absence  elsewhere  in  England,  where  Norse  settlements 
from  other  evidence  can  be  shown  to  have  existed,  may 
be  due  to  the  rigour  by  which  the  newer  primogeniture  of 
the  feudal  type  was  enforced. 

The  earliest  reference  to  the  custom  of  dividing  the  in- 
heritance among  the  sons  which  prevailed  among  the 
ancient  German  tribes  is  that  of  Tacitus.  After  the  fall 
of  the  Roman  Empire,  the  earliest  reference,  so  far  as 
known,  is  that  of  the  time  of  Clothair,  and  is  contained  in 
his  code  of  laws.  It  confirms  the  several  customs  of 
inheritance  which  at  that  time  prevailed.1  The  date  of 
this  is  about  A.D.  560,  which  shows  that  at  this  time  the 
customs  of  succession  had  become  various.  Between  the 
time  of  Tacitus  and  that  of  this  king  the  people  of 
Germany  must  have  become  considerably  changed,  for 

1   Monumenta  Germanise,  Legum,  tome  i.,  edited  by  Pertz. 

Customs  of  Inheritance.  155 

Teutonic  tribes  had  left  it  and  pushed  orl  to  the  South 
and  West,  while  Slavonic  tribes  had  migrated  into  it  from 
the  East.  In  one  instance  a  whole  nation  had  come — the 
Slavic  Czechs — who  had  in  the  fifth  century  driven  out 
their  predecessors,  the  Teutonic  Marcomanni,1  from 
Bohemia,  as  these  had  previously  driven  out  the  old 
Celtic  Boii.  The  old  name  Boii,  however,  remained,  and 
became  the  German  designation  for  a  new  race.  The 
Wilte  had  probably  come  into  Frisia,  and  had  settled 
around  Utrecht  2  and  in  other  districts  in  the  Rhine  valley. 
Migrations  of  Saxons  and  other  races  had  also  occurred. 

The  ancient  custom  of  inheritance  generally  prevailing 
in  Frisia  was  one  under  which  all  the  children  alike  in- 
herited. It  is  so  described  in  a  work  on  Frisian  juris- 
prudence written  in  the  sixteenth  century.3  In  Holland 
at  the  present  day  we  may  look  almost  in  vain  for  large 
landowners,  for  under  the  Dutch  law  all  children  share 
their  father's  possessions.4  Among  the  Frisians  there 
were  some  communities,  however,  probably  of  mixed 
descent,  who  had  apparently  the  custom  of  junior  right 
already  mentioned. 

It  may  reasonably  be  conceded  that  where  the  Frisians 
settled  in  England  they  would  be  likely  to  take  with  them 
their  own  mode  of  inheritance.  Similarly,  we  cannot 
doubt  that  those  tribes  which  had  a  custom  of  junior  right 
would  continue  it  in  the  new  land.  One  settlement  may 
have  had  one  custom,  and  the  next  another;  but  when, 
as  was  in  some  instances  the  case,  a  number  of  old  settled 
villages  became  parts  of  one  great  lordship  or  manor,  and 
a  general  custom  for  the  whole  manor  or  lordship  was 
adopted,  it  may  well  have  been  a  compromise  between  the 
two  older  customs,  and  in  this  way  a  system  of  partible 

1  Morfill,  W.  R.,  '  Slavonic  Literature,'  34. 

2  Beda,  '  Eccles.  Hist.,'  book  v.,  chap.  ii. 

3  De    Haau    Hettema,    '  Jurisprudentia    friesca,'    Jahrh.,    ii., 
100  if. 

4  Meldrum,  D.  S.,  '  Holland  and  the  Hollanders,'  26-28. 

156  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

inheritance,  with  preference  to  the  youngest  son  in  regard 
to  the  homestead,  may  have  arisen. 

Tacitus  told  his  Roman  readers  that  the  Germans  knew 
nothing  of  testament  or  the  power  of  bequeathing  property 
by  will,  but  he  said  they  had  rules  of  intestate  succes- 
sion. The  property  set  free  by  a  man's  death  did  not  pass 
to  any  body  of  persons  who  stood  in  different  degrees  of 
relationship  to  the  dead  man,  but  the  kinsmen  were  called 
to  the  inheritance  class  by  class.1  First  the  sons,  if  there 
were  any  ;  failing  them,  the  brothers  ;  and  failing  them, 
the  uncles,  divided  the  inheritance  between  them.  This 
is  the  same  custom  that  we  find  prevailed  on  manors  in 
various  parts  of  England.  Partible  inheritance  in  English 
custom  was  subject  in  different  places  to  many  variations 
in  detail.  In  Kent  it  was  mixed  up  with  a  preference  for 
the  youngest  son,  who  by  the  Kentish  custom  claimed  the 
paternal  house,  apparently  by  making  compensation  to  his 
brothers.  This  corresponded  to  the  custom  of  one  part 
of  Frisia.2 

The  three  several  systems  of  inheritance — the  succes- 
sion of  the  youngest  to  the  whole  estate  ;  the  succession 
of  the  eldest ;  and  the  partible  custom  by  which  all  shared 
alike,  whether  sons  only,  or  sons  and  daughters — stand 
out,  however,  as  three  well-marked  ancient  systems.  Can 
we  trace  them  to  their  primitive  sources  ?  Junior  right, 
as  far  as  the  Teutonic  nations  are  concerned,  apparently 
came  from  the  East,  and  rustic  or  primitive  primogeniture 
from  the  North  ;  but  the  question  remains,  From  what 
source  did  the  Germanic  people  derive  their  custom  of 
partible  inheritance  ?  It  prevailed  among  the  Romans 
and  the  Greeks,  but  it  is  not  at  all  probable  that  any 
custom  of  Germany  beyond  the  pale  of  the  Roman  Empire 
could  have  been  derived  from  the  Empire  and  have  been 
adopted  by  the  German  people.  Bearing  in  mind  that 

1  Pollock  and  Maitland,    '  History  of  English  Law,'   ii.   248, 
quoting  '  Ger mania,'  chap.  xx. 

2  Robertson,  E.  W.,  '  Scotland  under  her  Early  Kings,'  ii.  266. 

Customs  of  Inheritance.  157 

there  was  an  ancient  trade  route  between  the  Baltic  and 
Greece  by  which  Scandinavia  was  brought  into  commercial 
intercourse  with  the  south-east  of  Europe,  and  the  prob- 
able origin  of  the  Old  Northern  runic  letters  from  characters 
of  the  ancient  Greek  alphabet,  it  is  possible  that  the 
Northern  Teutons  learnt  this  custom  from  the  Greeks,  as 
they  did  the  basis  for  their  runes.  It  is  probable  that  the 
very  earliest  Teutonic  home  was  the  Scandian  peninsula, 
and  that  for  centuries  there  was  a  steady  flow  of  fair- 
complexioned,  long-headed  people  from  Scandinavia  into 
Germany.  This  migration  began  at  an  early  period, 
before,  indeed,  the  Northern  runes  were  invented,  as  is 
shown  by  the  absence  of  runic  inscriptions  on  fixed  objects 
in  Germany.  It  is  unlikely,  therefore,  that  the  custom 
of  partible  inheritance  among  Germanic  people  was 
derived  from  the  Greeks.  The  custom  of  dividing  the 
inheritance  is  one  which  may  easily  have  arisen  spon- 
taneously from  its  fairness. 

We  search  in  vain  for  any  ancient  exclusive  examples  of 
junior  succession  on  a  large  scale  among  the  purely  Teu- 
tonic nations.  In  Germany  partible  inheritance  prevailed 
among  both  nobles  and  peasants,  and  even  as  late  as  the 
Middle  Ages  asserted  its  ancient  right  over  primogeniture. 
The  partible  tendency  in  Germany  resulted  in  the  Middle 
Ages  in  a  division  of  the  principalities,  which  has  left  its 
mark  on  that  country  to  the  present  day.  As  generations 
went  on,  Saxony  was  split  up  into  Saxe-Weimar,  Saxe- 
Eisenach,  Saxe-Gotha,  Saxe-Meiningen,  Saxe-Coburg, 
Saxe-Romhild,  Saxe-Eisenberg,  Saxe-Saalfeld,  Saxe-Hild- 
burghausen,  etc.  Hesse,  similarly,  was  divided  into 
Hesse-Cassel,  Hesse-Darmstadt,  Hesse-Rheinfels,  and 
Hesse-Marburg.  Other  parts  of  the  country  exhibit 
similar  examples  of  subdivision,  the  Reusses  being,  per- 
haps, the  smallest  into  which  principalities  were  divided.1 
Primogeniture  was  adopted  in  Germany  to  save  the 
princely  families  from  extinction.  The  custom  of  parting 
1  Cecil,  Evelyn,  '  Primogeniture,'  pp.  120,  121. 

158  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

the  father's  property  was  clearly  based  on  a  sense  of 
justice  to  all  the  children  alike.  Its  primitive  form  was 
probably  that  in  which  the  sons  and  daughters  all  had 
their  shares.  This  was  the  custom  of  Frisia,  and  appar- 
ently that  of  the  Northern  Goths,  for  we  find  that  some 
of  their  descendants  at  the  present  time  in  Sweden  have 
the  custom,  and  cling  tenaciously  to  it.  In  Dalecarlia, 
where  the  people  are  of  the  purest  Gothic  descent,  land 
is  divided  equally  among  all  the  children,1  and  conse- 
quently the  divisions  have  in  some  cases  become  very 
small.  A  farmer  in  Dalecarlia  at  the  present  time  occa- 
sionally has  300  parcels  of  land  over  a  district  four  miles 
square.2  In  Gotaland,  also,  the  land  is  partible,  and  in 
case  of  sale  the  relatives  have  the  first  right  of  purchase.3 
It  is  not  difficult  to  understand  how  among  a  warlike 
people  like  the  Saxons,  or  even  the  Goths  themselves 
after  they  had  left  their  Northern  home,  a  modification 
of  the  partible  inheritance  custom  of  their  ancestors  might 
have  been  found  necessary,  and  so  that  which  in  more 
ancient  and  perhaps  more  peaceful  times  had  been 
shared  by  both  males  and  females  was  limited  under  dif- 
ferent conditions  of  life  to  male  children  only.  This  was 
the  custom  of  the  Germans  as  described  by  Tacitus. 
Male  inheritance  was  the  custom  of  the  Saxons,4  and  in 
the  custom  of  gavelkind,  by  which  daughters  shared  only 
in  default  of  sons,  it  was,  and  is  still,  the  custom  in  Kent, 
which  was  settled  by  Goths  and  Frisians. 

In  the  laws  of  the  Visigoths  land  is  stated  to  be  heredi- 
tary property,  and  there  is  special  reference  to  its  division 
among  co-heirs.5  The  rule  of  this  code  was  equal  division 
among  sons  and  daughters  alike.6  Just  beyond  the 
present  border  of  Goteborg,  on  the  south-eastern  frontier 
of  Norway,  the  river  Glommen  flows  into  the  sea,  and  on 

1  du  Chaillu,  P.  B.,  loc.  cit.,  ii.  255. 

2  Baring-Gould,  S.,  loc.  cit.,  84. 

3  du  Chaillu,  P.  B.,  loc.  cit.,  ii.  336. 

4  Vide   '  luris    Provinci  alis  quod   speculum  Saxonum  vulgo 
nuncipatur  Samosci,'  1502.  5  Lex  Visigothum,  viii. 

6  Cecil,  Evelyn,  '  Primogeniture,'  p.  153. 

Customs  of  Inheritance.  1 59 

an  island  near  the  mouth  of  this  river*  a  remarkable 
inscription  in  Gothic  runes  was  discovered  on  a  stone 
weighing  many  tons.1  The  size  and  weight  of  the  stone 
are  sufficient  to  prove  that  this  inscription  was  no  wan- 
derer. It  could  not  have  been  carried  from  place  to  place 
or  from  country  to  country,  as  a  ring  or  brooch  with  runic 
characters  might  have  been.  The  inscription  is  in  pure 
Gothic,  such  as  Bishop  Ulphilas  wrote  for  the  Moeso-Goths 
who  migrated  from  the  north  and  settled  near  the  mouth 
of  the  Danube.  This  inscription  is  not  perfect,  but  what 
remains  has  been  translated  as  follows  : 

'  Three  daughters  shared  .  .  .  Wodarid  st. 
They  the  heiresses  share  the  heritage.' 

The  daughters  of  the  Gothic  race  still  share  the  heritage 
in  Dalecarlia,  in  Frisia,  and,  after  the  sons,  they  still 
share  it  by  ancient  custom  in  Kent  and  other  parts  of 
England.  They  did  not  share  it  in  Norway,  nor  in  Old 
Saxony,  nor  among  the  Angles,  nor  in  the  tribes  of  Ger- 
many closely  connected  with  them.  Among  the  Conti- 
nental Angle  tribes  the  distinct  feature  of  succession  which 
can  be  most  strongly  traced  is  that  of  male  inheritance. 
This  is  found  in  the  laws  of  the  Angles  and  Warings  that 
were  sanctioned  by  Charlemagne.  Similarly,  among  the 
Continental  Saxons  the  rule  of  inheritance  gave  the  pre- 
ference to  descendants  of  males  over  those  of  females  as 
far  as  the  fifth  generation.2 

In  England  there  is  a  reference  to  the  descent  of  land 
being  limited  to  male  succession  in  a  charter  dated 
A.D.  963,  relating  to  a  lease,  for  three  lives,  of  land  at 
Cotheridge  in  Worcestershire.  In  this  it  is  expressly 
stipulated  that  the  land  is  to  descend  on  the  spear  hand.3 
Still  further  back  the  Anglian  custom  of  limiting  the  suc- 
cession to  males  must  have  prevailed  in  parts  of  Mercia, 
for  in  A.D.  784  Off  a  made  a  grant  of  land  in  which  the 

1  Vigfusson,    G.,    and    York    Powell,    R,    '  Corpus    Poeticum 
Boreale,'  i.  573. 

2  Lappenberg,  J.  M.,  '  England  under  the  Saxon  Kings.'  ii.  120. 

3  Cart.  Sax.,  iii.  339. 

160  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

succession  is  limited  to  the  male  line.1  The  only  places 
in  the  Midland  counties  where  we  can  trace  old  customs  of 
inheritance  that  give  a  reversion  to  females  after  males 
are  those  that  were  comprised  within  the  Soke  of  Rothley 
in  Leicestershire,2  and  Leicestershire  apparently  had  some 
Gothic  or  Frisian  settlers.  The  Mercian  customs  gene- 
rally show  a  marked  difference  from  the  Kentish  custom, 
and  that  which  can  be  traced  in  parts  of  the  South- 
western counties. 

The  customs  of  rustic  primogeniture,  ultimogeniture,  or 
succession  by  the  youngest,  and  partible  inheritance,  all 
of  them  with  some  variations  in  detail,  remain  as  witnesses 
before  us  of  the  three  chief  schemes  under  which  the  land 
of  England  in  Anglo-Saxon  time  passed  from  the  fathers 
to  their  successors  ;  and  the  three  systems  can  be  traced 
to  different  parts  of  the  Continent  from  which  Angles, 
Saxons,  and  Jutes  or  Goths  came.  Of  these,  the  partible 
custom  was  the  widest  spread  in  Germany,  and  probably 
in  England  and  Scandinavia  ;  rustic  primogeniture  in  the 
North  of  England  and  Norway ;  and  junior  right  on  many 
English  manors  and  scattered  districts  on  the  Continent, 
but  on  the  east  of  the  Elbe  it  prevailed  as  a  custom  over 
great  territories. 

The  general  absence  of  testamentary  power  among  the 
Germanic  tribes  was  long  continued  by  their  descendants 
who  settled  in  England.  It  was  not  until  a  comparatively 
recent  time  that  persons  who  held  estates  as  manorial 
tenants,  known  as  copyholders,  could  by  their  wills 
bequeath  their  lands  and  tenements  to  whom  they  wished. 
By  the  custom  of  many  manors,  however,  they  could  de- 
vise their  holdings  by  a  process  of  surrendering  them  into 
the  hands  of  the  lord  in  his  court.  Those  manors  and 
boroughs,  consequently,  whose  tenants  and  burgesses  had 
the  absolute  right  of  bequeathing  their  estates  without 
reference  to  their  lords  and  their  courts  possessed  a 
valuable  privilege,  which  had  come  down  from  the  remote 
time  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  period.  This  power  was  ex- 

1  Codex  Dipl.,  Introd.,  xxxiii.  2  Arch&ologia,  xlvii.  97. 

Customs  of  Inheritance.  1 6 1 

tended  to  all  copyholders  by  the  Statute  of  Wills  passed 
in  the  reign  of  Henry  VIII.1  That  such  an  Act  was  neces- 
sary in  the  sixteenth  century  shows  what  an  exceptional 
privilege  among  the  lower  class  of  tenants  the  old  cus- 
tomary right,  where  it  prevailed,  really  was  ;  and  as  it  did 
not  prevail  among  the  ancient  German  tribes,  its  origin 
may  perhaps  be  traced  to  settlers  of  Northern  descent. 

From  the  circumstance  that  the  custom  of  dividing  the 
father's  lands  prevailed  among  the  socmen  of  the  Danish 
districts  in  England  during  the  later  Saxon  period,  we 
may  conclude  that  partible  inheritance  was  a  custom  of 
Denmark.  The  two  leading  features  of  socage  holdings 
were  :  (i)  That  it  was  certain  both  in  tenure  and  the 
services  due  from  the  holder  ;  (2)  it  was  held  by  custom 
of  the  manor.2  Socmen  were  thus  freemen,  and  they  are 
chiefly  mentioned  in  Domesday  Book  in  districts  within 
the  Danelaw.  As  Scandinavian  settlements,  however, 
can  be  traced  in  counties  west  of  the  great  Danish  districts 
in  England,  so  many  socmen  or  freemen  of  this  kind  are 
mentioned  in  Domesday  Book  outside  the  Danelaw  in  the 
central  and  western  counties.  It  appears  to  be  certain 
that  much  of  the  land  which  was  held  by  socage  tenure 
remained  partible  until  some  time  after  the  Conquest.3 
The  preference  in  the  partition  of  land,  according  to  the 
Norwegian  custom,  which  the  eldest  son  enjoyed  has 
already  been  pointed  out.  A  similar  preference  appears 
to  have  existed  largely  on  the  socage  lands  that  were  by 
custom  divided  in  England,  so  that  the  change  by  which 
the  eldest  son  became  the  sole  heir,  instead  of  the  first  of 
them,  crept  in  by  degrees,  probably  in  imitation  of  feudal 
tenure,  the  owners  of  socage  lands  choosing  rather  to 
deprive  their  younger  sons  of  their  customary  share  than 
that  the  elder  should  not  be  in  a  position  to  keep  up  the 
family  influence  or  dignity.4 

1  Elton,  C.  I.,  and  Mackay,  H.  J.  H.,  '  Law  of  Copyholds,'  83. 

2  Vinogradoff,  P.,  '  Villainage,'  197. 

3  Glanville,  R.  de,  loc.  cit.,  Ivii.,  chap.  i. 

4  Elton,  C.  I.,  'Gavelkind,'  17. 




WITH  the  origin  of  any  nation  its  early  institutions 
must  necessarily  have  been  closely  connected. 
Some  of  the  most  interesting  traces  of  Anglo- 
Saxon  life  may  be  followed  as  far  back  as  the  time  of  the 
settlement.    The  changes  which  time  has  brought  about  in 
the  early  institutions  that  came  into  England  with  our 
tribal  forefathers  make  it  difficult  to  form  an  accurate 
estimate  of  them  from   the    knowledge  we  have  of  the 
organization  that  prevailed  during  the  later  part  of  the  Old 
English  period.    The  later  part  of  the  period  is  historic, 
the  earlier  is  prehistoric.     We  know  that  much  which  was 
concerned  with  the  organization  of  settlers  by  families, 
with  their  local   government  and  the  administration  of 
law,  did  survive  from  the  earlier  to  the  later  period,  but 
much  must  have  been  changed  or  modified.     The  earliest 
dialects  show  important  variations  from  the  language 
of  the  time  of  the  last  Saxon  King.     Similarly,  we  can 
trace  developments  by  studying  the  various  collections 
or  codes  of  Anglo-Saxon  law  that  have  come  down  to  us. 
The  earliest  are  those  of  ^Ethelbert,  King  of  Kent,  about 
the  beginning  of  the  seventh  century,   and  these   are 
archaic  compared  with  those  of  the  later  period.     During 
the  Saxon  Age  progress  was  going  on,  although  but  slowly. 
The   dialects  of  the   tribes  became   the  language  of  a 
nation,  the  territorial  organizations  of  counties  and  hun- 


Family  Settlements  and  Early  Organization.     163 

dreds  were  developed  out  of  the  tribal  districts  and  the 
local  organizations  of  the  kindred  or  maegth.     The  laws 
developed  so  as  to  be  better  adapted  to  the  increasing 
population   and   the   new   areas   which   were   becoming 
gradually   occupied.     The   courts  by  which   they  were 
administered  grew  in  importance,  and  the  general  laws 
and  customs  of  the  areas  that  afterwards  formed  the 
later  shires  became  more  fully  recognised.     The  collec- 
tive responsibility  of  the  kindred  passed  into  the  col- 
lective responsibility  of  the  hundred,  and  changes  in  the 
territorial    jurisdiction    were    probably    in    many    cases 
made.     Yet,  with   all   these   and   other   changes,  there 
survived  one  great  underlying  principle  which  was  a 
characteristic  of  the  Anglo-Saxons  in  their  tribal  state — 
the  principle  of  local  self-government.     This  can  be  traced 
to  the  German  and  Scandian  fatherlands  of  the  settlers, 
and  was  brought  to  English  soil  by  our  earliest  tribal 
ancestors.     The  Anglo-Saxon  people  were  of  two  classes 
—  viz.,  those  who  were  freemen,  and   took  part  in  the 
government  of  their  districts,  and  those  who  were  not 
freemen,   for  whom   their  lords  were   answerable.      As 
regards  the  freemen,  the  principle  of  local  government 
appears  in  its  origin  to  have  been  closely  connected  with 
the  organization  of  people  of  the  same  kin.     In  early 
Anglo-Saxon   institutions   prominence   is   given   to   the 
kindred  or  maegth.     People  within  the  recognised  degree 
of  kinship  were  necessarily  bound  together  as  an  organized 
body  by   their  collective   responsibility,   that   they   all 
should  be  law-abiding.     This  kindred  organization  is  the 
most  natural  to  any  people  in  a  tribal  state.     It  was 
certainly  brought  into  England  by   the   tribal  Anglo- 
Saxons,  but  it  was  no  doubt  here  previously  among  the 
Britons,  since  it  survived  among  the  Welsh  in  a  special 
form  for  many   centuries.      The   tribal]  people  at   the 
time  of  their  settlement  were  organized  locally,  so  that 
the  kindred  as  a  body  were  liable  for  the  good  behaviour 
of  every  member  of  that  body,  and,  on  the  other  hand, 

II — 2 

164  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

they  defended  each  other  against  injury  by  others  out- 
side their  organization.  If  one  of  their  number  had 
injury  done  him,  the  fine  payable  by  another  msegth  or 
body  of  kindred  was  shared  by  them.  They  paid  the 
fines  or  wergelds,  and  they  received  them.  From  this 
it  follows  that  the  family  tie  was  the  basis  of  all  govern- 
ment, and  the  early  settlements  must  have  been  com- 
munities of  people  of  the  same  kindred.  If  the  kindred 
had  been  much  scattered  they  could  not  have  retained 
their  organization.  These  bodies  of  kinsmen  united 
together  formed  a  larger  political  unit  of  some  kind. 
Thus,  by  a  comparison  with  what  is  known  to  have  ex- 
isted among  the  German  tribes  in  the  early  centuries  of 
our  era,  and  what  can  be  traced  to  a  remote  period  among 
the  Scandian  tribes,  we  can  understand  the  early  organi- 
zation which  settlers  from  these  countries  brought  into 
England.  As  an  American  writer1  has  said  :  '  We  can 
now  trace  the  slender  thread  of  political  and  legal  thought, 
so  familiar  to  our  ancestors,  through  the  wild  lawlessness 
of  the  heptarchy  and  the  confusion  of  feudalism,  and  can 
follow  it  safely  and  firmly  back  until  it  leads  us  out 
upon  the  wide  plains  of  Northern  Germany,  and  attaches 
itself  at  last  to  the  primitive  popular  assembly,  parlia- 
ment, law-court,  and  army  all  in  one.'  In  our  study  of 
the  English  settlement  it  is  this  local  administration  of 
the  law  by  the  freemen  of  any  district  which  comes 
prominently  before  us  in  the  earliest  assemblies  or  courts 
which  we  can  trace,  and  in  the  organization  of  the  later 
Hundred  Court.  This  principle  of  local  justice,  which 
survived  so  long  in  England  in  a  modified  form,  not- 
withstanding many  political  changes,  has  left  the  names 
of  its  courts  in  the  names  of  some  of  the  extinct  hundreds, 
and  surviving  evidence  of  its  legal  power  in  the  sites  and 
names  of  its  places  of  execution.  Gallows  and  gibbet 
names  are  found  on  our  Ordnance  maps,  and  there  are 
many  others,  which  are  known  locally,  still  attached 

1   Adams,  Henry,  '  The  Anglo-Saxon  Courts  of  Law.'    '  Essays 
in  Anglo-Saxon  Law,'  Boston,  1876,  p.  i. 

Family  Settlements  and  Early  Organization.     165 

to  sites  where  the  most  severe  penalties  of  the  law  were 
carried  out.  The  survival  of  many  Continental  tribal 
and  clan  names  in  all  the  Anglo-Saxon  States,  side 
by  side  with  different  manorial  customary  laws,  is 
evidence  of  a  great  commingling  in  England  of  Conti- 
nental tribal  immigrants.  The  tribal  traditions  lived 
long  on  English  soil.  The  early  Kings  were  styled  Kings 
of  people  and  not  of  territories.  As  new  tribal  States 
were  formed  in  England,  the  ealdormen,  who  were  their 
viceroys,  took  their  titles  from  their  tribes  and  not  from 
their  States,  such  as  the  Ealdorman  of  the  Sumersaetas, 
the  Hecanas,  the  Wilsaetas,  etc.  After  the  conversion 
of  the  people  to  Christianity  grants  by  early  Kings  of 
the  power  of  administering  justice  in  their  territories  to 
Abbots  and  other  great  men — i.e.,  seignorial  jurisdiction — 
certainly  were  made.  The  early  charters  of  the  Abbeys 
of  Peterborough,  Glastonbury,  and  others,  show  that  in 
whatever  words  the  power  may  have  been  conferred,  it 
was  a  reality.  It  is  this  early  delegation  of  judicial 
authority  which  imparts  so  great  an  interest  to  some  of 
the  sites  which  were  the  meeting-places  of  old  courts, 
or  some  of  the  ancient  places  of  execution.  Cnut,  in  his 
laws,  reaffirms  the  legal  authority  which  the  King  has 
over  all  men  in  Wessex,  unless,  he  adds,  '  he  will  more 
amply  honour  anyone  and  concede  to  him  this  worship.' 
It  was  in  regard  to  the  freemen  only  that  the  administra- 
tion of  the  law  was  closely  connected  with  the  organiza- 
tion of  the  kindred.  If  an  unfree  man  was  accused  of 
any  crime,  the  oaths  of  his  brothers,  uncles,  and  cousins 
were  not  acceptable  as  evidence  of  his  innocence,  for 
by  remote  tribal  custom,  which  prevailed  for  centuries 
after  the  early  Anglo-Saxon  settlement,  such  relatives  had 
not  the  privileges  of  a  free  kindred.  If  a  man  was  made 
a  freeman  he  was  still  by  tribal  custom  without  kindred 
to  answer  for  him,  and  the  lord  had  to  do  this  until  after 
several  generations  his  descendants  had  become  a  kindred.1 

1  Laws  of  Wihtraed,  8,  and  Seebohm,  R,  '  Tribal  Custom  in 
Anglo-Saxon  Law,'  46. 

1 66          Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

The  unfree  man  could  clear  himself  of  the  crime  im- 
puted to  him  by  the  ordeal,  of  which  there  were  several 
kinds,  such  as  the  trial  by  red-hot  iron  and  by  boiling 
water,  which  after  the  conversion  of  the  Old  English  people 
to  Christianity  were  carried  out  in  the  churches  as  a 
religious  sendee.1  For  the  ordeal  by  hot  water  a  fire  was 
kindled  under  a  caldron  in  a  remote  part  of  the  church. 
At  a  certain  depth  below  the  surface  of  the  water  a  stone 
or  a  piece  of  iron  was  placed.  Strangers  were  excluded, 
and  the  accused  was  attended  only  by  twelve  friends. 
The  priest  said  or  sang  the  Litany,  and  at  its  conclusion 
a  deputy  from  each  side  was  sent  to  ascertain  the  heat 
of  the  water.  On  their  declaration  that  the  water  was 
boiling,  the  accused  plunged  his  naked  arm  into  the 
caldron  and  brought  out  the  stone  or  iron.  The  priest 
instantly  wrapped  the  arm  in  a  linen  cloth  and  fastened 
it  with  the  seal  of  the  Church.  At  the  expiration  of  three 
days,  the  fate  of  the  accused  was  decided  according  to 
the  appearance  of  the  scalded  arm.  If  the  appearance 
of  the  arm  was  decidedly  bad,  the  unfortunate  man  was 
led  away  to  execution. 

For  the  ordeal  by  hot  iron  the  same  precautions  were 
observed  in  regard  to  the  number  of  attendants,  and  the 
Mass  appears  to  have  been  celebrated.  As  soon  as  it 
began  a  bar  of  iron  of  the  weight  of  one  or  three  pounds, 
according  to  the  nature  of  the  accusation,  was  laid  upon 
the  coals.  At  the  last  Collect  it  was  taken  off  and  placed 
upon  a  pillar.  The  accused  instantly  took  it  up  with  his 
hand,  made  three  steps  on  the  lines  previously  marked 
out  to  nine  feet  in  length,  and  threw  it  down.  The 
treatment  of  the }  burn  and  the  indications  of  guilt 
or  innocence  were  the  same  as  in  the  trial  by  hot 
water.2  Such  customs  as  these,  modified  by  Christian 
usage,  could  only  have  had  their  origin  among  people 
in  an  archaic  tribal  condition. 

1  Lingard,  J.,  '  History  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Church,'  ii.  135. 

2  Ibid.,  ii.  136. 

Family  Settlements  and  Early  Organization.     167 

It  was  from  such  a  trial  that  a  freeman  accused  of  any 
crime  could  be  saved  by  his  kinsmen  acting  as  his  com- 
purgators  or  oath-helpers,  and  taking  oath  that  they 
believed  him  to  be  innocent.  There  can  thus  be  no  doubt 
that  the  principle  underlying  the  structure  of  tribal 
society  was  that  of  blood  relationship  among  the  free 
tribesmen.1  This  was  the  basis  of  the  old  customary 
laws  introduced  by  the  early  Anglo-Saxons.  They 
brought  their  tribal  law  with  them,  being  yet  in  a  tribal 
state.  The  earliest  local  settlements  we  can  trace  are 
those  of  families,  and  these  were  very  often  called  by  the 
name  of  their  head,  by  which  the  family  and  descendants 
were  commonly  known.  Among  the  early  Anglo-Saxon 
tribes  every  freeman  had  two  maegths  —  that  of  his 
father  or  paternal  kin,  and  that  of  his  mother  or  maternal 
kin.  These  groups,  entirely  distinct  before  his  birth, 
united  in  his  person,  and  both  had  with  him  rights  and 
duties  of  kindred,  but  in  different  degrees.2  Those  only 
were  of  kin  and  belonging  to  the  maegth  who  had  common 
blood  originating  from  lawful  marriage.  In  considering 
the  rights  and  duties  of  a  man's  kindred,  we  can,  there- 
fore, see  that  marriages  must  in  almost  all  cases  have  been 
limited  to  families  or  groups  of  kinsmen  living  at  no  great 
distance  apart.  The  degrees  of  relationship  within  which 
the  duties  and  rights  of  kindred  were  confined  consti- 
tuted what  was  called  the  sippe,  which  can  be  clearly 
traced  in  Germany,  and  of  which  some  traces  are  still 
existing  in  England  at  the  present  day.  This  archaic 
institution  is  one  of  the  most  curious  survivals  of  the 
Teutonic  race.  It  survived  in  England  in  the  law  of 
cousinship,  and  traces  of  it  may  probably  still  be  found 
in  some  place-names.  Bracton,  who  wrote  in  the  thir- 
teenth century,  tells  us  of  the  law  of  succession  in  his  time. 
He  says :  '  Of  kinship  and  of  relationship  some  are 

1  Seebohm,  F.,  '  Tribal  Custom  in  Wales,'  54. 

2  Young,  Ernest,  '  The  Anglo-Saxon  Family  Law.'    «  Essays  in 
Anglo-Saxon  Law,'  125. 

1 68  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

upwards  and  others  are  downwards,  and  others  are 
travers  or  sidewards.  Ancestors  succeed  on  failure  of 
those  below  them.  The  computation  does  not  go  beyond 
the  sixth  grade  or  degree — i.e.,  great-great-grandfather's 
great-grandfather,  because  such  a  computation  would  be 
beyond  the  memory  of  mankind.'1 

The  early  German  method  of  reckoning  the  degrees  of 
side-relationships  is  described  in  documentary  evidence 
of  the  thirteenth  century,2  but  comes  down  from  a  much 
earlier  time.  It  is  explained  by  reference  to  the  joints 
of  the  human  body  from  the  head  to  the  tips  of  the 
fingers.  There  are  thus  to  be  observed  seven  joints  in 
the  human  frame — viz.,  those  of  (i)  the  neck,  (z)  the 
shoulders,  (3)  the  elbow,  (4)  the  wrist,  and  (5,  6,  and  7)  the 
joints  of  the  ringers.  Then  we  read  :  '  Now  mark  where 
the  sippe  begins  and  where  it  ends.  In  the  head  it  is 
ordered  that  man  and  wife  do  stand  who  have  come 
together  in  lawful  wedlock.  In  the  joint  of  the  neck 
stand  the  children,  born  of  the  same  father  and  mother. 
Half-brothers  and  sisters  may  not  stand  in  the  neck, 
but  descend  to  the  next.  Full  brothers'  and  sisters' 
children  stand  in  the  joint  where  the  shoulder  and  arm 
come  together.  This  is  the  first  quarter  of  the  sippe 
which  is  reckoned  to  the  maegen,  brothers'  and  sisters' 
children.  In  the  elbow  stands  the  next ;  in  the  wrist  the 
third  ;  in  the  first  joint  of  the  middle  finger  the  fourth ;  in 
the  next  joint  the  fifth ;  in  the  third  joint  of  the  middle 
finger  the  sixth ;  in  the  seventh  stands  a  nail,  and  therefore 
ends  here  the  sippe,  and  this  is  called  the  nail  mage.' 

All  this  is  important  in  considering  the  influence  of  the 
maegth  or  kindred  in  connection  with  the  English  settle- 
ment and  Old  English  life.  The  name  constantly  comes 
before  us  in  records  of  the  period.  We  read  of  the 

1  Bracton,  H.  de,  '  De   legibus  et  consuetudinibus   Angliae,' 

i-  553- 

3  Young,  Ernest,  loc.  cit.,  quoting  '  The  Sachsenspiegel,'  I.  3, 
par.  3. 

Family  Settlements  and  Early  Organization.     169 

Maegasetas  of  Herefordshire  and  Gloucestershire,  and 
the  maegth  name,  the  g  sound  having  passed  into  y, 
probably  appears  in  many  Old  English  place-names. 
Nor  is  the  end  of  the  sippe  wanting  among  our  ancient 
topographical  names.  The  nail,  as  the  name  for  the 
limit  of  kindred,  perhaps,  still  survives  in  those  of  Nails- 
worth,  Nailsea,  and  the  stream  called  Nailbourn  in  Kent. 
In  a  charter  relating  to  land  at  Salwarpe  in  Worcester- 
shire in  817  the  Naelesbroc  is  mentioned  as  a  boun- 
dary stream.1  These  names  are  only  curious  survivals 
or  dim  shadows  at  the  present  day,  but  they  were  full  of 
life  and  meaning  to  our  Old  English  forefathers. 

When  a  man  committed  a  crime  in  Wessex,  as  we  learn 
from  the  laws  of  King  Alfred,  two-thirds  of  the  wergeld 
or  fine  had  to  be  paid  by  his  father's  maegth,  and  one- 
third  by  his  mother's  maegth.2  As  the  individual  mem- 
bers of  the  maegth  became  powerful  and  wealthy,  a 
tendency  appeared  on  the  part  of  the  rich  to  discard 
their  poorer  kin.  Thus,  a  freeman  need  not  pay  the 
wergeld  of  a  slave  or  of  one  who  had  forfeited  his  freedom.3 
Moreover,  as  time  went  on,  the  tendency  to  weaken  the 
tie  of  kinship  was  encouraged  by  the  State,  which  had 
much  to  fear  from  the  independence  of  powerful  families, 
and  whose  peace  was  endangered  by  the  continuance  of 
the  old  system  of  private  vengeance,4  which  was  one  of 
the  old  obligations  of  kinsmen  if  the  wergeld  was  not 
paid  them.  King  Edmund  tried  to  break  this  down  by 
permitting  a  maegth  to  abandon  their  kinsmen  guilty  of 
homicide.  The  influence  of  the  Church  also  tended  to 
weaken  the  kindred  tie  in  the  case  of  religious  Orders, 
for  those  who  became  monks  lost  all  the  rights  of  kindred. 
In  some  cases,  also,  a  man  lost  his  family  rights  as  a 
penalty.  In  the  forty-second  law  of  Alfred  it  is  ordered 
that  a  man  who  should  attack  his  foe  after  he  had  yielded 

1  Cart.  Sax.,  i.  501.  2  Laws  of  King  Alfred,  27. 

3  Laws  of  Ine,  74,  par.  2  ;  ^Ethelstan,  vi.  1 2,  par.  2. 

4  Young,  Ernest,  loc.  cit.,  p.  140, 

170  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

should  forfeit  his  right  to  the  maegth.  All  these  laws 
and  customs  relating  to  the  maegth  refer  to  one  of  the 
oldest  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  institutions  affecting  social 
life  and  the  administration  of  law.  The  maegth  and  its 
organizations  assist  us  in  understanding  the  settlement 
of  the  Anglo-Saxons  by  families.  All  over  England  we 
find  evidence  of  this  in  the  Saxon  place-names,  many  of 
which  are  tribal  names,  or  derived  from  them.  These 
family  settlements  made  up  the  larger  community  of  the 
maegth,  whose  existence  as  the  basis  of  organization  is 
evidence  of  the  formation  of  villages  or  communities  of 
people  within  the  recognised  degrees  of  kindred. 

The  term  sibscraft  for  kinsmanship,  and  also  mcegth 
and  sippe,  denoting  kindred,  became  disused  at  the  close 
of  the  Saxon  period.  In  many  parts  of  England,  however, 
it  is  probable  that  the  name  of  the  old  maegth  survives 
in  the  modern  form  may  or  maid.  In  the  old  country 
of  the  tribal  Maegesetas  there  are  two  hills,  May  Hill 
near  Ross,  and  another  near  Monmouth,  whose  names 
are  probably  examples.  The  numerous  earthworks  called 
Maiden  Castle,  many  of  them  of  Celtic  origin,  were 
probably  used  as  defensive  earthworks  by  the  early 
maegths.  Some  of  these,  which  comprised  many  families, 
were  certainly  large  communities,  and  we  know  that  the 
repair  of  local  fortifications  was  one  of  the  obligations  of 
all  Anglo-Saxons.  The  words  mceden  and  mcegden- 
man  as  variants  of  maegth  are  mentioned  in  the  Anglo- 
Saxon  laws.  These  maiden  names  have  thus  probably 
been  derived  from  the  msegth.  The  maegenstan,  or 
boundary  of  the  maegth,  is  mentioned  in  a  charter  re- 
lating to  Ashbury  in  Berks  in  856,  and  there  are  many 
instances  in  which  the  origin  of  such  names  as  Maybury 
and  Mayland  may  reasonably  be  traced  to  an  old  masgth. 
Maidenhead,  originally  Maydenhithe,  Maidstone  or  May- 
denstan,  and  similar  names,  are  probably  examples  which 
in  their  old  forms  referred  to  a  maegth. 

The  sippe  name,  modified  in  sound,  probably  survived 
in  the  Anglo-Saxon  names  Siberton  in  Northampton- 

Family  Settlements  and  Early  Organization.     171 

shire,  Sibbestapele  and  Sibbeslea  in  Worcestershire, 
Sibestun  in  Huntingdonshire,  Sibbeswey  and  Sibling- 
chryst  in  Hampshire.1  The  word  sibry  was  also  an 
equivalent  for  kinship,  but  while  in  our  common  tongue 
the  latter  survived,  the  former  passed  into  disuse.  Other 
old  names,  such  as  Sipson  in  Middlesex,  Sibley  Heading- 
ham  in  Essex,  Sibsey  in  Lincolnshire,  Sibthorp  in  Notts, 
Sibton  Sheales  in  Northumberland,  and  Sibbertoft  in 
Northamptonshire,  appear  to  be  names  of  the  same  kind. 
Another  trace  of  the  old  word  sippe  for  kindred  may  be 
found  in  the  word  gossip,  which  originally  meant  a 
godsip  or  god-parent,  and  was  so  used  as  late  as  the 
seventeenth  century. 

The  sippe,  as  we  have  seen,  included  in  all  seven  joints 
or  degrees,  and  as  a  whole,  therefore,  nine  generations, 
reckoned  on  the  human  frame  thus  :  Head,  neck,  shoulder, 
elbow,  wrist,  first  finger-joint,  second  joint,  third  joint, 
and  nail.  Within  these  nine  generations  it  was  pos- 
sible for  a  family  to  form  a  large  community,  and  some 
settlements  were  no  doubt  of  one  family  descent  only. 
There  is  an  interesting  reference  to  the  sippe  and  its 
joints  in  the  laws  of  ^Ethelstan  relating  to  the  degree  of 
kinship  within  which  marriages  were  not  permissible. 
'  And  let  it  never  happen  that  a  Christian  man  marry 
within  the  relationship  of  six  persons  of  his  own  kin — 
that  is,  within  the  fourth  joint. '2  The  fourth  joint  was 
the  wrist.  A  similar  reference  occurs  in  the  laws  of 
Cnut.  In  old  Frisian  law  relating  to  the  next  of  kin, 
in  the  case  where  a  man  or  woman  dies  and  leaves  no 
near  relatives  to  divide  the  property,  the  sibbosta  sex 
honda  is  mentioned — that  is,  their  six  next  of  kin,  viz., 
father,  mother,  brother,  sister,  child  and  child's  child.3 
The  first  instalment  of  the  wergeld,  called  the  healsfang, 
which  the  msegth  or  kindred,  in  the  case  where  a  member 

1  Codex  Dipl.,  Nos.  964,  209,  1094,  595,  589,  and  Dom.  Bk. 

2  Laws    of    ^Ethelstan,    vi.     12,   quoted    by    Ernest     Young, 
Anglo-Saxon  Family  Law,'  pp.  127,  128. 

3  Young,  Ernest,  loc.  cit.,  p.  133. 

172  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

was  killed  or  injured,  was  entitled  to  receive,  was  shared 
equally  between  the  father,  the  children,  brothers,  and 
the  paternal  uncles.  The  rest  of  the  fine  was  shared  by 
the  whole  kindred,1  but  it  does  not  appear  that  any 
record  remains  to  show  exactly  how  or  in  what  propor- 

There  is  another  aspect  from  which  the  msegth  or 
kindred  may  be  viewed,  and  that  is  in  relation  to  oath- 
taking.  It  is  not  possible  for  us  to  realize  fully  the  oath- 
taking  that  was  carried  on  as  a  judicial  system  among 
the  Old  English  and  the  tribes  from  which  they  sprang. 
If  a  man  was  accused  of  a  certain  crime,  and  he  swore  he 
was  innocent,  he  had  the  right  of  proof,  and  called  his 
oath-helpers  around  him.  If  they  took  oath  that  they 
believed  his  oath  to  be  clean,  and  that  he  did  not  commit 
the  crime,  his  acquittal  followed  as  a  matter  of  course. 
This  was  trial  by  compurgation,  and  much  depended  on 
which  party  had  the  right  of  proof.  A  man  naturally 
looked  to  his  kindred  for  his  oath-helpers,  and  the  wider 
his  kindred,  the  more  numerous  were  those  he  could 
generally  gather  for  his  defence.  He  had,  no  doubt,  to 
convince  them  that  he  was  innocent,  and  they  would  be 
ready  to  take  oaths  in  his  defence,  for  if  he  was  proved 
guilty  they  would,  as  his  kindred,  be  liable  to  pay  his  fine. 

It  is  not  possible  to.  understand  the  circumstances  of 
the  settlement  and  life  of  the  Old  English  people  without 
realizing  the  great  importance  of  the  kindred  tie.  In  the 
many  instances  in  which  we  find  old  settlements  named 
as  the  tun  or  ham  of  a  man,  the  settlement  was  not  only 
the  tun  or  ham  of  a  man,  but  also  of  his  family  and  of 
some,  at  least,  of  his  near  kindred  who  assisted  him  in 
the  cultivation  of  the  land.  The  -ing  terminal  part  of 
many  place-names  in  south  and  south-eastern  England 
had  a  wider  significance  than  merely  '  son  of.'  In 
many  cases  it  included  all  the  near  kindred,  probably 
in  some  cases  all  those  who  were  liable  as  kinsmen. 
Viewed  in  this  light,  such  place-names  as  Basing,  Mailing, 
1  Young,  Ernest,  loc.  cit.,  p.  144. 


Family  Settlements  and  Early  Organization.     173 

Goring,    Semiring,    and    Charing,    and    those    ending    in 
-ingham,  -ington,  and  others  of  a  similar  kind,  denoted 
bodies  of  kinsmen  having  an  organization  of  their  own. 
Such  names  may  thus  be  traced  to  family  settlements, 
comprising,   as  time  went   on,    in   some    cases   persons 
who  were  not  only  children  or   grandchildren    of    the 
original  head  of  the  family,  but  relatives  within  the  limit 
of  the  sippe,  to  the  seventh  degree  of  relationship.     As 
these  settlements  sent  off  some  of  their  number  to  form 
other  settlements  in  the  forest-land  or  other  unoccupied 
territory,  their  kinship  to  the  parent  stock  would  last 
until  the  nail  had  been  reached — i.e.,  the  limits  of  the 
sippe  had  been  passed — and  the  rural  colonies  had  formed 
new  kindreds  of  their  own,  the  original  kin  or  ken  name 
given  to  them  by  the  first  settlers,  or  the  parent  stock 
whence  they  came,  alone  surviving  to  afford  us  a  dim 
glimpse  of  their  origin.     It  was  one  of  the  duties  of  the 
kindred,  in  the  later  Saxon  time,  at  least,  to  see  that 
the  landless  kinsman  had  a  lord  in  the  folk-gemot,  other- 
wise they  had  themselves  to  become  responsible  for  him 
to  the  State.     This  collective  responsibility  of  the  kindred 
survived  in  England  as  a  tribal  usage  after  many  genera- 
tions of  occupation  and  settlement.     It  survived  for  cen- 
turies after  the  introduction  of  Christianity,  which,  from 
the  sense  of  individual  responsibility,  was  opposed  to  the 
principle  of  joint  responsibility  of  the  kindred.    Neverthe- 
less, this  tribal  custom,  with  its  wergelds  or  fines,  lasted 
long,  and  even  the  clergy  placed  themselves  under  it  by 
claiming  that  a  Bishop's  wergeld  to  be  paid  if  he  were  killed 
should  be  that  of  a  prince,  and  a  priest's  that  of  a  thane.1 
From  what  has  been  said,  it  will  be  seen  that  the  prob- 
ability of  the  Domesday  names  of  some  of  the  hundreds 
being  the  later  names  for  still  older  tribal  areas  of  adminis- 
tration  is    great.     These    older   areas    appear    in   some 
instances  to  be  known  in  Anglo-Saxon  time  by  a  tribal 
name.      Among  such  old  Domesday  hundred  names  are 
Honesberie  in  Warwickshire,  Danais  or  Daneis  in  Hert- 
1  Seebohm,  F.,  '  Tribal  Custom  in  Anglo-Saxon  Law,'  385. 

1 74  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

fordshire,  Godelminge  and  Godelei  in  Surrey,  Estrei  in 
Kent,  Wandelmestrei  and  Bexelei  in  Sussex,  Honeslaw 
in  Middlesex,  Salemanesberie  in  Gloucestershire,  Wederlai 
in  Cambridgeshire,  Normanecros  in  Huntingdonshire, 
Weneslai  and  Wilga  in  Bedfordshire,  Hocheslau  in 
Northamptonshire,  Wensistreu  and  Angre  in  Essex, 
Caninga  in  Somerset,  and  Hunesberge  in  Devon.  In 
addition  to  these,  whose  names  have  apparently  a  con- 
nection with  old  tribes  which  we  can  identify,  there  are 
many  others  whose  names,  ending  in  -ga  or  -ges,  seem  to 
denote  various  clans  or  kindreds.  Of  such  are  Hapinga, 
Lothninga  and  Dochinga  in  Norfolk;  Blidinga  and  Ludinga 
in  Suffolk ;  Clauelinga  and  Rodinges  in  Essex  ;  Wochinges 
in  Surrey ;  Brachinges  in  Hertfordshire  ;  and  Mellinges  and 
Staninges  in  Sussex. 

We  are  not  without  evidence  of  the  existence,  even  in 
the  later  Saxon  time,  of  agricultural  communities  that 
were  their  own  lords,  nor  without  traces  of  the  existence 
of  these  lordless  villages  to  our  own  time.  They  existed 
apparently  here  and  there  within  the  Danelaw,  or  among 
settlers  of  Scandinavian  origin.  Thus,  Domesday  Book 
tells  us,  concerning  Goldentone  in  Bedfordshire,  that  the 
land  there  was  held  by  the  men  of  the  village  in  common, 
and  that  they  had  the  power  to  sell  it.1  Similarly,  at 
the  present  time  in  another  Scandinavian  district,  at 
Ibthorpe,  a  manor  in  the  parish  of  Hurstbourn  Tarrant, 
in  Hampshire,  the  inhabitants  are  lords  of  the  manor, 
and  have  territorial  jurisdiction  over  a  rather  extensive 

In  the  time  of  the  Empire  one  fact  concerning  Celtic, 
German,  and  Wendish  tribes  alike,  which  appears  to 
have  interested  the  Roman  observer,  who  could  find  no 
parallel  to  it  in  his  own  country,  was  the  custom  of  culti- 
vating land  in  common.2  Wendish  immigrants  would 
therefore  bring  with  them,  like  their  much  more  numerous 
Teutonic  neighbours,  a  common  system  of  agriculture. 

1  Domesday  Book,  i.  213  b. 

2  Codex  Dipl.,  Introd.,  i.,  p.  iv. 

Family  Settlements  and  Early  Organization.     175 

On  the  other  hand,  it  must  be  remembered  that  in  the 
social  life  of  our  Old  English  forefathers  no  point  is 
established  by  clearer  evidence  than  the  existence  of 
people  of  all  classes,  from  the  great  lord  down  to  the  slave 
who  could  be  sold.  Slavery  was  an  Anglo-Saxon  institu- 
tion, and  there  are  some  early  records  relating  to  it.  There 
is  an  account  of  a  slave  sold  to  a  Frisian  merchant  in 
London  in  the  seventh  century.  One  of  the  laws  of  Ine 
is  directed  against  '  those  men  who  sell  their  country- 
men,' and  another  of  ^Ethelred  orders  that  '  no  Christian 
or  uncondemned  person  be  sold  out  of  the  country.' 
There  were  slaves  among  the  Old  English  whom  their 
lords  could  dispose  of  from  the  time  of  the  earliest  settle- 
ments. There  were  above  them  unfree  men,  who  had 
certain  rights  and  certain  specified  services  to  render 
to  their  lords.  Above  these  were  the  freemen,  who 
enjoyed  the  protection  of  their  kindred,  aud  thus  formed 
a  large  privileged  class.  An  old  record  says  :  '  It  was 
whilom  in  the  laws  of  the  English  that  people  and  law 
went  by  ranks,  and  then  were  the  witan  of  worship, 
worthy  each  according  to  his  condition.'1 

All  freemen  were  bound  under  penalties  to  attend  the 
local  assemblies  of  their  district,  and  these,  later  on,  were 
the  Hundred  Court  and  Shire  Court.  They  collectively 
administered  the  highest  justice,  and  this  part  of  their 
function  was  recognised  as  late  as  the  time  of  William 
the  Conqueror,  in  one  of  whose  laws  they  are  referred 
to  in  these  words :  '  Let  those  whose  office  it  is  to  pro- 
nounce judgment  take  particular  care  that  they  judge 
in  like  manner  as  they  pray,  when  they  say  "  Forgive  us 
our  trespasses."  .  .  .  Whosoever  promotes  injustice  or 
pronounces  false  judgment  through  anger,  hatred,  or 
avarice,  shall  forfeit  to  the  King  403.,  and  if  he  cannot 
prove  that  he  did  not  know  how  to  give  a  more  right 
judgment,  let  him  lose  his  franchise.'  The  highest  courts 
were  the  courts  of  the  early  primitive  States,  which  after- 
wards were  called  shires,  and  the  local  courts  were  those 

1  Seebohm,  F.,  '  Tribal  Custom  in  Anglo-Saxon  Law,'  367. 

176  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

of  the  smaller  regions,  afterwards  called  hundreds. 
These  courts  were  commonly  held  in  the  open  air  at  well- 
known  meeting-places,  as  in  Germany  and  Scandinavia. 
Even  as  late  as  the  thirteenth  century  the  States  of  East 
Friesland  assembled  under  three  large  oaks  which  grew 
near  Aurich,1  and  open-air  courts  of  the  hundreds  sur- 
vived in  England  to  a  later  date. 

The  various  tribal  names  that  were  in  use  in  England 
before  the  origin  of  the  present  shires  either  must  have 
been  brought  by  the  original  settlers  from  the  Continent 
or  have  been  newer  designations  that  arose  after  their 
settlement.  Such  names  as  Engle,  Waring,  Gewissas, 
Ymbres  or  Ambrones,  Wilsaete,  Thornssete,  and  others, 
are  native  names  that  no  doubt  came  in  with  the  settlers 
themselves.  Others  that  are  met  with  appear  to  have 
had  their  origin  from  topographical  and  other  local 
circumstances.  Few  tribal  names  in  use  on  the  Con- 
tinent survived  as  names  for  tribal  areas  of  England, 
which  shows  that  the  provinces  in  England  were  not 
commonly  settled  by  people  of  one  tribe.  New  desig- 
nations would  thus  become  necessary  for  the  people  of 
various  Continental  tribes  living  in  one  English  tribal 
area.  These  new  names  would  thus  become  the  collective 
names  of  people  of  various  older  tribal  origins,  and  the 
older  names  would  survive  in  England,  if  at  all,  not  as 
tribal  names,  but  as  names  of  settlements,  and  in  many 
instances  of  places  that  were  called  after  the  heads  of 
families  or  small  communities  of  people  of  the  same  kin. 
There  is  a  list  of  Anglo-Saxon  tribes  preserved  in  the 
Harley  MSS.  known  as  the  Tribal  Hidage,  the  earliest 
of  which  is  of  the  tenth  or  eleventh  century,  but  refers 
to  a  considerably  earlier  date.  Some  of  these  tribal  areas 
were  large  and  some  small,  and  others  are  known  to 
have  existed,  for  they  are  mentioned  in  early  records. 
They  will  be  referred  to  later  under  the  several  parts 

1   Mallet,  M.,    '  Northern    Antiquities,'    translated    by    Bishop 
Percy,  ed.  1847,  p.  511,  note. 

Family  Settlements  and  Early  Organization.     177 

of  the  country  of  which  they  apparently  formed  a 

All  the  German  nations  anciently  acted  upon  the 
principle  of  judging  every  man  by  the  laws  of  his  native 
country,  for  which  reason  the  Franks  allowed  the  different 
tribes  subdued  by  them  to  retain  their  own  laws.1  This 
general  custom  of  the  German  tribes  helps  us  to  under- 
stand several  matters  concerning  the  Anglo-Saxons 
which  would  otherwise  be  very  obscure.  The  existence 
of  so  many  small  hundreds  in  the  South-Eastern  and 
Eastern  counties — and  each  hundred  certainly  had  its 
own  court — points  to  the  settlement  in  these  districts 
of  many  different  tribes,  each  judged  by  its  own  cus- 
tomary laws.  On  the  Continent,  Franks,  Burgundians, 
Alamanni,  and  others  of  whatever  nation  living  in  the 
Ripuarian  country,  were  all  judged,  and  dealt  with  if 
guilty,  according  to  the  law  of  the  place  of  their  birth.2 

Ancient  Norway  was  divided  into  districts  called 
shires,  and  it  is  from  this  Scandinavian  name  the  English 
divisional  name  was  probably  derived.  The  early  shires 
or  hundreds  which  are  so  clearly  indicated  in  the  North 
of  England  have  left  their  traces  also  in  other  parts  of 
the  country.  Among  the  probable  survivals  of  their 
names  are  the  old  shires  of  Cornwall,  and  among  others 
in  old  records  are  Pinnockshire,  Blakebornshire,3  and 
Kendalshire  in  the  county  of  Gloucester ;  Upshire  in 
Essex ;  and  Chipshire  in  the  north-west  of  Buckingham- 
shire. These  primitive  shires  were  early  names  of  those 
districts  afterwards  called  hundreds.  The  word  scir  in 
Anglo-Saxon  nomenclature  was  also  applied  to  ecclesi- 
astical as  well  as  to  political  divisions.  Kirkshire  in 
some  parts  of  England  appears  to  have  been  an  early 
name  for  parish,  and  the  possessions  of  the  Archbishop 
of  York  are  mentioned  in  Domesday  Book  as  his  scire. 

1  Menzel,  W.,  '  Hist,  of  Germany,'  i.  162 ;  Monumenta  Germaniae, 
edited  by  Pertz,  i.  2. 

2  Seebohm,  F.,  '  Tribal  Custom  in  Anglo-Saxon  Law,'  166,  and 
Ripuarian  Law,  xxxi.  3  Cal.  Inq.  Post-mortem,  ii.  237. 


178  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

The  name  Sherborne  survives  in  various  parts  of  England. 
In  Dorset  the  territorial  district  or  diocese  of  the  Saxon 
Bishop  of  Sherborne  was  called  Selwoodshire.1 

The  districts  of  Northumberland,  Yorkshire,  and 
Lancashire  which  were  in  ancient  time  called  shires,  and 
in  some  cases  still  are  locally  so  called,  correspond  to 
the  hundreds  or  wapentakes  of  other  counties.  Wessex 
in  the  early  period  of  its  history  comprised  Hants,  Wilts, 
Dorset,  and  Berks,  and  as  time  passed  on,  Somerset, 
Devon,  and  Cornwall  were  added  to  it.  Mercia,  however, 
if  we  are  to  judge  by  the  number  of  its  later  shires,  had 
more  primitive  states  than  Wessex.  There  is  no  more 
reason  to  suppose  that  when  the  shires  of  Mercia  were 
first  recognised  as  counties  these  territories  were  thus 
all  arranged  for  the  first  time  than  there  is  to  suppose 
that  the  states,  called  later  on  Wilts,  Dorset,  and  Somer- 
set, did  not  exist  before  they  were  called  shires.  In 
Mercia  we  read  of  ealdormen  of  the  Hecanas  before  we 
read  of  Herefordshire,  and  of  the  Hwicci  before  we  read 
of  Worcestershire.  Every  early  state  which  later  on 
became  a  county  had  its  viceroy.  Mercia,  having  so 
many  more  states,  would  be  likely  to  have  more  ealdor- 
men or  viceroys  than  Wessex  on  great  occasions  to  witness 
the  charters  of  the  Mercian  Kings.  This  is  what  we  gener- 
ally find  by  a  comparison  of  the  number  of  witnesses  who 
sign  as  dux  or  comes  in  the  charters  respectively  of  the 
Kings  of  Mercia  and  Wessex.  When  the  Kings  of 
Mercia  were  overlords  of  Kent  and  Surrey  the  number 
of  their  viceroys  would  be  increased,  and  later  on,  when 
the  Kings  of  Wessex  had  acquired  this  supremacy,  the 
number  of  their  viceroys  would  be  increased.  In  a 
charter  by  the  Mercian  King  Kenulf  in  814  relating  to 
land  at  Chart  in  Kent,2  there  are  sixteen  witnesses  who 
sign  as  dux  or  ealdorman.  In  Kenulf's  charter  relating 
to  the  establishment  of  the  abbey  at  Winchcombe  in 
811  there  are  eleven  witnesses  similarly  described.3  The 

1  Ethelwerd's  Chronicle.  2  Cart.  Sax.,  i.  481. 

3  Ibid.,  i.  473- 

Family  Settlements  and  Early  Organization.    179 

occasion  on  which  this  charter  was  signed  was  a  very 
important  one,  and  many  of  the  Mercian  ealdormen  were 
probably  assembled.  In  another  charter  of  the  same 
King  in  816,  granting  certain  lands  to  the  Bishop  of 
Worcester,  there  are  also  eleven  witnesses  who  are  styled 
dux  or  ealdorman.1  Some  of  these  may  have  been  the 
viceroys  of  more  than  one  of  the  areas  of  administration 
or  states,  afterwards  called  shires  or  counties,  but  that 
eleven  men  of  this  rank  should  be  witnesses  of  charters  of 
the  Mercian  King  shows  that  he  had  many  of  them,  and 
as  each  had  an  area  of  administration,  perhaps  more 
than  one,  this  number  points  to  the  existence  in  Mercian 
territory  of  more  states  than  existed  in  Wessex.  The 
greatest  number  of  ealdormen  who  appear  to  have  wit- 
nessed any  charter  by  a  King  of  Wessex  is  nine,  and  the 
occasion  was  the  grant  of  land  at  Droxford  in  Hampshire 
in  826  by  Egbert.  He  had,  however,  at  that  time  become 
the  overlord  of  much  more  of  England  than  Wessex. 
Several  of  his  charters  concerning  land  in  Wessex  are 
witnessed  by  three  ealdormen  only,  and  important  ones 
by  Ethelwulf,  his  son,  are  witnessed  by  only  six.2 
Although  territorial  changes  were  in  some  cases  made, 
it  is  certain  that  the  Old  English  counties  arose  from  the 
primitive  states. 

One  of  the  most  important  of  the  Old  English  local 
organizations  connected  with  the  shires  and  hundreds 
was  that  for  defence.  All  freemen  were  under  three 
general  obligations,  which  were  apparently  of  ancient 
date  at  the  time  when  we  first  meet  with  them  in  records 
— viz.  :  (i)  They  were  obliged  to  take  their  part  in 
military  service  for  the  defence  of  their  state  or  the 
kingdom  of  which  it  formed  part,  the  levies  being  made 
in  each  state,  afterwards  known  as  the  county  ;  (2)  they 
were  under  the  obligation  to  assist  in  maintaining  the 
local  fortifications  ;  and  (3)  they  were  similarly  obliged 
to  assist  in  the  maintenance  of  bridges.  The  liability 

1  Cart.  Sax.,  i.  498.  2  Ibid.,  ii.  64,  and  ii.  94. 

12 — 2 

180          Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

for  military  service  in  case  of  urgent  necessity  still  exists 
in  our  Militia  Act  ;  the  maintenance  of  bridges  remains 
as  a  county  charge  ;  but  the  liability  for  the  repair  of 
local  defences  has  passed  away.  It  is,  however,  interest- 
ing to  us  when  studying  the  remains  of  these  ancient 
fortifications  which  still  exist  in  most  parts  of  England. 
Some  of  them  are  great  mounds  of  the  later  Saxon  period, 
but  many  of  them  are  old  Celtic  earthworks  which  the 
Britons  made,  and  the  Saxons  adopted  for  their  own 
defences.  In  some  parts  of  the  country,  as  on  two 
hills  close  to  Burghclere  in  Hampshire,  the  remains  of 
two  great  British  camps  may  be  seen,  one  of  which,  on 
Beacon  Hill,  was  maintained  apparently  during  the 
whole  Anglo-Saxon  period,  and  the  other,  on  Ladle  Hill, 
allowed  to  fall  into  disuse  and  decay,  the  banks  being 
now  almost  obliterated,  while  the  other  is  in  a  much  more 
perfect  condition.  In  the  confirmation  of  Magna  Charta 
by  Edward  I.  we  read  that  '  no  town  nor  freemen  shall 
be  distrained  to  make  bridges  nor  banks,  but  such  as 
of  old  time  have  been  accustomed  to  make  them  in  the 
time  of  King  Henry  our  grandfather,  and  no  banks  shall 
be  defended  from  henceforth  but  such  as  were  in  defence 
in  the  time  of  King  Henry  our  grandfather,  by  the  same 
places  and  the  same  bounds  as  they  were  wont  to  be  in  his 
time.'  All  freemen  among  our  Old  English  forefathers 
were  trained  to  the  use  of  arms,  and  were  always  ready 
to  take  the  field  or  defend  their  fortifications.  When 
the  repair  of  these  banks  ceased  there  is,  so  far  as  known, 
no  record,  but  from  the  above  quotation  it  is  certain 
that  they  must  have  been  kept  up  as  local  defences  to 
be  used  in  case  of  need  for  at  least  two  centuries  after 
the  Norman  Conquest.  It  is  no  doubt  owing  to  the 
ancient  local  obligation  to  repair  them  that  so  many 
remain  in  a  fairly  perfect  state.  Maiden  Castle,  near 
Dorchester ;  Ufiington  Castle  in  Berkshire ;  and  Pains- 
wick  Castle  in  Gloucestershire,  are  other  examples  of 
earthworks  that  were  probably  kept  in  repair  until  a 
late  period. 



THE  settlers  in  Kent  are  of  special  interest  from 
several  points  of  view.  Known  as  Jutes  since  the 
beginning  of  our  history,  they  can,  without  much 
difficulty,  be  traced  as  regards  their  origin  to  more  than  one 
of  the  ancient  nations  or  tribes  of  Northern  Europe,  and  as 
they  alone  of  all  the  early  colonists  in  the  South  of  England 
adopted  as  the  name  of  their  kingdom  its  name  in  the 
Romano-British  period,  Cantium  or  Kent,  we  may  reason- 
ably look  among  them  for  a  survival  of  some  people  from 
the  Roman  time.  The  name  Gutae  appears  on  an  ancient 
runic  monument  in  Scandinavia,  about  400  A.D.  being 
assigned  to  it  by  Stephens,1  and  one  of  the  historians 
of  the  Goths  tells  us  that  Gothi,  Getae,  and  Guthi  are 
names  for  the  same  people,2  so  there  can  be  no  doubt 
that  Guthi,  or  Jutes,  were  of  the  same  race  as  the  Northern 
Goths.  Under  this  name,  as  in  the  case  of  Angles  and 
Saxons,  other  tribal  people  also  probably  settled  in  Kent. 
Bede  wrote  of  them  all  under  the  Jutish  name,  and  as 
the  later  chroniclers  copied  from  him,  the  name  Goths 
ceased  to  be  used  for  the  most  .part  in  England,  but  not 
wholly  so.  Asser,  for  example,  tells  us  that  King  Alfred 
on  his  mother's  side  was  descended  from  the  Goths  and 
Jutes  of  the  Isle  of  Wight.  The  Kentish  Jutes  are  also 

1  Stephens,  G.,  '  Old  Northern  Runic  Monuments,'  iii.  397. 

2  Magnus,  J.,  '  Hist,  deomn.  Goth,  reg.,'  ed.  1554,  p.  15. 


1 82  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

mentioned  in  early  Northern  literature  by  the  name  of 

Bede  tells  us  that  the  Jutes  under  Hengist  and  Horsa 
came  to  Kent  in  three  long  ships,  and  of  this  there  was 
no  doubt  a  tradition  current  in  his  time.  As  it  bears  a 
remarkable  resemblance  to  a  Gothic  tradition  of  older 
date,  we  may  perhaps  see  in  it  another  gleam  of  light 
connecting  the  Jutes  with  the  Northern  Goths.  The  old 
Gothic  story  speaks  of  the  migration  of  people  of  three 
tribes  of  that  race  from  Scandinavia  to  the  eastern  side 
of  the  Baltic  Sea.  It  tells  us  of  Ostrogoths,  Visigoths, 
and  Gepidse,1  who  passed  from  their  old  homes  in  Scandi- 
navia across  the  Baltic  in  three  vessels.  In  this  case  it 
is  clear  that,  as  the  migrating  people  were  of  three  tribes, 
the  traditional  number  of  vessels  was  made  to  correspond 
to  the  number  of  the  tribes.  Similarly,  in  the  Kentish 
tradition  the  number  of  vessels  may  have  been  repeated 
from  age  to  age  to  the  time  of  Bede,  and  have  had  its  origin 
in  people  of  three  tribes  having  been  among  the  settlers. 

There  is  a  similar  tradition  in  reference  to  Sussex,  and 
another  in  which  the  invaders  are  said  to  have  come  in 
five  ships  for  the  conquest  of  Wessex,  and  these  tradi- 
tions may  also  denote  separate  tribal  expeditions. 

Kent  possesses  at  the  present  time,  and  has  possessed 
from  a  time  beyond  the  memory  of  man,  a  remarkable 
custom  in  its  law  of  inheritance  in  cases  of  intestacy — 
i.e.,  the  custom  of  gavelkind.  The  principal  incidents  of 
it  are  the  partibility  of  the  inheritance,  the  right  of  the 
widow  or  widower,  the  freedom  from  escheat  for  felony, 
and  the  infant's  right  to  '  aliene  by  feoffment '  at  the  age 
of  fifteen  years.2  It  is  a  custom  which  is  the  most  re- 
markable of  all  which  are  recognised  by  our  common  law, 
seeing  that  a  whole  county  is  thus  marked  off  from  the 
rest  of  England  by  a  peculiar  rule  of  inheritance.  While 

1  Kemble,  J.  M.,  '  Saxons  in  England,'  i.  16. 

2  Elton,  C.  L,  and  Mackay,  H.  J.  H.,  '  Law  of  Copyholds,' 
1893,  p.  8. 

The  Jutish  Settlers  in  Kent.  183 

primogeniture  is  the  common  law  of  succession  in  other 
parts  of  England,  gavelkind,  or  partible  inheritance,  is 
the  law  in  Kent.  It  has  also  been  the  custom  to  divide 
lands  and  other  property  in  the  same  way  as  in  Kent 
on  a  considerable  number  of  large  and  small  manors  in 
other  parts  of  the  kingdom,  but  with  this  important 
difference :  the  custom  is  presumed  by  law  to  exist  in 
all  parts  of  Kent  unless  it  is  proved  that  the  lands  were 
disgavelled  or  changed  in  their  tenure,  while  outside  that 
county  it  must  be  proved  to  have  existed  as  an  ancient 
custom.  The  proof  is  not  required  in  Kent,  but  is 
required  outside  of  it.  Relatively  to  the  whole  country, 
however,  the  custom  prevails  on  comparatively  few 
manors  out  of  this  county. 

All  the  available  evidence  tends  to  show  that  Kent 
was  settled  chiefly  by  Goths  and  Frisians  under  the 
Jutish  name.  It  is  most  probable  that  its  peculiar 
customs  were  introduced  into  that  part  of  England  by 
the  people  who  settled  there,  and  were  not  a  survival  of 
old  Celtic  customs  of  the  same  kind.  This  could  hardly 
have  been  the  case,  seeing  that  the  word  wealh,  for  a 
Welshman,  does  not  occur  in  the  ordinances  of  the 
Kentish  Kings.  Partible  inheritance  is  a  custom  which 
was  very  widely  spread  in  the  ancient  world,  and  it 
is  only  by  considering  the  other  customs  which  were 
incidental  to  it  in  any  country  or  locality,  and  by  a 
comparison  of  these  incidental  customs  with  those  in 
other  countries  or  localities,  that  its  probable  origin  can 
be  traced.  As  it  existed  in  England,  the  custom  was 
varied  in  many  details.  The  partible  inheritance  or 
gavelkind  of  Kent,  however,  stands  out  distinct  in  some 
respects  as  the  '  custom  of  Kent.'  It  differs  from  that 
which  prevailed  in  Wales  in  three  essential  points  :  In 
Kent  only  legitimate  sons  were  entitled  to  a  share  of 
the  inheritance,  in  Wales  all  sons  claimed  their  shares  ; 
in  Kent  daughters  succeeded  if  there  were  no  sons,  in 
Wales  they  did  not ;  in  Kent  the  widow  was  entitled  to 

184          Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

half  her  husband's  estate  as  dower,  in  Wales  she  had  no 
such  provision. 

A  parallel  in  custom  may  be  found  by  comparing  the 
law  of  Kent  with  the  Jutish  law  of  King  Valdemar  II. 
in  the  thirteenth  century,  both  of  which  contain  the  pro- 
vision that  the  son,  in  reference  to  the  property  of  the 
deceased  father,  shall  be  considered  of  age  in  his  fifteenth 
year.  This  usage,  though  on  the  one  side  in  accordance 
with  Danish  laws,  and  on  the  other  valid  among  the 
socmen  in  other  parts  of  England,  is  probably  not  derived 
from  the  Saxons,  but  is  rather  to  be  referred  to  the 
immigration  of  the  Jutes.1  Such  a  comparison  also 
assists  the  evidence,  which  tends  to  show  that  the 
numerous  socmen  were  of  Scandinavian  rather  than  of 
Saxon  origin.  Among  other  early  privileges  of  Kent 
was  the  custom  of  freedom  from  ordinary  distress. 
There  was  a  Kentish  process  of  '  cessavit,'  under  which, 
if  a  tenant  withheld  from  his  lord  his  due  rents  and 
services,  the  custom  of  the  country  gave  the  lord  a  special 
process  for  the  recovery  of  what  was  due  to  him.2  A 
somewhat  similar  custom  of  freedom  from  ordinary 
distress  prevailed  in  London  in  very  early  time,  and  in 
a  few  other  parts  of  the  country.  Where  rents  could  not 
be  recovered  by  the  ordinary  process  of  distress  they  were 
called  '  dry  rents.'  The  value  of  the  comparison  of  these 
customs  becomes  clear  when  it  is  remembered  that  the 
ancient  Visigoth  law  prohibited  distress,3  and  these 
Visigoth  settlers  in  Western  Europe  probably  brought  it 
from  their  Northern  home.  As  it  was  common  alike  to 
the  Visigoths,  the  people  of  Kent,  and  those  of  London, 
it  supports  the  evidence  that  the  Jutes  were  mainly 
Goths,  and  that  people  of  this  race  settled  in  sufficient 
numbers  in  Kent  and  in  and  around  London  to  insure 
the  continuance  of  one  of  their  customary  privileges. 

1  Lappenberg,  '  Hist.  Anglo-Saxon  Kings,'  ed.  1884,  i.,  123,  124. 

2  Elton,  C.  I.,  '  Gavelkind,'  p.  196. 

3  Maine,  Sir  H.,  '  Early  Institutions,'  269,  270. 

The  Jutish  Settlers  in  Kent.  185 

The  Kentish  land  tenure  was  also  distinguished  by  the 
prevalence  of  family  or  allodial  rights.1  The  land  was 
more  or  less  of  the  nature  of  family  land,  as  it  was  in 
parts  of  Hampshire  and  other  counties  that  can  be  con- 
nected with  settlements  of  Goths  or  other  people  of 
Northern  origin. 

In  the  division  of  the  father's  land  by  the  custom  of 
Kent,  the  youngest  son  appears  to  have  been  entitled  to 
the  family  hearth  or  homestead  on  making  compensation 
to  his  brothers.  This  can  also  be  traced  among  the 
Frisians.2  Subject  to  this  preference  "for  the  youngest  in 
regard  to  the  hearth,  the  partition  by  the  gavelkind 
custom  gave  the  eldest  son  the  first  choice  of  the  divided 
parts  of  the  land.3 

Another  of  the  incidental  customs  of  Kent  was  the 
widow's  right  to  half  of  her  deceased  husband's  estate. 
This  has  survived  with  other  gavelkind  customs  until 
modern  times.  By  the  old  common  law  of  England,  a 
widow,  unless  debarred  by  some  local  custom,  received 
one-third  of  her  husband's  estate  as  dower.  In  the  case 
of  the  Sussex  tenants  on  manors  where  borough-En  glish 
survived,  she  was  entitled  to  have  for  her  life  the  whole 
of  her  husband's  lands.  On  some  manors  in  various  parts 
of  England  her  dower  was  only  a  fourth.  It  is  of  interest 
to  find  that  this  custom  of  a  provision  for  widows  prevailed 
among  the  Goths.  Olaus  Magnus,  writing  of  the  ancient 
Goths,  tells  us  that  '  among  them  a  man  gave  a  dowry  for 
his  bride  instead  of  receiving  one  with  her.'  The  earliest 
reference  we  have  in  England  to  the  custom  of  the 
morning-gift,  or  endowment  of  the  wife,  is  in  the  early  laws 
of  Kent,  and  the  oldest  race  to  which  a  similar  custom  can 
be  traced  is  the  Goths. 

That  Kent  was  largely  settled  by  Goths  is  proved  by  the 

1  Robertson,  E.  W.,  '  Scotland  under  her  Early  Kings,'  ii.  264. 

2  Ibid.,  ii.  266. 

3  Lambarde,  W.,   '  Customs  in  Gavelkind :   Perambulation  of 
Kent,'  1570,  ed.  1826,  p.  519. 

1 86          Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

evidence  of  the  runic  inscriptions  which  have  been  found 
within  it.  The  most  important  of  them  are  those  dis- 
covered on  two  large  stones  at  Sandwich.  These  were 
fixed  monuments,  and  the  inscriptions  must  therefore  be 
identified  with  the  people  who  lived  near  them.  These 
monuments  could  not  have  been  brought  from  Gothland 
or  any  other  Northern  land,  as  personal  ornaments  with 
old  runic  inscriptions  could.  Stephens1  says :  '  These 
are  evidently  heathen  stones.  Such  stones  would  not 
have  been  erected  after  Kent  was  christianised — say, 
A.D.  600  at  latest.  They  could  not  have  been  raised 
over  dead  Vikings,  for  the  High  North  had  by  this  time 
cast  aside  the  old  Northern  stave,  and  adopted  the  Scan- 
dinavian alphabet,  or  futhorc.'  This  opinion  from  the 
greatest  writer  on  runic  monuments  is  valuable  as  showing 
that  the  runic  letters  on  the  Sandwich  stones  are  old 
Northern  Gothic,  and  not  the  later  Scandian ;  that 
these  monumental  inscriptions  are  pre-Christian,  and 
consequently  of  a  date  not  later  than  the  end  of  the  sixth 
century.  This  discovery,  therefore,  proves  the  settlement 
of  Northern  Goths  on  the  east  coast  of  Kent.  As  the 
runic  monuments  have  been  discovered  chiefly  in  the  east 
of  the  county,  it  was  presumably  there  that  the  Goths 
mainly  settled. 

The  people  in  some  parts  of  Kent  exhibit  in  many 
respects  the  typical  Frisian  race  characters.  Those  ob- 
served in  Friesland  at  the  present  time  have  been  described 
by  Lubach  as  '  a  tall,  slender  frame  ;  a  longish  oval,  flat 
skull,  with  prominent  occiput ;  a  long,  oval  face,  with  flat 
cheek-bones  ;  a  long  nose,  straight  or  aquiline,  the  point 
drooping  below  the  wings  ;  a  high  under-jaw  and  a  well- 
developed  chin.'2  Many  years  ago  Macintosh  drew  atten- 
tion to  somewhat  similar  features  prevalent  among  the 
people  of  West  Kent.  He  says  :  '  The  Jutian  characters 
are  prevalent  about  Tonbridge,'  and  are  '  a  narrow  face, 

1  Stephens,  G.,  loc.  cit.,  i.  363. 

2  Beddoe,  J.,  '  Races  of  Britain,'  p.  40. 

The  Jutish  Settlers  in  Kent.  187 

very  convex  profile,  head  narrow,  rather  elongated,  and 
very  much  rounded  off  at  the  sides,  very  long  neck,  and 
narrow  shoulders.'1  These  physical  characters  may  still 
be  observed  in  the  county,  and  more  particularly  in  its 
western  parts. 

The  ancient  Goths,  one  of  the  noblest  of  the  old  Euro- 
pean races,  have  long  since  disappeared.  Their  identity 
has  been  almost  entirely  lost  in  the  birth  of  new  nations. 
If  we  seek  for  any  remnants  of  the  old  stock,  we  shall  find 
them,  such  as  they  are,  in  the  Dalecarlians  of  Sweden, 
among  whom  the  custom  of  partible  inheritance  still 
survives.  The  Goths  were  the  people  most  advanced  in 
civilization  of  the  nations  in  the  Scandian  peninsula,  and 
we  must  trace  to  the  parent  Gothic  stock  many  of  the 
qualities  of  the  present  races  of  Scandinavia  and  the 
northern  parts  of  Germany.  They  have  disappeared,  but 
the  newer  nations  which  sprang  from  them  have  preserved 
until  our  own  time  their  love  of  liberty.  If  we  trace  it  to 
its  ultimate  source,  England  is  Gothic  by  birth,  and  Kent 
pre-eminently  so.  The  Kentish  man's  liberty  was  his 
marked  characteristic  in  the  Middle  Ages — a  characteristic 
which  had  come  down  to  him  from  the  earliest  Kentish 
settlers.  Descended  partly  from  Frisians — who  were 
themselves,  as  the  remnant  of  their  ancient  language 
shows,  also  of  the  old  Gothic  stock — and  strongly  marked 
by  their  love  of  freedom,  the  people  of  Kent  preserved, 
through  all  the  changes  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  period  and 
the  later  powerful  influences  of  feudalism,  their  free  insti- 
tutions, the  relics  of  which,  in  the  customs  incidental  to 
the  gavelkind  land  tenure,  have  come  down  to  our  time. 
There  is,  perhaps,  no  survival  in  the  length  or  breadth  of 
England  that  is  as  remarkable  as  this. 

Under  the  laws  of  JSthelbert,  the  Kentish  ceorl  was 
a  freeman,  and  we  read  of  him  later  in  the  laws  of  sub- 
sequent Kings.  It  was  the  proudest  privilege  of  birth  in 
Kent  in  the  Middle  Ages  that  every  man  so  born,  or  whose 
1  Trans.  Ethnological  Society,  vol.  i.,  p.  214. 

1 88          Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

father  was  so  born,  was  free  from  those  obligations  of 
personal  service  which  inferior  tenants  in  other  counties 
were  bound  to  fulfil.  The  Kentish  man  was  free  to  move, 
and  if  he  went  into  another  county  and  some  lord  of  the 
manor  claimed  villein  services  from  him,  it  was  a  good 
answer  in  law  if  he  pleaded  his  father's  Kentish  birth.1 
This  privilege  of  personal  freedom,  which  is  now  the  birth- 
right of  every  Englishman,  was  only  the  birthright  of  the 
people  of  one  of  our  present  counties  in  the  period  of  feudal 
domination — viz.,  the  people  of  Kent.  Many  other  people 
who  were  inferior  tenants  on  manors  elsewhere  were  more 
or  less  freemen.  Their  number  collectively  was  great, 
but  no  other  instance  occurs  of  any  county  in  which  all 
the  people  born  in  it,  or  whose  fathers  were  born  in  it, 
were  personally  free.  In  this  respect  there  was,  perhaps, 
only  one  other  area  of  local  government  which  could  be 
compared  to  Kent  with  all  its  privileges,  and  that  was  the 
City  of  London.  In  London  every  man  from  the  earliest 
time  was  personally  free  if  born  there. 

One  of  the  general  conclusions  which  an  examination 
of  the  Anglo-Saxon  relics  found  in  England  leads  to  is  the 
similarity  that  many  of  them  exhibit  in  design  and  orna- 
mentation to  those  of  early  date,  before  the  later  so- 
called  Viking  period,  which  have  been  discovered  in  the 
Scandinavian  peninsula — the  home  of  the  Northern 
Goths.  From  whatever  source  they '  acquired  their 
knowledge  of  iron-working  and  its  accompanying  arts  of 
metallurgy  and  gilding,  the  Goths  certainly  introduced 
this  knowledge  and  art  into  the  Scandian  peninsula. 
These  arts  were  much  practised  by  the  Gauls  until  the  fall 
of  the  Roman  Empire,  after  which  they  were  lost  in  the 
South  ;  but  as  they  had  been  acquired  by  the  Goths  of 
Scandinavia,  they  were  preserved  and  developed  by  them 
in  the  North,  where  they  were  unaffected  by  the  great  wars 
which  marked  the  decline  and  fall  of  the  Empire  in  other 
parts  of  Europe.2  These  lost  arts  were  thus  recovered 

1  Lambarde,  W.,  loc.  cit.t  p.  511. 

2  Starkie-Gardner,  J.,  '  Ironwork,'  p.  37. 

The  Jutish  Settlers  in  Kent.  1 89 

(from  the  Goths,  and  were  reintroduced  into  England  by 
them.  Some  of  the  oldest  English  ironworks  were  those 
of  the  ancient  Andredsweald  forest  district  of  Sussex  and 
Kent.  Among  Anglo-Saxon  relics  there  are  well-known 
Kentish  types,  many  examples  of  which  have  been  found 
also  in  the  Isle  of  Wight,  South  Hampshire,  and  other 
parts  of  England,  in  or  near  to  which  settlements  of  Goths 
can  be  traced. 

The  early  laws  of  Kent  appear  to  afford  evidence  of  the 
survival  in  that  State  in  the  sixth  century  of  descendants 
of  some  of  the  settlers  introduced  into  Britain  from  the 
Continent  before  the  end  of  the  later  Roman  occupation. 
Such  settlers  in  various  parts  of  the  Empire  were  known 
as  Lseti.  In  Kent  these  people  were  called  Lsetas.  This 
is  a  fact  of  interest  and  importance,  for  these  Lsetas  of 
Kent  in  King  ^thelbert's  time  were  probably  descendants 
of  some  of  the  Burgundians,  Alamans,  Vandals,  or  others, 
who  were  settled  in  Britain  by  Probus  and  some  of  his 
successors,  as  already  mentioned.  Their  number  and 
influence  in  Kent  must  have  been  considerable,  as  special 
provision  was  accorded  to  them  in  one  of  the  laws  of 
^Ethelbert — viz.,  that  which  says,  '  If  anyone  slay  a  Laet 
of  the  highest  class  let  him  pay  80  shillings,  if  he  slay 
one  of  the  second  class  let  him  pay  60  shillings,  and  if  of 
the  third,  let  him  pay  40  shillings.'1  In  considering,  there- 
fore, the  possibility  of  the  survival  elsewhere  in  England 
of  any  descendants  of  the  tribes  introduced  into  Britain 
by  the  Roman  Emperors,  the  evidence  that  in  Kent  some 
descendants  of  these  people  survived  increases  the  pro- 
bability that  in  other  parts  of  the  country,  such  as  along 
the  so-called  Saxon  shore,  similar  descendants  of  the 
barbaric  settlers  of  the  time  of  the  Empire  who  had  not 
been  absorbed  in  the  Celtic  population  may  also  have 
survived  until  the  same  period.  In  connection  with  the 
early  settlement  of  Kent,  this  reference  to  the  Laetas  in 
the  Laws  of  ^Ethelbert  is  of  more  historical  value  than  the 
story  of  Hengist  and  Horsa.  In  the  early  history  of 
1  Laws  of  ^Ethelbert,  26. 

i  go          Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

France  the  Lseti  are  known  as  soldiers  of  the  Empire,  or 
their  descendants. 

There  is,  however,  another  view  by  which  the  Lsetas 
of  Kent  may  be  regarded.  They  were,  as  mentioned,  of 
three  classes,  and  were  protected  by  ^Ethelbert's  laws  by 
three  degrees  of  fine  or  wergeld,  in  case  any  one  of  them 
should  be  killed — the  higher  the  class,  the  higher  the  fine. 
The  name  Laetas  may  have  been  used  to  denote  freemen 
of  this  early  time,  as  the  name  Lseti  was  on  the  Continent. 
In  the  early  laws  of  Scandinavia  we  read  of  three  classes 
of  men  who  had  obtained  their  freedom — i.e.,  who  had 
become  freedmen — and  they  also  were  protected  by  fines 
or  wergelds  in  the  same  proportion  as  those  connected 
with  the  Laetas  of  Kent — viz.,  80,  60,  and  40  ores  of 
silver.1  The  highest  class  of  these  was  the  man  whose 
great-grandfather  had  been  also  a  freedman,  called  in 
Scandinavia  a  leysing.  As  the  evidence  concerning  the 
Jutes  connects  them  with  Scandinavia,  this  system  of 
classing  the  freemen  or  freedmen  of  Kent  may  have  been 
a  Northern  custom  introduced  into  that  part  of  England 
by  them.  The  people  so  classed  may  therefore  have  been 
in  part  introduced  by  the  Jutes,  and  in  part  have  been 
descendants  of  the  older  Teutonic  settlers  introduced  into 
Britain  by  the  Romans,  and  for  administrative  purposes 
classed  under  this  system. 

That  Frisians  were  largely  represented  among  the 
settlers  in  Kent  is  generally  allowed.  The  traces  of 
Frisians  in  Kent,  as  elsewhere,  may  be  looked  for  under 
the  tribal  designations  by  which  people  of  that  race  were 
known,  or  called  themselves.  Bede  mentions  the  Hunni 
as  one  of  the  tribes  from  which  the  people  of  England  in 
his  time  were  known  to  have  descended,  and  these  can 
be  identified  with  the  Frisian  tribe  known  as  Hunsings. 
The  name  Hunesbiorge  occurs  in  a  Kentish  charter,2  and 
Honinberg  Hundred  is  mentioned  in  Domesday  Book. 
Brocmen  and  Chaucians,  and  other  Frisians  of  tribal 

1   Seebohm,  F.,  '  Tribal  Custom  in  Anglo-Saxon  Law,'  485,  486. 
2  Cart.  Sax.,  ii.  202 

The  Jutish  Settlers  in  Kent.  1 9 1 

names  now  lost,  were  probably  represented  among  the 
settlers  in  Kent  under  the  name  of  Jutes.  Of  these  Jutes, 
the  Goths  were  probably  the  more  numerous,  seeing  that 
the  name  adopted  for  the  Kentish  people  generally  was  a 
modified  form  of  Gutae,  a  name  for  their  own  race. 

The  traditional  freedom  of  the  people  of  this  county, 
and  the  still  older  traditional  freedom  of  the  Frisians, 
confirm  the  other  evidence,  anthropological  as  well  as 
philological,  which  connects  Kent  with  ancient  Friesland. 
The  old  laws  of  the  Frisians  declare  '  that  the  race  shall 
be  free  as  long  as  the  winds  blow  out  of  the  clouds  and 
the  world  stands.'1 

The  Frisians,  with  the  Batavians  of  what  is  now  Holland, 
came  under  the  dominion  of  Charlemagne,  who  confirmed 
their  laws  and  left  them  their  native  customs.2  The  per- 
sonal freedom  of  the  people  of  Kent  was  their  most  highly 
prized  birthright,  derived  from  their  tribal  ancestors,  and 
has  been  commemorated  by  Dryden  in  the  following  lines 
referring  to  that  county  : 

'  Among  the  English  shires  be  thou  surnamed  the  free, 
And  foremost  ever  placed  when  they  shall  numbered  be.' 

This  last  line,  about  being  placed  first,  refers  to  another 
remarkable  Kentish  custom  or  claim — viz.,  that  of  being 
marshalled  in  the  van  of  the  national  army  when  being 
led  to  war.  This  claim  was  one  of  the  warlike  privileges 
of  the  men  of  Kent,  and  was  recognised  throughout  the 
period  of  their  early  history.  As  will  be  shown  later  on, 
it  was  a  claim  which  was  also  recognised  and  allowed  to 
Kentish  settlers  in  another  part  of  England. 

There  may  have  been  more  than  one  Baltic  homeland 
of  the  Jutes,  and  Witland,  east  of  the  Vistula,  may  have 
been  one  of  them.  Wulfstan,  in  narrating  his  voyage  up 
the  Baltic  to  King  Alfred,  says  that  Witland3  was  east  of 

1  Monumenta  Germanise,  and  '  Laws  of  the  Frisians,'  quoted  by 
Rogers,  J.  E.  Thorold,  '  Holland,'  p.  4. 

2  Rogers,  J.  E.  Thorold,  '  Holland,'  pp.  4,  5. 

3  King  Alfred's  '  Orosius,'  edited  by  Sweet,  H.,  p.  20. 

1 92  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

the  Vistula,  and  appertained  to  Eastum  or  Eastland. 
The  old  form  of  the  w  in  Witland  is  uu,  and  in  this 
form  Uuitland  is  close  in  sound  to  Jutland.  It  would, 
from  this  and  other  evidence,  appear  not  improbable 
that  Eastmen  may  have  settled  among  the  Jutes  in 

The  remarkable  collection  of  ancient  skulls  that  formerly 
existed  at  Hythe  were  believed  by  some  who  examined 
them  to  have  been  the  remains  of  men  who  fell  in  battle. 
Knox,1  who  examined  them  in  1860,  thought  that  a  large 
number  of  them  were  of  the  Celtic  type,  and  the  remainder 
of  Anglo-Saxon  type.  Two  of  the  skulls  he  believed  to  be 
those  of  Lapps.  Another  observer  found  broad  skulls  as 
well  as  long  ones  among  them. 2  To  account  for  the 
broad  skulls,  we  must  suppose  either  a  survival  in  this 
part  of  Kent  of  descendants  of  the  broad-headed  men 
of  the  Bronze  Age — for  the  later  Celts  were  not  of  this 
type — or  the  arrival  with  the  long-headed  Teutonic  in- 
vaders of  some  men  of  a  broad-headed  race. 

In  Romney  Marsh  and  the  neighbouring  portion  of  the 
Weald,  Beddoe's  observations  show  that  darker  hues3 
prevail  among  the  people,  and  it  is  near  the  coast  of 
Romney  Marsh  that  the  Domesday  place  Blachemene- 
stone — now  Blackmanstone — is  situated.  Such  a  name 
is  unlikely  to  have  been  given  to  a  place  on  the  coast 
from  a  survival  of  dark  Celtic  people  there.  As  a  coast 
place,  it  is  far  more  probable  that  it  got  its  name  from 
dark-haired  settlers.  This  was  the  country  of  the  tribe 
known  in  Saxon  time  as  the  Merscwara,  and  it  must  be 
concluded  that,  whether  these  people  were  partly  of  Celtic 
descent  or  not,  there  was  probably  some  ethnological 
difference  between  them  and  the  people  in  other  parts  of 
Kent.  Two  designations—'  Men  of  Kent '  and  '  Kentish 
Men  ' — have  come  down  to  our  time.  They  are  certainly 
old,  the  former  being  the  designation  of  the  people  in  the 
east  around  Canterbury,  and  the  latter  that  of  those  in  the 

1  Archesologia  Cantiana,  xviii.  333-336.  2  Ibid.,  334. 

3  Beddoe,  J.,  '  Races  in  Britain,'  256. 

The  Jutish  Settlers  in  Kent.  193 

west  of  the  county.  The  traditions  relating  to  these 
names  for  Kentish  people  are  apparently  as  old  as  the 
time  of  the  settlement.  The  inhabitants  of  the  eastern 
part  of  the  county  were  certainly  called  *  Men  of  Kent,' 
and  those  in  the  western  part  *  Kentish  Men.'  In  one  of 
the  early  charters  the  words  '  provincia  orientalis  Cantise,' 
or  province  of  East  Kent,  occur.1  The  Anglo-Saxon 
Chronicle  tells  us,  under  the  year  858,  that  the  Danes 
fought  with  the  Men  of  Kent  (mid  Cantwarum).  Under 
the  year  865,  it  states  that  they  made  peace  with  the  Men 
of  Kent.  Under  the  year  902,  we  read  of  the  Danes  and 
the  Cantwara,  or  Men  of  Kent.  Similarly,  in  the  same 
Chronicle  we  have  some  references  to  the  West  Kentish 
people.  Under  the  year  999,  we  read  of  the  Danish  army 
going  along  the  Medway  to  Rochester,  and  of  the  '  Centisce 
fyrd,'  or  Kentish  military  array,  which  is  also  mentioned 
as  the  '  weast  Centingas,'  or  West  Kentish  men.  Under 
the  year  1009,  the  same  Chronicle  mentions  the  East 
Centingas,  or  people  of  East  Kent.  There  appears, 
consequently,  to  be  no  doubt  that  the  provinces  of  East 
and  West  Kent  were  well  known  in  Saxon  time,  and 
little  doubt  that  these  corresponded  with  the  diocesan 
divisions,  or  Dioceses  of  Canterbury  and  Rochester.  As 
the  runic  monuments,  which  must  be  assigned  to  the 
Goths,  have  only  been  found  in  East  Kent,  it  is  possible 
that  the  two  ancient  divisions  of  Kent  were  ethnological 
divisions,  and  mainly,  perhaps,  between  Goths  in  the  east 
and  Frisians  in  the  west. 

If  further  evidence  were  wanted  to  prove  the  settlement 
of  Goths  in  Kent,  it  could  be  found  in  the  earliest  money 
that  was  used.  Sceatts  and  scillings  are  mentioned  in  the 
Kentish  laws,  the  sceatt  being  a  small  silver  coin  of  a 
value  somewhat  equivalent  to  the  later  penny.  In  a 
fragment  of  Mercian  law  which  has  survived  sceatts  are 
also  mentioned.2  In  the  early  Northumbrian  metrical 
translation  of  the  Book  of  Genesis,  which  is  ascribed  to 

1  Codex  Dipl.,  No.  256.  2  Seebohm,  F.,  loc.  cit.,  445. 


194  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

Caedmon  in  the  seventh  century,  the  word  sceat  is  used 
for  the  passage  in  which  Abraham  declares  he  would  take 
'  neither  sceat  ne  scilling '  from  the  King  of  Sodom. 
Sceatts  and  scillings  are  mentioned  in  one  of  the  Northern 
Sagas — '  The  Scald's  Tale  ' — so  that  sceatts  must  have 
been  known  in  the  North  of  Europe,  the  original  home  of 
the  Goths.  That  the  coin  was  in  use  among  the  people  of 
this  race  is  shown  by  its  name  in  the  translation  of  the 
Gospels  made  in  the  fourth  century  by  Bishop  Ulphilas 
for  the  Moeso-Goths,  who  had  migrated  from  the  North 
and  settled  near  the  lower  course  of  the  Danube.  In  the 
passage  '  Show  me  a  penny,'  etc.,  the  Latin  word  denarius 
is  translated  skatt  in  two  instances.  Its  occurrence  in 
the  Kentish  laws  thus  points  to  Goths,  and  the  use  of 
a  similar  name  in  Mercia  and  Northumbria  indicates  a 
Gothic  influence 

From  the  evidence  that  has  been  stated,  the  Scandi- 
navian origin  of  the  Jutes  appears  to  be  conclusive,  and 
this  is  supported  by  the  early  monetary  currency  in  the 
Kentish  kingdom.  The  Kentish  shilling  differed  greatly 
from  those  of  Wessex  and  Mercia.  It  was  much  more 
valuable,  and  of  the  weight  of  a  Roman  ounce  of  silver, 
or  576  wheat-grains.1  This  was  the  same  as  the  Scandina- 
vian ora,2  which  was  divided  into  smaller  silver  coins,  each 
one-third  of  its  weight  and  value,  called  the  ortug,  weighing 
192  grains  of  wheat.  This  latter  was  of  the  same  weight 
and  value  as  the  Greek  stater  of  the  Eastern  Empire.3 

In  Kent,  therefore,  we  find  that  the  earliest  shilling, 
which  was  worth  20  sceatts,  or  i  ounce  of  silver,  was 
the  equivalent  also  of  3  Byzantine  staters.  Conse- 
quently, in  this  monetary  equivalence  we  see  on  the  one 
hand  evidence  of  the  Scandinavian  connection  of  the 
Kentish  Jutes  or  Goths,  and  on  the  other  evidence  of  the 
Eastern  commerce  between  the  Goths  of  the  Baltic  regions 
and  the  Greek  merchants  of  the  Eastern  Empire. 

1  Seebohm,  F.,  loc.  cit.,  pp.  448,  449. 

2  Ibid.,  233.  3  Ibid.,  233. 

The  Jutish  Settlers  in  Kent.  195 

In  its  monetary  system  and  reckoning  the  kingdom  of 
Kent  seems  to  have  been  peculiar  from  the  first,1  and  to 
have  continued  peculiar  for  centuries,  for  its  shilling  was 
exactly  equal  in  value  to  two  of  the  small  gold  coins, 
known  as  tremisses,  in  circulation  in  North-East  Frisia  in 
Charlemagne's  time,2  the  ratio  between  gold  and  silver 
at  that  time  being  i  to  12.  The  evidence  that  Kent 
was  occupied  mainly  by  Goths  and  Frisians  appears, 
therefore,  to  be  established  by  the  monetary  systems  of 
these  ancient  nations,  which  point  to  ancient  commercial 
intercourse  between  them  and  Kent,  or  to  racial  affinity. 
This  commercial  connection  between  the  Goths  and 
Frisians  is  also  supported  by  the  earliest  knowledge  we 
have  of  the  wergelds,  or  fines  for  slaying  a  freeman,  paid 
to  his  kindred  by  Goths  of  the  Isle  of  Gotland  and  by  the 
East  Frisians.  It  was  160  gold  solidi,  or  shillings,  in  the 
case  of  each  of  these  tribal  people.3 

As  regards  the  shapes  of  villages  and  settlements,  Kent 
affords  examples,  apparently,  of  both  the  isolated  home- 
stead system,  which  may  be  ascribed  to  Frisians,  and  of 
the  collected  homestead  plan.  The  lone  farmhouses  in 
the  county,  which  are  called  tons — such  as  Shottington, 
Wingleton,  Godington,  and  Appleton — may  be  regarded  as 
venerable  monuments  of  the  settlement  in  these  instances 
having  been  by  families  and  not  by  larger  communities. 

The  influence  of  Kent  in  the  origin  of  the  Old  English 
race  has  been  under-estimated.  This  early  kingdom  was 
a  limited  area,  with  no  hinterland  for  expansion  and  for 
the  settlement  near  it  of  its  surplus  population.  As  time 
passed  on,  its  limits  were  found  too  circumscribed  to 
accommodate  the  increasing  number  of  its  people,  and 
colonies  were  sent  out.  We  can  trace  some  of  these 
Kentish  colonial  settlements,  as  will  be  shown  in  later 
chapters,  in  some  of  the  southern  and  western  counties, 
in  Essex,  and  in  the  upper  parts  ot  the  Thames  valley. 

1  Seebohm,  F.,  loo  cit.,  p.  442. 

2  Ibid.,  454,  455.  3  Ibid.,  231,  232. 




SUSSEX  still  shows  some  remarkable  traces   of  its 
early  Anglo-Saxon  people.     The   survival  of  the 
custom  of  borough-English,  by  which  the  youngest 
son  is  the  sole  heir  to  his  father's  estate,  on  about  140 
manors  in  this  county,  is  in  all  probability  due  to  its 
having  been  the  custom  of  some  of  the  original  settlers. 
It  is  most  common  in  the  Rape  of  Lewes,  but  exists  also 
on  manors  elsewhere. 

This  custom  of  borough-English  or  junior  right  prevails 
more  extensively  in  Sussex  than  in  any  county.  While 
Kent  is  marked  by  a  survival  of  partible  inheritance, 
Sussex  is  marked  in  a  similar  way  by  the  survival  among 
the  copyholders  on  a  very  large  number  of  its  manors  of 
sole  inheritance  by  the  youngest  son.  These  two  customs 
resemble  each  other  in  one  respect — the  preference  for  the 
youngest.  In  Kent  he  was  entitled  to  have  the  homestead 
on  making  an  equitable  compensation  to  his  brothers, 
but  in  all  other  respects  the  inheritance  was  divided 
equally  between  the  sons,  so  that  in  Kent  the  special 
recognition  of  the  youngest  son  is  only  weak.  On  the 
contrary,  in  the  Sussex  custom  the  recognition  of  the  claim 
of  the  youngest  son  was  absolute,  as  he  succeeded  to  the 
whole  of  the  land  to  the  exclusion  of  his  brothers.  As 
already  shown,  this  custom  can  be  traced  more  clearly  to 
Eastern  Europe  than  to  any  other  source. 


Settlers  in  Sussex  and  Part  of  Surrey.     197 

The  following  circumstances  in  reference  to  settlements 
in  the  South-East  of  England  are  important  considera- 
tions :  (i)  The  Goths,  under  the  name  of  Gutse  or  Jutes, 
were  the  chief  settlers  in  Kent,  as  proved  by  historical 
statements,  the  existence  of  fixed  monuments  with  Gothic 
runes  on  them,  and  the  survival  of  gavelkind,  with  its 
incidental  customs  of  freedom  from  distress  and  dower  of 
widows  which  can  be  traced  to  a  Gothic  source.  (2)  The 
existence  in  Sussex  over  a  large  area  of  the  custom  by 
which  the  youngest  son  succeeded  to  the  whole  of  his 
father's  estate.  (3)  The  existence  in  Kent  of  a  recogni- 
tion of  the  youngest  son  to  a  less  extent,  he  being 
entitled  to  the  paternal  homestead.  (4)  The  prevalence 
of  junior  right  at  the  present  day  as  the  survival  of 
an  ancient  custom  of  inheritance  among  some  people  in 
Friesland,  and  among  the  Slavs.  (5)  The  Slavic  origin 
of  the  old  Vandal  or  Wendish  tribes  of  the  south  coast  of 
the  Baltic  Sea,  close  to  the  ancient  seat  of  the  Goths. 
(6)  The  survival  of  ancient  Vandal  or  Wendish  place- 
names  in  both  Sussex  and  Essex. 

Goths  and  Vandals,  when  allied  in  warlike  expeditions, 
were  commonly  called  Astings.1  It  may,  of  course,  be 
accidental  that  a  tribe  called  the  Haestingas  was  settled 
on  the  borderland  between  Sussex  and  Kent,  but  there  is 
evidence  of  some  commingling  of  the  people  of  these 
counties  near  their  border.  The  custom  of  partible  inheri- 
tance, which  is  general  in  Kent,  does  not  exist  in  Sussex, 
except  at  Rye,2  where  it  may  still  survive  in  cases  of  in- 
testacy, and  Rye  was  only  separated  from  Kent  by 
Romney  Marsh,  now  reclaimed.  The  largest  of  the 
Wendish  tribes  of  North-East  Germany  was  the  Wilte, 
called  also  Lutitzer.  The  names  of  several  of  the 
hundreds  of  Sussex  in  Saxon  time — viz.,  Wendelmestrei, 
Willingham,  Welesmere3 — are  suggestive  of  Wends  or 

1  Latham,  R.  G.,  '  Germania  of  Tacitus,'  xviii. 

2  Elton,  C.  I.,  and  Mackay,  H.  J.  H.,  '  Robinson  on  Gavelkind,' 
p.  33.  3  Domesday  Book. 

1 98  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

Wilte.  When  we  compare  the  name  Wendelmestrei  with 
the  place-name  Wendelstein  in  one  of  the  old  Wendish 
parts  of  Germany,  we  can  scarcely  doubt  how  the  Sussex 
name  arose,  if  considered  in  reference  to  the  survival  in 
Sussex  of  an  old  Wendish  custom. 

There  are  other  Anglo-Saxon  names  of  places  in 
this  county  which  may  also  have  been  derived  from 
persons  who  were  called  by  some  tribal  name,  such 
as  Bucgan-ora,1  now  changed  to  Bognor,  and  Bucking- 
ham, which  may  have  come  from  the  name  of  the 
pagus  of  the  Bucki,  in  the  Engern  country  of  the  Old 
Saxons.  The  name  Bexwarena-land  for  the  country 
around  Bexley  occurs  also  in  a  charter  of  Off  a,2  and, 
as  it  is  written  in  the  genitive  plural,  it  must  be  con- 
sidered to  refer  to  a  settlement  of  people  known  as 

In  the  extreme  West  of  Sussex  there  is  a  place  nearSelsea 
called  Wittering,  which  is  mentioned  in  a  charter  of  the 
tenth  century  as  Wedering,3  a  name  presumably  derived 
originally  from  a  settler  called  Weder,  from  his  tribal  name 
— that  of  the  Wederas  or  Ostrogoths  from  the  Weder- 
mark,  on  the  east  of  Lake  Wetter.  The  name  occurs  in 
the  boundaries  of  Selsea,  another  boundary-name  of  the 
same  land  being  Cwuenstane.4  This  latter  is  much 
like  Cwen,  the  Norrena  name  for  a  Fin.  Another  Fin 
settlement  appears  probable  from  the  Sussex  Domesday 
place-name  Fintune. 

Similarly,  the  Domesday  name  Angemare — the  Ange- 
meringum  or  Angemaeringtun  of  Saxon  charters5— 
reminds  us  of  the  ancient  Swedish  province  of  Angerman- 
land,  on  the  west  of  the  Gulf  of  Bothnia,  opposite  to  Fin- 
land. As  already  mentioned,  there  are  still  existing  in 
the  north-eastern  provinces  of  Sweden  stone  monuments 
with  runic  inscriptions  to  those  who  '  resided  westward  ii 

1  Cart.  Sax.,  i.  82.  2  Ibid.,  i.  294. 

3  Ibid.,  iii.  193.  *  Ibid. 

5  Codex  Dipl.,  Nos.  314  and  1067. 

Settlers  in  Sussex  and  Part  of  Surrey.     199 

England,'  or  who  '  died  in  England.'1  Eastmen  or  Ostro- 
goths were  names  used  somewhat  freely  in  ancient  time 
for  the  same  people,  and  it  is  possible  that  the  two  Domes- 
day places  in  Sussex  named  Essete  may  refer  to  settlers 
who  were  Eastmen.  There  are  four  places  in  Sussex  named 
Garinges,  and  as  g  and  w  were  interchangeable  in  sound, 
these  may  be  equivalent  to  Waringes,  and  point  to  settle- 
ments of  Warings. 

Hunestan  is  a  Domesday  name  apparently  referring  to 
the  settlement  of  a  family  of  Hunsings,  as  Sasingha  does 
to  one  which  bore  the  Saxon  name. 

A  trace  of  people  who  were  in  some  way  connected  with 
Franks  or  Burgundians  in  Sussex  is  afforded  by  the  dis- 
covery of  a  weapon  known  as  the  angon  in  a  cemetery 
of  the  Anglo-Saxon  period  at  Ferring.  This  weapon, 
almost  unknown  in  connection  with  ancient  burials  in 
England,  is  frequently  found  on  the  Continent  in  ancient 
graves  of  Franks  and  Burgundians.2 

It  is  not  suggested  that  all  the  manors  in  Sussex  on  which 
the  custom  of  junior  right  prevailed  were  settled  by  Wends. 
That  custom  can  be  traced  more  fully  to  the  Slavs  than 
to  any  other  race,  but  in  ancient  time,  as  well  as  in  modern, 
the  Slavs  were  settled  close  to,  or  even  among,  the  Teutons, 
and  it  might  have  been  adopted  by  some  of  the  Saxon 
tribes  or  communities  of  mixed  descent,  and  have  been 
introduced  into  Sussex  and  other  parts  of  England  partly 
by  Wends  and  partly  by  Frisians,  Burgundians,  or  others 
who  had  adopted  it.  This  supposition  is  supported  by  the 
survival  of  this  old  custom  over  considerable  portions  of 
North  Germany  at  the  present  time,  whereas  generally 
among  the  Germans  the  mode  of  succession  of  the  nobles, 
as  well  as  the  inferior  tenants,  was  partible  inheritance. 
As  regards  the  inferior  tenants,  in  parts  of  Germany  the 
parcelling  out  of  the  land  into  smaller  and  smaller 

1  Memoires  de  la  Societe   Royale   des   Antiquaires  du   Nord, 
1845-1849,  p.  333. 

2  Read,  C.  H.,  Archaologia,  liv.  369. 

2OO          Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

portions  led  to  such  impoverishment  that  the  'Minorat 
succession '  was  in  modern  time  established  so  that  the 
youngest  son  was  constituted  by  law  heir  to  the  father's 
farms  and  lands,  it  being  considered  that  the  father  was 
better  able  to  portion  off  his  elder  children  in  his  life- 
time.1 A  community  of  mixed  descent  in  contact  with 
another  which  had  the  junior  right  custom  might  have 
adopted  it  in  ancient  time,  as  it  was  by  German  law  in 
modern  time. 

The  place-names  in  Sussex  ending  in  the  word  -mer 
are  suggestive.  Grimm  tells  us  that  the  older  Slavs 
called  the  world  mir  and  ves'mir.2  Mir  is  also  the  name 
for  peace,  and  seems  akin  to  mir  a  or  mer  a,  a  measure. 
Among  all  the  counties  of  England  Sussex  is  remarkable 
for  its  place-names  terminating  in  this  word  -mer,  in 
some  cases  -mere.  It  appears  to  refer  to  a  boundary  or 
limit  rather  than  to  a  marsh,  for  some  of  the  names  which 
have  this  ending  are  situated  on  high  ground,  such  as 
Falmer — the  Domesday  Felesmere.  Keymer,  Angermer, 
Stanmer,  Jonsmer,  Cuckmere,  Ringmer,  Udimore  (com- 
monly pronounced  Udimer),  Tangemere,  Linchmere,  and 
Haslemere,  on  the  county  boundary,  are  other  examples 
of  the  name.  Some  of  these,  like  those  of  other  ancient 
places  and  hundreds  in  Sussex,  probably  refer  to  people. 

Among  Domesday  names  of  significance  in  reference 
to  Frisians  of  the  Chaucian  tribe  are  Cochinges  and 
Cocheha.  As  in  some  other  counties  in  which  there  are 
traces  of  Wendish  settlers,  we  find  a  place-name  con- 
taining the  root  sem,  probably  derived  from  the  old 
Slavonic  word  for  land.  It  occurs  in  the  Domesday 
place-name  Semlintun. 

The  number  of  places  in  Sussex  whose  names  bear  a 
resemblance  to  Frisian  names  is  remarkable.  The  ter- 
minal pronunciation  of  some  of  them  in  -urn  and  -un 
also  resembles  the  Frisian.  In  Friesland  we  find  Dokkum, 

1  Baring-Gould,  S.,  '  Germany,  Past  and  Present,'  pp.  56-68. 

2  Grimm,  J.,  '  Teutonic  Mythology,'  ed.  by  Stallybrass,  ii.,  793. 

Settlers  in  Sussex  and  Part  of  Surrey.     201 

Workum,  Bergum,  Akkrum,  Wierum,  Hallum,  Ulrum, 
Loppersum,  Makkum,  Bedum,  and  others  of  the  same 
kind.  In  Sussex  we  find  Horsham  (locally  pronounced 
Horsum  and  Hawsom),  Hailsham  (Helsum),  Sedle- 
combe  (Selzcum),  Friston  (Frissun),  Cocking  (Cokkun), 
Lillington  (Linkun).1  The  indications  pointing  to 
Frisians  in  this  county  are  sufficient  to  show  that 
people  of  this  nation  must  have  settled  among  the  South 

That  there  were  among  these  Frisians  tribal  Hunsings 
and  Chaucians  is  probable  from  such  family  names  as 
Friston,  Hunston,  the  Domesday  names  Cocheha,  Cokke- 
feld,  and  the  numerous  similar  names,  Cuckmere,  Cuck- 
field,  Cocking,  Cockhais,  Cockshut  stream,  Cokeham  (a 
hamlet  of  Sompting),  and  Cooksbridge,  north  of  Lewes. 
These  latter,  which  may  be  compared  with  Cuxhaven  in 
the  old  country  of  the  Chaucians  and  similar  names  in 
various  parts  of  England,  point  to  family  settlements  of 
these  tribal  people. 

The  name  Swanborough,  the  Domesday  Soanberge, 
probably  denotes  the  settlement  of  one  or  more  families 
of  Sweons  or  Swedes.  Their  connection  with  the  Viking 
expeditions  has  been  proved,  and  is  not  a  matter  of  con- 
jecture. In  the  original  settlement  of  Sussex  it  must, 
however,  be  accepted  that  people  of  Saxon  origin,  in- 
cluding the  Frisians,  were  in  the  majority,  and  so  gave 
their  name  to  the  kingdom.  The  occurrence  of  the 
Domesday  name  Sasingha,  denoting  a  family  of  Saxon 
origin,  in  a  county  supposed  to  have  been  entirely  settled 
by  Saxons,  may  be  explained  by  its  possible  use,  in  this 
instance,  as  a  distinctive  name  for  a  Saxon  settler  in  a 
district  in  which  the  neighbouring  settlements  were  those 
of  people  who  were  not  Saxons. 

Sussex,  like  all  English  maritime  counties,  had  its  later 
Scandinavian  settlements  as  well  as  those  of  the  early 
Saxon  period.  At  Framfield  there  were  customary  laws 
1  Lower,  M.  A.,  '  History  of  Sussex,'  vol.  i. 

202  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

of  inheritance  of  much  interest,  which  point,  in  all 
probability,  to  settlers  of  more  than  one  ancient  race. 
These  customs  were  the  subject  of  a  legal  inquiry  early 
in  the  seventeenth  century,  and  were  set  forth  by  the 
Court  of  Chancery,  4  James  I.  There  was  at  Fram- 
field  bondland  and  assartland,  the  former  being  in  all 
probability  that  which  was  first  under  cultivation,  and 
the  latter  that  which  was  converted  to  arable  land  by 
some  early  forest  clearing,  possibly  for  a  later  settle- 
ment of  Scandinavians.  However  this  may  have  been, 
the  custom  was  that  if  any  man  be  first  admitted  tenant 
of  any  assartland  and  die  seised  of  it,  and  also  of  bond- 
land,  then  the  eldest  son  should  be  admitted  heir  of  all 
his  land,  and  if  he  have  no  son,  the  eldest  daughter 
should  succeed.  If,  however,  the  tenant  be  first  admitted 
to  the  bondland,  also  called  yardland,  the  youngest 
son,  and  failing  sons,  the  youngest  daughter,  should 
succeed  to  the  whole  of  his  land.  If  he  left  no  children, 
the  youngest  brother ;  failing  brothers,  the  youngest 
sister ;  and  failing  these,  the  youngest  uncle  or  aunt  or 
youngest  cousin,  males  being  preferred  in  each  degree 
of  relationship.1  The  custom  by  which  the  eldest 
daughter  succeeded  if  there  was  no  son  makes  it  probable 
that  there  was  a  Norse  settlement  on  the  assartland  at 
Framfield.  We  may  find  another  trace  of  people  of 
Norse  descent  in  parts  of  East  Sussex  in  the  custom  of 
*  principals,'  by  which  the  eldest  son  on  some  of  the  lands 
in  Sussex  belonging  to  Battle  Abbey  was  entitled  to 
certain  heirlooms  or  articles  in  right  of  primogeniture.2 
The  succession  by  the  youngest  seems  to  have  been 
originally  connected  with  the  bondland,  and  follows  the 
custom  that  so  largely  prevailed  in  the  Rape  of  Lewes. 

The   eldest   daughter   custom   at   Framfield   and   the 
custom  of  '  principals  '  in  reference  to  the  eldest  son,  when 

1  Corner,  G.  R.,  '  On  Borough-English/  Sussex  Archaeological 
Collections,  vi.  175,  176. 

2  Encyclopaedia  Britannica,  Ninth  ed.,  '  Primogeniture.' 

Settlers  in  Sussex  and  Part  of  Surrey.     203 

compared  with  the  customs  of  Norway  and. Cumberland, 
are. so  clearly  of  Scandian  origin  that  we  may  look  for 
other  traces  of  the  Northmen  in  Sussex.  The  name  rapes 
for  the  county  divisions  appears  to  be  of  Scandinavian 
origin,  and  to  be  connected  with  Anglo-Saxon  rap,  rcep, 
and  the  Gothic  raip,  signifying  a  rope.  In  Iceland 
districts  are  called  hreppar  to  the  present  day.1  Scandi- 
navian place-names  may  be  recognised  in  Harlinges  (an 
old  place  near  Framfield),  Bosham,  Bosgrave,  Thorney, 
Angmering,  Swanborough,  Denton,  Scale  near  Sten- 
ning,  and  Angleton,  all  ancient  names  which  occur  in 
their  old  forms  in  ancient  records.  There  are  two  places 
named  Blechington,  one  north  of  Brighton,  and  the 
other  east  of  Newhaven.  These  family  settlement  names 
suggest  some  connection  with  Scandian  people  from 
Blekinge,  the  province  in  the  South  of  Sweden.  These 
ancient  names,  and  the  survival  of  the  customs  men- 
tioned, so  clearly  point  to  Northmen  that  there  can  be 
no  doubt  that  settlements  of  them,  probably  during 
the  later  Saxon  period,  took  place  on  the  Sussex 

At  Rotherfield  there  were  three  kinds  of  heritable 
land  —  viz.,  farthingland,  cotmanland,  and  assartland. 
The  eldest  son  was  heir  of  the  assartland,  and  the  wife 
was  not  entitled  to  dower.  The  assartland  was  that 
which  had  been  reclaimed  from  some  forest  clearing, 
and,  being  new  cultivated  land,  there  was  no  customary 
mode  of  inheritance  attached  to  it.  Consequently,  it 
followed  the  common  law  of  primogeniture.  The  youngest 
son  was  heir  of  the  farthingland  and  cotmanland,  but, 
if  there  were  no  sons,  there  was  this  difference  between 
the  descent  of  farthingland  and  cotmanland :  the 
former  descended  to  the  youngest  daughter,  while  the 
latter  was  divided  among  all  the  daughters.2  To  this 

1  Domesday  Book,  General  Introduction,  by  H.  Ellis,  pp.  179, 
1 80. 

2  Corner,  G.  R.,  loc.  cit.,  vi.  15. 

2O4          Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

extent  the  cotmanland  followed  the  custom  of  Kent, 
and  the  farthingland  the  custom  of  a  great  part  of 

History  is  silent  concerning  Norse  colonies  on  our 
southern  coasts,  but  the  customs  and  old  place-names 
which  have  been  mentioned  point  to  a  considerable 
settlement  of  Scandinavians  in  Sussex,  and  Sweons  or 
Swedes  among  them.  That  Swedes  came  among  the 
Vikings,  as  already  mentioned,  is  proved  by  the  runic 
monuments  of  their  country.  In  the  district  of  Vaksala 
(parish  of  old  Upsala)  there  is  still  existing  an  inscrip- 
tion to  Sigvid,  '  the  England  sea-farer.'  In  Vesterman- 
land  there  is  another  '  to  a  worthy  young  man,  and  he 
had  gone  to  England.'  In  Gestrikland,  near  Gefle,  is 
another  made  by  relatives  to  '  their  brother  Bruse  when 
he  set  out  for  England.'1  Some  of  these  and  other 
inscriptions  may  be  memorials  of  actual  settlers  in  our 
country.  There  is  additional  evidence  relating  to  North- 
men. The  Domesday  names  Totenore,  Sidenore,  Ven- 
ningore  or  Waningore,  Icenore,  and  the  other  early  names 
Cymenore,  Kynnore,  and  Cotenore,  show  by  their  ter- 
minations traces  of  Scandinavian  people.  Among  other 
Danish  or  Scandinavian  traces  in  the  oldest  place-names 
are  those  beginning  with  Sale,  which  may  refer  to  settlers 
from  Sealand.  These  are  the  Domesday  places  Salecome 
and  Salhert,  now  Salehurst,  and  Salemanneburn,2  a 
name  for  one  of  the  old  hundreds.  The  conditions  under 
which  settlements  were  formed  in  Sussex  must  have 
been  peculiar  to  it  from  the  first.  With  a  great  extent 
of  coast,  and  the  country  nearest  to  it  being  for  long 
distances  sparsely  supplied  with  wood,  the  early  settlers 
must  have  depended  for  that  commodity  on  the  forest 
district  further  north,  or  on  woods  which  became  common 
to  certain  hundreds  or  groups  of  village  settlements. 

1  Memoires  de  la  Societe  Royale  des  Antiquaires  du  Nord, 
Copenhagen,  1845-1849,  pp.  334-346. 

2  Placita  de  quo  warranto,  749. 

Settlers  in  Sussex  and  Part  of  Surrey.     205 

The  Andredsweald  forest  was  known  "as  the  '  Sylva 
communis  '  in  the  Anglo-Saxon  period.1 

There  are  still  surviving  a  number  of  place-names 
ending  in  the  word  -tye,  which  probably  denoted  common 
lands  or  rights  of  some  kind  attached  to  various  places. 
Berwick-tye,  Bramble-tye,  Horntye,  Pilstye,  Puckstye, 
Wroth-tye,  also  Tyes  and  Tyes  Cross,  Tye  farm,  and  Tye 
hill,  are  examples. 

The  survival  of  borough-English  on  a  considerable 
number  of  manors  in  the  south  of  Surrey  points  to 
colonization  from  Sussex.  The  custom  of  succession  by 
the  youngest  son  not  only  survived  until  modern  time 
in  these  places,  but  the  division  of  the  manors  into 
so-called  boroughs  also  survived.  At  Dorking  there 
were  four  boroughs — viz.,  Chipping  borough,  com- 
prising the  greater  part  of  the  town  ;  Holmwood  borough, 
comprising  the  country  on  the  south  side  of  the  town  ; 
Milton  borough  ;  and  Westcote  borough.  There  were, 
similarly,  a  number  of  rural  boroughs  in  the  manor  of 
Croydon,  where  borough-English  also  survived.  These 
arrangements  for  rural  government,  with  a  headman 
called  the  head-borough,  are  the  same  as  existed  in  parts 
of  Sussex,  where  succession  by  the  youngest  son  was  the 
custom.  It  is  known  that  this  custom  prevailed  on  at 
least  twenty-eight  manors2  in  Surrey,  including  Dorking, 
Croydon,  Reigate,  and  Bletchworth.3  These  places  are 
all  on,  or  quite  close  to,  the  lines  of  the  old  Roman  roads 
which  connected  Sussex  with  London,  and  the  sur- 
vival of  a  Sussex  custom  at  places  in  Surrey  situated  on 
these  roads  suggests  migrations  of  people  along  them. 
Borough-English  is  also  known  to  have  prevailed  in  the 
following  rural  parts  of  Surrey :  Weston  Gumshall, 
Sutton  (near  Woking),  Little  Bookham,  Wootton,  Abinger, 
Padington,  Towerhill,  Nettley,  Shere,  Cranley,  Compton- 

1  Horsfield,  T.  W.,  '  History  and  Antiquities  of  Lewes,'  p.  3. 

2  Corner,  R.  G.,  loc.  cit.,  15. 

3  Elton,  C.  I.,  and  Mackay,  H.  J.  H.,  loc.  cit.,  238. 

206  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

Westbury,  Brockham  in  Betchworth,  and  Dunsford. 
The  migration  from  Sussex  into  Surrey  thus  appears  to 
have  been  considerable. 

There  is  in  the  south-east  of  Surrey  some  evidence  of 
the  commingling  of  local  colonists  from  both  Sussex  and 
Kent  in  this  part  of  the  Weald  forest.  It  can  be  traced 
in  the  manorial  and  other  local  customs.  At  Lingfield 
the  officials  called  head-boroughs  were  appointed  for 
all  the  manors  within  this  large  parish,  as  was  the  case  in 
Sussex  on  the  manors  where  borough-English  prevailed. 
Sterborough,  one  of  the  manors  of  Lingfield,  bears  this 
borough  name.  Part  of  this  rural  borough  lay  in  Kent, 
and  was  subject  to  gavelkind.  The  tenants  of  the  other 
part  of  this  manor  held  their  land  subject  to  the  payment 
of  a  heriot  of  the  best  beast  on  the  death  of  the  tenant.1 
This  custom  was  probably  introduced  into  England  by 
Scandinavians,  and  is  commonly  met  with  in  districts 
settled  by  them. 

Blechingley  had  some  customs  which  bore  a  strong 
resemblance  to  some  of  those  incidental  to  gavelkind  in 
Kent.  The  tenants  paid  no  heriots,  but  one  penny  only, 
and  no  more,  for  admission  to  their  lands.  They  could 
sell  or  alienate  their  lands,  as  the  gavelkind  tenants  in 
Kent  could.  They  could  grant  leases  without  their  lord's 
license,2  as  Kentish  tenants  could.  Part  of  Godstone 
was  held  of  the  manor  of  Blechingley,  with  presumably 
similar  customs.  At  Reigate  the  free  and  customary 
tenants  had  the  custom  of  borough -English,  and  held 
their  lands  and  tenements  in  free  and  common  socage,3 
which  corresponded  very  closely  to  gavelkind  in  Kent. 
Similarly,  at  Limpsfield  the  copyholds  descended  to  the 
youngest  son,4  like  those  held  in  the  barony  of  Lewes. 

In  a  previous  chapter  the  development  of  the  hundred 
as  a  division  of  the  later  English  shires  from  the  primitive 
districts  that  had  their  separate  popular  assemblies  of 

1  Manning  and  Bray,  '  History  of  Surrey,'  ii.  340. 

2  Ibid.,  ii.  296.  3  Ibid.,  i.  281.  *  Ibid.,  ii.  394. 

Settlers  in  Sussex  and  Part  of  Surrey.     207 

freemen  has  been  referred  to.  Sussex  affords  us  examples 
of  hundreds  mentioned  in  Domesday  Book  that  appear 
originally  to  have  been  districts  of  this  kind.  This  is 
seen  in  the  case  of  the  hundred  of  Bexelei,  the  area  of 
which  probably  was  that  mentioned  in  a  charter  in  the 
time  of  Off  a  as  Bexwarena-land.1  These  Bexware  people 
thus  mentioned  as  a  district  community  no  doubt  had 
their  local  assembly  or  court,  common  to  all  Teutonic 
tribes,  and  it  is  difficult  to  see  any  other  probable  origin 
of  the  later  hundred  of  Bexelei.  The  hundreds  of 
Sussex  were  very  numerous,  and  consequently  for  the 
most  part  small.  No  fewer  than  fifty  of  them  are 
mentioned  in  Domesday  Book,  and  they  include  those 
bearing  the  clan  or  tribal  names  Mellinges,  Staninges, 
Ghestelinges,  and  Poninges,  which  are  examples  of 
small  communities  of  people  of  the  same  kindred, 
and  many  similar  names  are  mentioned  in  the  Saxon 
charters.  With  the  exception  of  Kent,  Sussex  con- 
tained a  larger  number  of  hundreds  at  the  time  of  the 
Survey  than  any  other  county  on  the  south-east  coast. 
As  we  cannot  suppose  that  all  these  comparatively  small 
separate  areas  of  administration  arose  in  the  later  Saxon 
period,  the  conclusion  appears  unavoidable  that  the 
South  Saxons  were  originally  settled  in  small  district 
communities,  administered  by  their  own  local  assemblies 
of  the  freemen. 

Some  evidence  of  variation  in  race  among  the  South 
Saxons  has  been  obtained  by  the  examination  of  skulls 
from  their  cemeteries.  Of  fourteen,  examined  by  Horton- 
Smith,  found  at'  Goring,  near  Worthing,  thirteen  were 
long  and  one  broad.2  The  long  skulls  were  very  marked, 
the  average  index  being  72.  As  the  English  skull  at 
the  present  time  has  an  average  index  of  78,  it  will  be 
seen  that  the  great  majority  of  the  settlers  at  Goring 
were  characterized  by  having  specially  long  heads.  They 

1  Cart.  Sax.,  i.  294. 

2  Journal  Anthrop.  Inst.,  xxvi.  83. 

2o8  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

correspond  closely  to  the  ancient  German  type  found  so 
numerously  in  an  old  burying-ground  at  Bremen,  which 
has  an  index  of  71  or  72.  The  skulls  with  this  average 
characteristic  index  were  found  in  that  part  of  ancient 
Frisia  inhabited  by  the  Chaucians,  and  as  some  of  the 
Sussex  place-names  point  to  Frisian  settlers,  the  coinci- 
dence is  suggestive.  In  reference  to  the  broad  skull, 
Horton-Smith  supposes  a  fusion  of  race  to  have  taken 
place  between  the  Saxons  of  Sussex  and  some  British 
descendants  of  the  period  of  the  Round  Barrow  or  Bronze 
Age.  He  points  out,  however,  an  important  difference 
in  the  height  of  the  skulls — viz.,  that  the  height-index 
of  the  Round  Barrow  race,  according  to  Thurnam,  is 
76,  whereas  that  of  the  typical  Saxon  is  70.  The  settle- 
ment in  Sussex  of  some  broad-headed  people  with  the 
long-headed  majority,  coming  from  a  Continental  area 
where  people  of  both  race  characters  are  known  to  have 
lived,  is  probably  a  better  explanation. 

The  survival  of  junior  inheritance  on  so  many  manors 
in  Sussex,  and  the  discovery  of  differences  in  the  skulls, 
suggest  the  inquiry,  What  evidence  is  there  in  Sussex  of 
a  typical  Saxon  race  ?  The  custom  was  foreign  to  the 
Continental  Saxons.  The  settlers  in  Sussex  must  appar- 
ently have  been  tribal  people  of  more  than  one  race. 
They  ma}'  well  have  been  of  three  races,  as  perhaps  is 
dimly  remembered  in  their  traditional  arrival  in  three 
ships.  The  observations  which  were  made  half  a  century 
ago  on  the  ethnology  of  the  people  of  this  county  by 
Mackintosh  are  of  interest.  He  says  :  '  In  Sussex  the 
Saxon  type  is  found  in  its  greatest  purity  in  the  area 
extending  from  East  Grinstead  to  Hastings.'  It  is  in 
this  area  that  place-names  ending  in  -ham,  such  as  Withy- 
ham,  Etchingham,  Northiam,  and  Bodiam,  occur.  He 
says  also  that  '  in  Sussex  the  majority  of  the  inhabitants 
would  appear  to  belong  to  two  races — the  Saxon,  and  a 
race  with  harder  and  more  angular  features.'1  The 
1  Ethnological  Society  Transactions,  i.  214,  215. 

Settlers  in  Sussex  and  Part  of  Surrey.     209 

immigration   of    other  settlers  among  the*  Frisians  and 
Saxons  probably  explains  this. 

The  village  arrangements  in  Sussex  show  examples  of 
both  isolated  and  collected  homesteads.  In  some  parishes, 
as  in  Kent,  there  are  old  place-names  apparently  of  early 
settlements,  distinct  from  the  name  of  the  parish  itself. 
Such  names,  which  are  now  applied  to  hamlets  or  farms, 
were  in  many  instances  probably  the  names  of  settle- 
ments by  families  in  isolated  homesteads.  This  plan  of 
village  occupation,  which  prevails  so  largely  in  the  country 
west  of  the  Weser,  may  have  been  introduced  into  Sussex 
by  Frisian  settlers.  It  may,  however,  be  a  British  sur- 
vival which  some  of  the  tribal  South  Saxons  found  here, 
and  adopted  in  the  districts  in  which  it  can  be  traced.  In 
other  parts  of  the  county  that  are  marked  chiefly  by 
villages  of  collected  homesteads  the  old  Celtic  arrange- 
ment appears  to  have  been  replaced  by  that  observable 
between  the  Weser  and  the  Elbe,  occupied  by  the  old 
Saxons,  and  in  the  country  north  and  east  of  the  Elbe, 
occupied  respectively  by  Saxons  and  Wends. 

One  of  the  most  interesting  circumstances  connected 
with  early  Sussex  is  the  migration  of  a  large  body  of 
Sussex  people  at  the  beginning  of  the  eighth  century, 
and  the  establishment  by  them  of  a  colony  in  Somerset- 
shire, which  will  be  discussed  in  the  chapter  on  the  South- 
western counties.  The  early  date  of  this  migration, 
which  can  be  proved,  shows  that  the  tribal  people  who 
brought  with  them  the  custom,  of  junior  inheritance 
into  the  Rape  of  Lewes  must  have  been  early  settlers 
there,  and  it  is  quite  certain  they  were  not,  strictly 
speaking,  Saxons. 



r  I  ^HE  settlement  of  people  of  more  than  one  race 
in  Hampshire  under  the  name  of  Gewissas  is 
historical.  The  evidence  rests  partly  on  the 
statement  of  Bede,  who  wrote  within  two  hundred 
years  of  the  probable  date  of  the  invasion  of  this  part 
of  Britain.  His  information  was  derived  from  Daniel, 
Bishop  of  Winchester,  and  the  Bishop  no  doubt 
obtained  it  from  people  of  more  than  one  race  distinctly 
surviving  in  Wessex  in  his  time.  The  chief  point  in 
this  historical  evidence  cannot  be  doubted — viz.,  that 
there  were  people  settled  in  the  Isle  of  Wight  and 
the  southern  part  of  the  county  who  were  of  different 
descent  from  those  in  other  parts  of  the  early  kingdom 
of  Wessex.  The  original  kingdom  was  no  doubt  at 
first  what  is  now  called  Hampshire,  or  the  county  of 
Southampton,  but  the  small  state  soon  grew  in  extent, 
so  that  before  the  end  of  the  sixth  century  it  comprised 
parts  at  least  of  what  is  now  Dorset,  Wiltshire,  and 
Berkshire.  The  settlement  of  Hampshire,  therefore, 
cannot  be  fully  considered  without  reference  to  that  of 
the  counties  which  adjoin  it  on  the  west  and  north. 
According  to  the  genealogy  of  the  Kings  of  Wessex,  Cedric 
was  a  great-grandson  of  Gewis,1  but  this  genealogy  is 

1   Grimm,    J.,    '  Teutonic   Mythology,'   edited   by    Stallybrass 
vol.  iv.,  p.  1711. 


The  Gewissas  and  other  Settlers  in   Wessex.     2  1 1 

legendary,  not  historical.  It  may  be  accepted,  however, 
as  evidence  of  the  antiquity  of  the  tribal  name  Gewissae, 
which  long  survived  in  this  kingdom.  In  A.D.  766 
Cynewlf,  King  of  Wessex,  gave  a  charter  to  the  monastery 
of  Wells,  and  in  it  he  styles  himself  '  Cynewlphus  Gewis- 
sorum  rex.'1  This  is  evidence  of  the  survival  of  the  name 
more  than  two  centuries  after  the  arrival  of  the  Gewissas 
in  Hampshire.  The  West  Saxon  Kings  must  have  been 
proud  of  it  to  have  retained  it.  Still  later,  in  the  year  825, 
Egbert  used  the  same  title  '  rex  Gewissorum  '2  in  a  charter 
in  which  he  gave  land  at  Alton  to  the  Monastery  of 
SS.  Peter  and  Paul  at  Winchester.  Eadred  also,  in  the  year 
946,  in  a  grant  of  land  to  the  thegn  Ethelgeard,  describes 
the  situation  of  this  land  as  being  at  Brightwell,  in  the 
district  of  the  Gewissi — i.e.,  Brightwell,  near  Wallingford, 
in  Berkshire,  so  described,  probably,  to  distinguish  it 
from  another  Brightwell  in  Oxfordshire.3 

Even  after  the  Norman  Conquest,  Ordericus  Vitalis, 
writing  in  the  twelfth  century,  mentions  the  district  round 
Winchester  as  the  country  of  the  Gewissse.  The  name 
evidently  had  great  vitality,  and  must  have  been  a 
common  one  to  have  been  used  by  a  chronicler  at  so  late 
a  date.  When  we  consider  its  probable  origin,  we  have 
first  to  note  the  occurrence  of  the  name  Gewis  in  the 
genealogy  of  the  West  Saxon  Kings,4  and,  secondly,  its 
probable  meaning.  Gewis  would  naturally  arise  at  the 
time  when  the  Anglo-Saxon  genealogies  were  drawn  up, 
from  the  tribal  name  Gewissae  or  Gewissas  being  in 
common  use.  This  name  of  the  mythological  ancestor 
of  the  royal  house  is  certainly  more  likely  to  have 
been  derived  from  the  name  of  the  tribe  than  that  the 
tribal  name  should  have  had  its  origin  from  a  mytho- 
logical one. 

Its  meaning  has  recently  been  discussed  by  Stevenson,5 

1  Cart.  Sax.,  i.  283,  284.  2  Ibid.,  i.  543. 

3  Ibid.,  ii.  595,  596.  *  Grimm,  J.,  loc.  cit.,  iv.  1717. 

Hist.  Review,  vol.  xiv. 


2 1 2  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

who  has  stated  the  opinions  of  various  writers.  The 
most  probable  derivation  appears  to  be  that  of  Miillenhoff , 
who  connects  it  with  the  Gothic  ga-wiss — junction — and 
Gewissas  are  thus  explained  as  confederates. 

In  the  traditionary  accounts  of  the  occupation  of  Kent 
and  Sussex,  we  read  of  invaders  coming  in  three  ships  in 
each  case.  In  the  account  relating  to  Wessex  we  read 
that  they  came  in  five,  and  this  may  have  some  reference 
to  tribal  expeditions  of  confederates.  That  the  settlers 
who  occupied  Hampshire  consisted  of  people  of  more 
than  one  race  admits  of  no  doubt.  As  will  be  shown,  there 
is  evidence  within  the  limits  of  ancient  Wessex  of  settle- 
ments by  Goths  or  Jutes,  Saxons,  Frisians,  and  Wends. 
There  is  evidence  also  of  later  considerable  settlements 
of  Northmen.  The  interpretation  of  the  name  Gewissas 
as  confederates  is  certainly  confirmed  by  what  can  be  dis- 
covered concerning  the  West  Saxon  people.  Indeed, 
confederacies  played  such  an  important  part  in  the 
settlement  of  England  generally  that  it  can  be  no  matter 
for  surprise  to  find  sufficient  evidence,  even  apart  from 
the  historical,  to  show  that  Wessex  was  colonized  by 
people  of  various  races.  There  were  small  confederacies 
as  well  as  large  ones  among  the  ancient  tribes  of  Germany, 
and  it  is  possible  that  such  names  as  Gewiesen,  Gewissen- 
ruhe,  and  Gewissowice,  which  still  exist  in  North-East 
Germany,1  may  have  had  their  origin  in  clan  confederacies 
of  people  of  different  tribes  or  kindreds. 

As  regards  the  Gothic  connection  of  the  word,  it  is  of 
interest  to  note  the  occurrence  of  gewiss,  used  in  the  sense 
of  *  assured '  or  '  certain,'  in  an  inscription  on  one  of  the 
capitals  of  a  column  which  still  remains  at  Ravenna,  and 
which  commemorates  the  rule  of  Theodoric,  the  great 
Gothic  King  at  that  place.     He,  the  greatest  of  the  Goth 
rulers,  was  King  over  people  of  the  same  descent  as  tl 
Northern  Goths  or  Jutes,  many  of  whom,  without  doub 
made  for  themselves  English  homes  in  Hampshire  and  tl 
1   Rudolph,  H.,  '  Orts  Lexikon  von  Deutschland.' 

The  Gewissas  and  other  Settlers  in    Wessex.     213 

Isle  of  Wight,  as  members  of  a  confederacy  known  as  that 
of  the  Gewissas.  These  were  apparently  sworn  or  assured 

Among  these  Gewissas  or  confederates,  Saxons  and 
Frisians  were  probably  the  greatest  in  number.  From 
what  is  known  of  their  descendants  on  the  Continent,  they 
were  people  of  a  blonde  complexion,  so  that  the  prevailing 
ethnological  character  of  the  people  of  Wessex  agrees  with 
that  of  the  present  inhabitants  of  Friesland  and  North 

At  the  time  Bede  wrote  contemporary  evidence  existed 
of  the  two  chief  tribes,  who,  under  the  name  Gewissas, 
made  up  the  West  Saxon  State.  At  that  time  the  Isle 
of  Wight  was  under  its  own  chiefs  or  Kings,  subordinate 
only  to  the  Kings  of  Wessex ;  and  there  are  some  references 
which  point  to  a  government  of  the  Meon  country,  or 
south-east  part  of  Hampshire,  at  one  time  by  Princes, 
apart  from  the  direct  rule  of  the  Wessex  Sovereigns.  The 
Jutes  of  the  Isle  of  Wight  certainly,  and  those  of  the  south- 
east part  of  Hampshire  possibly,  were  under  their  own 
local  administration  at  the  time  when  Daniel,  Bishop  of 
Winchester,  informed  the  Venerable  Bede  of  the  political 
condition  of  his  diocese.  There  is  no  room  for  doubt  con- 
cerning the  accuracy  of  Bede's  statement,  for  it  has  been 
proved  by  archaeological  and  anthropological  researches. 
The  remains  of  the  Saxon  period  which  have  been  brought 
to  light  by  the  spade  in  the  Isle  of  Wight,  and  much  more 
recently  in  the  Meon  valley,  are  all  of  the  Kentish  type, 
and,  like  them,  exhibit  a  distinct  resemblance  to  similar 
relics  which  have  been  found  in  Northern  countries  from 
which  the  Jutes  or  Goths  migrated — i.e.,  Gothland  and 
some  of  the  Danish  isles,  as  well  as  Jutland. 

One  of  the  Danish  isles  at  the  present  time  is  named 
Mon,  or  Moen,  and  as  the  Danish  o  or  oe  is  in  sound  like 
the  French  eu,i  it  is  practically  the  same  in  sound  as  the 

1  Warsaae,  J.  J.,  '  Danes  and  Norwegians  in  England,'  Pre- 
face, v,  vi. 

214  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

Hampshire  Meon,  in  the  valley  of  which  people  from  Moen 
were  probably  among  the  Jutish  settlers.  That  the  iden- 
tity of  the  Jutes  and  the  Goths,  or  the  very  close  affinity 
between  them,  was  known  locally  in  Wessex  as  late  as 
the  end  of  the  ninth  century  is  proved  by  a  statement 
made  by  Asser,1  that  King  Alfred's  mother  was  Osburga, 
daughter  of  Oslac,  a  Goth  by  nation,  descended  from  the 
Goths  or  Jutes  of  the  Isle  of  Wight.  The  name  of  Gutae, 
as  already  mentioned,  is  found  in  very  early  Gothic  .runes 
in  Scandinavia,  and  Stephens  places  their  date  as  early  as 
A.D.  400.  The  evidence  of  the  connection  of  the  Goths 
with  the  Isle  of  Wight  is  also  supported  by  the  discovery 
of  a  runic  inscription  within  it.  This  is  on  the  inner  side 
of  the  scabbard  mount  of  an  iron  sword  found  at  Chessell 
Down  about  the  middle  of  the  nineteenth  century,  and 
is  in  the  British  Museum,  where,  many  years  after  its 
discovery,  it  was  taken  to  pieces  to  be  cleaned.  During 
this  process  the  staves  of  the  runes,  which  could  not  pre- 
viously be  observed,  were  seen  to  have  been  clearly,  but 
not  deeply,  incised  by  a  sharp  instrument  on  the  elegant 
silver  mount.  The  words  '  ^Eco  Sceri,'  which  are  clearly 
visible  in  runic  characters,  Stephens  places  between 
A.D.  500-600  in  date,  and  interprets  as  an  imprecation 
against  the  foe  with  whom  the  sword  might  come  intc 

The  Jutes  of  Hampshire  are  probably  referred  to  in  the 
old  name  Ytene,  for  the  district  which  is  now  the  Ne\ 
Forest.  This  word  is  apparently  a  later  form  of  the  Anglo- 
Saxon  Ytena,  genitive  plural  of  Yte,  a  form  of  the  wore 
Jutse  used  by  Bede.  This  part  of  the  county  was  know: 
as  Jutish  for  centuries.  Florence  of  Worcester,  writing 
at  the  end  of  the  eleventh  century,  mentions  the  '  prc 
vincia  Jutarum,'  in  which  the  New  Forest  was  formed. 
The  Goths  occupied  the  south  parts  of  the  county  east  anc 
west  of  Southampton  WTater,  as  well  as  the  Isle  of  Wight. 

1  Asset,  '  Life  of  Alfred.' 

2  Stephens,  G.,  '  Old  Northern  Runic  Monuments,'  iii.  460. 

The  Gewissas  and  other  Settlers  in   Wessex.     215 

We  can  have  no  doubt  that  Saxons  of  some  tribe  or 
tribes  were  largely  included  among  the  settlers  of  a  dis- 
trict afterwards  known  to  its  neighbours  as  Wessex,  or 
the  kingdom  of  the  West  Saxons.  Among  these,  in  a 
country  with  good  harbours,  there  can  be  little  doubt 
that  Frisians,  who  were  the  people  among  the  so-called 
Saxons  most  given  to  maritime  pursuits,  were  represented. 
Such  names  as  Emsworth  and  the  river  Ems  in  the  south- 
east of  the  county  remind  us  of  Emden  and  the  river  Ems, 
close  to  Eastern  Friesland.  It  is  among  the  present 
Frisians  that  traditions  of  Hengist  survive,  and  it  is  only 
in  connection  with  the  Jutes  and  Frisians  that  this  name 
occurs.  It  is  of  interest,  therefore,  to  note  that  the  name 
is  mentioned  in  the  West  Saxon  charters — Hengestes-geat 
in  Hants,1  and  Hengestesrig  2  in  Dorset. 

The  harbours  of  these  counties  were  their  ports  of 
debarkation,  and  it  was  up  the  river  valleys  and  along 
the  old  Roman  highways  that  the  country  was  settled. 
The  valleys  of  the  Itchen,  Test,  Avon,  Stour,  and  others, 
afforded  a  passage  into  the  interior  and  higher  parts  of 
the  country,  and  there  is  evidence  to  show,  more  especi- 
ally in  Dorsetshire,  that  settlements  by  people  of  the  same 
tribe  were  made  in  the  same  or  in  adjacent  valleys.  In 
Berkshire  the  lines  of  colonization  appear  to  have  been 
varied.  The  natural  way  into  that  county  is  not  by 
Southampton  Water,  but  up  the  valley  of  the  Thames. 
Berkshire  did  not  come  under  the  rule  of  the  Gewissas 
at  such  an  early  period  as  Hampshire,  part  of  Dorset,  and 
the  south  part  of  Wiltshire.  It  was  separated  from  early 
Wessex  by  a  wide  forest,  of  which  traces  still  remain  in  the 
nomenclature  of  the  district.  Many  of  the  settlers  in 
Berkshire  probably  came  by  way  of  the  Thames,  but  after 
the  extension  of  the  West  Saxon  State  they  appear  to  have 
been  known  as  Gewissas  equally  with  the  people  of  the 
original  settlement. 

That  some  of  the  Berkshire  settlers  followed  the  same 
Codex  Dipl.,  No.  648.  2  Ibid.,  No.  455. 

216  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

route  from  the  south  as  the  West  Saxon  armies  is  shown 
by  the  ethnological  evidence  and  by  the  dialects.  Beddoe ,* 
referring  to  the  south  of  Hampshire,  says  :  '  The  Saxon 
and  Frisian  types  undoubtedly  spread  from  this  centre  far 
to  the  north  and  west,  predominating  in  a  great  part  of 
Berkshire  and  central  Oxfordshire,  and  occupying  in  force 
the  valleys  which  radiate  from  Salisbury  among  the  Wilt- 
shire Downs.'  Referring  more  especially  to  the  people  of 
Wilts,  he  also  says  :  *  I  do  not  mean  that  the  Wiltshire 
people  are  anything  like  pure  Saxons  or  Frisians  ;  I 
should  be  quite  satisfied  if  it  were  granted  that  they  were 
at  least  half  Saxon.'2  The  prevalence  of  the  blonde  type 
in  parts  of  Hants,  Wilts,  and  Dorset  is  one  of  the  chief 
points  in  the  present  physical  characters  of  the  inhabitants 
of  these  counties.  Beddoe  says :  '  Hampshire  bears 
witness  that  it  was  a  starting-point  of  Saxon  colonization 
by  the  blonde  character  of  the  population.'  He  also 
speaks  of  the  *  blonde,  smooth-featured  Saxons  about 
Wilton,'  and  tells  us  that  '  the  blonde  types  are  common 
from  Wareham  to  Yeovil.'3 

In  Hampshire,  however,  we  do  not  meet  with  a  general 
blonde  type.  Of  the  New  Forest  district  Mackintosh 
says  :  '  The  New  Forest  is  inhabited  by  a  mixture  of 
races  which  almost  defy  classification,  the  complexion  in 
general  being  dark  ;'4  and  this  prevalence  of  dark-com- 
plexioned people  among  the  inhabitants  of  the  New 
Forest  district  is  still  apparent,  as  it  is  in  parts  of  Wilt- 
shire and  Dorset. 

The  same  ethnological  observer,  Mackintosh,5  also  says  : 
'  In  the  middle  and  north  of  Hampshire  the  people  in 
general  belong  to  a  dark-complexioned  race.  I  have 
heard  the  opinion  expressed  that  they  are  Wends,  or  a 
Belgic  tribe  of  Wendish  extraction.'  The  present  writer 
is  not  able  to  regard  the  dark-complexioned  type  as  being 

1  Beddoe,  J.,  '  Races  in  Britain,'  257. 

2  Ibid.,  p.  259,  note.  3  Ibid.,  257. 

4  Mackintosh,  D.,  '  Ethnological  Observations,'  Trans.  Ethn. 
Soc.,  ii.  217.  5  Ibid.,  ii.  214. 

The  Gewusas  and  other  Settlers  in   Wessex.     217 

quite  so  general,  but  in  the  central  and  north  parts  of  the 
county  it  may  still  be  found,  although  perhaps  less 
strongly  marked  now  than  half  a  century  ago.  The 
darker  complexion  among  some  of  the  Hampshire  people, 
as  among  those  of  Wiltshire  and  Dorset,  may  be  due  in 
part  to  their  descent  from  people  of  darker  hues,  who  were 
among  the  original  Gewissas.  The  Goths  were  of  a  fair 
type,  as  has  been  already  described  in  the  chapter  on  Kent. 
The  inhabitants  of  the  Isle  of  Wight,  although  now  a  very 
mixed  population,  still  show  occasional  conformities  to 
the  original  Jutish  type,  and  this  may  be  observed  in  the 
face  of  the  monumental  effigy  of  one  of  the  D'Orseys,  an 
old  Isle  of  Wight  family,  in  the  church  at  Newport.  It 
may  be  seen  among  the  people  of  the  Meon  district,  and 
may  be  noticed  among  people  who  may  be  met  in  the 
streets  of  Winchester  at  the  present  time. 

From  what  has  already  been  said,  it  will  be  seen  that 
the  Kentish  custom  of  partible  inheritance  can  be  traced  to 
a  primitive  Gothic  source,  and  the  custom  of  junior  right 
to  a  primitive  Wendish  or  Slavonic  source.  As  Hamp- 
shire was  settled  by  colonists  of  various  races,  united 
under  the  common  name  of  Gewissas,  the  people  of  the 
various  tribes  may  be  expected  to  have  brought  into  this 
county  some  of  their  peculiar  customs,  as  Goths  did  into 
Kent,  and  tribal  Frisians  and  Wends  probably  did  into 
Sussex.  It  will  be  desirable,  therefore,  to  consider  in 
some  detail  the  various  primitive  customs  of  succession 
and  land  tenure  which  actually  prevailed  in  Hampshire. 
No  instance  of  exactly  the  same  custom  of  partible  in- 
heritance that  prevailed  in  Kent  can  be  cited  in  this 
county,  but  a  large  number  of  cases  can  be  quoted  of 
land  being  held  by  parage  or  parcenary  tenure,  a  custom 
in  its  nature  very  like  gavelkind.  The  survival  of  this 
parage  or  parcenary  custom  was  mainly  in  the  old  Jutish 
parts  of  the  county — viz.,  in  the  Isle  of  Wight  and  the 
New  Forest  district.  The  manors  in  which  this  custom 
prevailed  were  each  considered  as  one  manor  for  the 
purpose  of  taxation,  but  were  held  jointly  by  more  than 

218  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

one  tenant,  one  of  them  being  responsible  for  the  pay- 
ments. In  some  cases  these  co-parceners  were  brothers, 
and  are  so  described  in  Domesday  Book.  The  custom  of 
gavelkind  in  Kent  was  very  similar  to  this,  the  land  being, 
indeed,  actually  divided,  but  taxed  collectively.  In 
Hampshire  it  was  taxed  as  a  whole,  and  held  by  parceners 
as  a  whole,  without  apparently  being  actually  divided. 
Except  in  preventing  minute  subdivision,  there  was  in 
practice  very  little  difference. 

In  the  adjoining  county  of  Dorset  partible  inheritance 
of  the  Kentish  type  survived  at  the  time  of  the  Domes- 
day Survey  and  long  afterwards  at  Wareham  and  in 
Portland  Island.  In  Hampshire  at  the  time  of  the 
Survey  the  partible  custom,  which  may  have  prevailed 
at  an  earlier  period  among  the  descendants  of  the  Northern 
Goths  or  Jutish  settlers,  had  apparently  given  place  to  a 
modified  tenure,  so  that  parceners  inherited  their  shares 
in  an  undivided  estate.  Under  the  general  law  of  the 
kingdom,  apart  from  recognised  local  customs,  none  but 
females  were  able  to  hold  an  estate  together.1  By  the 
custom  of  gavelkind  this  was  different,  for  by  it  males 
might  hold  lands  in  parcenary,  the  descent  being  to  all 
males  equally. 2  Parceners  took  their  estates  by  descent, 
and  their  very  title  or  name  accrued  only  by  descent.3 
The  parceners  in  the  Jutish  parts  of  Hampshire  who  are 
mentioned  by  name  in  Domesday  Book  are  all  males. 
Parceners  do  not  take  by  survivorship,  but  lands  descend 
to  their  issue  as  in  gavelkind.4  From  these  considera- 
tions there  can  be  no  doubt  that  we  may  see  in  the  par- 
cenary tenure  which  prevailed  so  largely  in  the  Isle  of 
Wight  and  the  New  Forest  district,  which  are  known  to 
have  been  settled  by  Jutes,  traces  of  inhabitants  of  the 
same  race  as  that  of  the  people  of  Kent,  among  whom 
gavelkind  was,  and  is,  such  a  strongly-marked  charac- 
teristic custom.  In  this  parage  custom  we  may  also 

1   Reeve's  '  History  of  English  Law/  edited  by  W.  F.  Finlason, 
ii.  587.  2  Ibid.  3  Ibid.,  ii.  589. 

*  Lyttleton's  '  Tenures,'  edited  by  Tomlins,  ed.  1841,  p.  326. 

The  Gewissas  and  other  Settlers  in   Wessex.     219 

see  the  survival  of  family  influence  in  the  ownership  of 
land,  as  opposed  to  the  manorial  The  family  tenure  was 
the  older,  and  had  come  down  from  the  tribal  era  ;  the 
newer  manorial  system  gradually  supplanted  it.  The 
Domesday  record  of  Hampshire  thus  affords  examples  of 
both  the  older  and  the  later  systems. 

In  addition  to  the  earlier  immigration  of  people  of 
several  races,  there  is  in  Hampshire  evidence  of  later 
settlements  of  Danes  and  Northmen.  Even  as  late  as 
the  Domesday  Survey  the  tenants  on  the  manors  of 
Ringwood  and  Winston,  and  of  Arreton  in  the  Isle  of 
Wight,  paid  their  dues  or  rents  by  Danish  reckoning, 
the  ora  being  the  coin  for  their  computation.  The 
prevalence  of  allodial  tenure  along  the  western  border  of 
the  county  is  recorded  in  Domesday  Book,  and  here 
Danish  place-names  such  as  Thruxton  (Thorkelston)  and 
Wallop,  with  the  characteristic  Norwegian  termination 
-op,  survive.  Odal  or  allodial  tenure  was  a  family 
tenure,  in  which  one  of  the  family  held  the  land,  and  is 
specially  characteristic  of  Norway,  although  not  in  ancient 
time  confined  to  it.  The  same  custom  survived  until 
modern  time  in  the  old  Norse  islands  of  Orkney  and 
Shetland.  The  odaller  or  udaller  was  a  free  tenant, 
and  had  certain  rights  which  he  transmitted  to  his 
descendants.  If  through  poverty  he  was  obliged  to  sell 
his  land,  his  kindred  had  the  right  of  pre-emption,  or 
of  redeeming  it  when  able  to  do  so.1  This  udal  or 
allodial  custom  prevailed  along  almost  the  whole  of  the 
western  border  of  Hampshire  at  the  time  of  the  Domesday 
Survey.  It  existed  also  on  some  manors  in  the  Isle  of 
Wight  and  elsewhere  in  the  county.  Its  prevalence  is 
another  link  in  the  chain  of  evidence  connecting  the 
settlers  of  early  Wessex  with  Jutes  or  other  people  of  a 
Northern  race.  Allodial  tenure  is  recorded  in  Hamp- 
shire in  the  hundreds  of  Andover,  Brocton  or  Thorn- 
gate,  Fordingbridge  and  Christchurch,  on  forty  -  seven 
manors  extending  from  Tidworth  in  the  north  to  Sopley 
1  Tudor,  J.  E.,  '  The  Orkneys  and  Shetlands,'  pp.  18,  19. 

22O  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

and  Winkton  in  the  south.  This  custom  is  only  recorded 
in  Domesday  Book  in  the  southern  counties  of  Hampshire, 
Sussex,  Surrey,  Kent,  and  Berkshire,  but  it  may  have 
prevailed  on  manors  elsewhere  without  being  specially 
mentioned.  It  is  referred  to  in  the  tribal  laws  of  the 
Franks  and  of  the  Angles  and  Warings.1  Its  existence  at 
the  present  time  in  Norway  and  its  survival  in  the  Norse 
islands  of  the  Orkneys  and  Shetlands  may  afford  a  clue 
as  to  whence  the  Scandinavians,  whether  the  earlier  Goths 
or  the  later  tribal  settlers  in  England,  came.  The  Danish 
conquerors  of  Wessex  were  probably  to  some  extent 
supplied  with  lands  within  that  State  itself,  and  it  is  not 
improbable  that  depopulated  Saxon  manors  and  lands 
or  forest  clearings  were  given  to  them.  We  can  scarcely 
think  that  Cnut,  King  of  Denmark  and  King  of  Wend- 
land,  whose  name  is  so  much  connected  with  Wessex, 
and  who  when  in  England  chiefly  resided  within  it, 
would  fail  to  provide  his  followers  with  lands  near  the 
seat  of  his  government  at  Winchester.  The  thorpe 
place-names  in  the  old  parts  of  Wessex,  of  which  there 
are  a  considerable  number,  support  this  view.  Other 
Norse  names,  such  as  Hurstbourn,  formerly  known  as 
Up  Husbond  and  Down  Husbond,  are  clearly  Scandi- 
navian. The  forest  land  around  Up  Husband  or  Hurst- 
bourn  Tarrant  was  called  Wikingelega  Forest, 2  or  later 
Wytingley  Forest,  a  name  derived  from  Wikings. 

These  considerations  open  up  the  still  larger  question, 
What  was  the  relationship  of  the  Goths  at  the  time 
the  Gewissas  settled  in  Hampshire  to  the  people  known 
as  Northmen  ?  The  term  Northmen  had  certainly  a 
wider  significance  than  its  limitation  to  the  Norse  or 
people  of  Norway.  All  the  four  chief  Northern  nations 
of  antiquity,  Goths,  Danes,  Norse,  and  Swedes,  spoke 
the  old  Norrena  dialects  or  language,3  of  which  the  best- 

1  Seebohm,   F.,    'Tribal  Custom  in  Anglo-Saxon  Law,'    151, 
170,  226. 

2  Red  Book  of  the  Exchequer,  A.D.  1155-1156,  part,  ii.,  p.  663. 

3  Cleasby  and  Vigfusson,  '  Icelandic  Dictionary,'  Preface. 

The  Gewissas  and  other  Settlers  in   Wessex.     221 

written  example  that  exists  is  the  Icelandic,  the  later 
representative  of  the  language  carried  to  Iceland  by  the 
colony  of  Northmen  who  settled  there.  The  custom  of 
partible  inheritance  among  all  the  sons  equally  not  only 
prevailed  among  the  ancient  Goths,  but  also  among  the 
ancient  Northmen.  It  survives  both  in  Gothland  and 
in  Norway  to  the  present  day-  The  system  of  udal  or 
odal  right  is  the  foundation  of  the  whole  social  system  of 
Norway,  and  to  it  the  people  have  tenaciously  clung  for 
long  centuries,  during  all  the  political  changes  through 
which  Norway  has  passed,  or  the  political  crises  to  which 
it  has  been  subjected.  One  of  the  incidents  of  this  odal 
right  at  the  present  time  is  that  one  of  the  sons  has  by 
custom  the  right  to  pay  the  others  their  share  of  the 
estate  if  they  all  agree.  This  one  is  also  by  custom  the 

The  allodial  tenure  that  existed  at  the  time  of  the 
Domesday  Survey  on  the  manors  along  the  western 
border  of  Hampshire  and  other  parts  of  that  county  was 
apparently  of  the  same  nature  as  the  odal  right  still  in 
operation  in  Norway.  It  may  have  been  introduced  into 
Hampshire  at  the  time  of  the  settlement  of  the  con- 
federated invaders,  the  Gewissas,  or  by  a  later  settlement 
after  one  or  other  of  the  Danish  inroads.  That  this 
tenure  existed  in  some  parts  of  the  county  and  not  in 
others  is  not  surprising  when  we  consider  that  the  original 
settlers  were  not  all  of  the  same  race,  but  Gewissas,  con- 
federates, or  assured  allies  of  several  tribes  or  nations. 
Wallop,  close  to  the  western  border  of  the  county,  pre- 
sents a  good  example  of  the  equal  right  of  sons  to  share 
their  father's  estate.  A  manor  there  was  at  the  time  of 
the  Norman  Survey  held  '  by  four  Englishmen,  whose 
father  held  the  land  in  allodium.'  This  appears  to  be  a 
case  exactly  parallel  to  the  custom  of  Kent,  the  father's 
land  being  divided  equally  between  his  sons,  but  yet  the 
whole,  land  taxed  collectively.  We  must  also  remember 
that  parage  or  parcenary  tenure,  by  which  one  tenant 
was  responsible,  but  others  shared  with  him,  was  not 

222  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

the  same  as  allodial.  The  land  was  in  both  cases  family 
land,  held  collectively  in  the  former  case,  and  by  one  of 
the  family  in  the  latter.  This  is  clearly  seen  in  the 
manors  and  tenures  of  the  Isle  of  Wight,  mentioned  in 
Domesday  Book,  where  twenty-one  tenures  in  parage 
are  named  and  thirty  in  allodium.  Under  this  odal  or 
udal  tenure  in  Norway  at  the  present  time  all  the  kindred 
of  the  udalman  in  possession  are  what  is  called  odels- 
baarn  to  his  land,  and  have  in  the  order  of  consanguinity 
a  certain  interest  in  it,  called  odelsbaarn  ret.1  Hence,  if 
the  udalman  in  possession  should  sell  or  alienate  his  land, 
the  next  of  kin  is  entitled  to  redeem  it  on  repaying  the 
purchase-money,  and  should  he  decline  to  do  so,  it  is  in 
the  power  of  the  one  next  to  him  to  claim  his  right  and 
recover  the  property  to  the  family  or  kindred.  The 
effect  of  this  custom  is  evidently,  to  a  certain  degree,  to 
entail  the  land  upon  the  kindred  of  the  udalman.  It 
affords  us  a  glimpse  of  the  probable  operation  of  the  early 
Anglo-Saxon  msegth,  which  did  not  as  a  collective  body 
of  kindred  own  land,  but  everyone  in  the  maegth  or 
kindred  had  obligations  to  the  others  in  the  same  maegth, 
with  certain  reversionary  rights. 

From  the  consideration  of  the  historical  evidence 
relating  to  the  settlers  of  Hampshire,  the  survival  for 
centuries  of  the  term  Gewissas  as  their  original  collective 
name,  and  the  various  customs  and  tenures  which  existed 
in  so  marked  a  way  at  the  time  of  the  Domesday  Survey, 
it  is  difficult  to  avoid  the  conclusion  that  the  Goths  or 
Jutes  must  have  had  much  in  common  with  those  after- 
wards known  by  the  general  name  of  Northmen,  and 
from  the  evidence  of  the  runes  it  is  certain  that  there 
was  a  close  connection  between  the  Goths  and  Angles  on 
the  one  hand  and  the  Norse  on  the  other. 

The  darker-complexioned  people  among  the  invaders 
and  colonists  of  England  during  the  Anglo-Saxon  period 

Laing,  Samuel,  '  Journal  of  a  Residence  in  Norway,'  ed.  1851, 
P-  137- 

The  Gewissas  and  other  Settlers  in   Wessex.     223 

were  probably  some  of  the  Wendish  or  Northern  Serbian 
race  who  were  at  that  time  in  alliance  with  other  Northern 
tribes.  The  ancient  Vandals  have  left  permanent  traces 
of  their  extensive  conquests  more  or  less  in  alliance  with 
the  Goths.  Their  settlements  extended  from  North 

Africa  and  Spain  to  the  present  Slav  states  of  Eastern 
Europe,  and  thence  northwards  to  the  Baltic.  Along 
this  extended  line  of  ancient  Vandal  occupation  we  find 
historical  evidence  or  other  traces  of  their  allies,  the 
Goths.  If  they  were  allies,  at  times,  in  other  parts  of 
Europe,  there  cannot  be  much  room  for  doubt  that  they 
may  also  have  been  allies  in  England.  The  evidence 
of  the  settlement  of  some  Wends  among  the  Gewissas 
of  Hampshire  is  derived  partly  from  the  county  itself, 
and  partly  from  traces  of  them  in  Wiltshire  and  Dorset. 
There  are  nine  manors  in  Hampshire  on  which  borough- 
English  has  been  traced.  The  historical  statement  of 
Bede  that  Rugians  were  among  the  ancestors  of  the  people 
of  England  living  in  his  time  cannot  be  explained  away. 
In  Bede's  time  there  must  have  been  a  common  know- 
ledge that  part  of  the  English  people  were  descended 
from  Rugians,  and  these  were  Wends,  the  Isle  of  Riigen 
being  the  chief  seat  of  Vandal  worship  in  the  North  of 

In  the  parts  of  South  Hampshire  which  were  occupied 
by  the  Goths  we  find  the  early  names  Ruwanoringa1  in 
a  Saxon  charter  and  Ruenore2  in  Domesday  Book  for 
a  place  now  called  Rowner.  The  equivalence  of  the  old 
g  sound  in  such  names  as  Riigen  to  that  of  the  later  w  is 
proved  by  the  oldest  records  of  both  Germany  and 
England.  These  names  of  the  Saxon  period  certainly 
appear  to  indicate  a  settlement  of  Rugians — i.e.,  Wends 
or  Vandals.  Attention  has  already  been  drawn  to  the 
various  names  by  which  ancient .  tribes  were  known. 
The  name  Rugians  is,  perhaps,  a  native  name,  and 

-  used  as  their  own  designation   by  these  people  them- 
1  Codex  Dipl.,  No.  1263.  2  Dom.  Bk.,  45,  b. 

224  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

selves.  They  were  certainly  called  Wends  by  the 
ancient  Germans,  including  Saxons  and  Frisians.  By  the 
Northern  nations,  including  the  Northern  Goths,  the 
Vandals  were  called  Vindr  or  Vinthr,  whence  probably 
our  tribal  or  personal  name  Winthr  or  Winter.  In 
English  localities  with  settlements  of  Goths  and  others 
speaking  the  same  language,  which  had  here  and  there 
also  settlements  of  Vandals,  these  latter  would  naturally 
be  known  to  their  neighbours  as  those  of  the  Winthr, 
and  the  bearing  of  this  on  English  place-names  will  be 
fully  discussed  in  the  next  chapter.  In  other  localities 
where  Frisians,  Saxons,  and  others  speaking  German 
dialects  had  here  and  there  similar  Vandal  settlements 
among  them,  these  neighbours  would  be  designated 
Wends  or  Wendeles.  In  other  districts  it  is  reasonable 
to  suppose  that  Vandals  may  have  retained  their  tribal 
names,  such  as  Rugians  or  Wilte,  and  the  latter  appears 
in  the  early  Saxon  name  of  the  Wilsaete  or  Wiltshire 
settlers.  It  is  not  suggested  that  all  the  people  of 
Wiltshire  were  descendants  of  the  Wilte,  but  the  name 
Wilsaetas  may  have  arisen  owing  to  an  original  settle- 
ment of  these  people  in  the  south  of  the  county. 

One  of  the  most  remarkable  boundary  names  which 
we  meet  with  in  Anglo-Saxon  charters  is  that  of  crundel. 
The  name  survives  as  a  village  name  in  that  of  Crondall 
in  the  north-east  of  Hampshire,  where  the  extensive 
ancient  manor  of  this  name  formed  the  north-eastern 
boundary  of  the  county.  The  name  is  now  confined  to 
the  village  and  parish  which  still  forms  part  of  the  county 
border,  but  in  Saxon  time  Crundele  was  the  name  of  the 
hundred  or  great  manor  which  extended  from  Yateley 
in  the  north  to  Aldershot  in  the  south,  including  both 
these  places.  It  was  this  manor  which  King  Alfred  in 
his  will  bequeathed  to  Ethelm,  his  nephew.  The  name 
crundel,  however,  is  met  with  frequently  in  Dorsetshire, 
Wiltshire,  Hampshire,  and  Berkshire,  in  the  boundaries 
mentioned  in  charters,  and  less  frequently  in  Somerset- 
shire, Gloucestershire,  and  Worcestershire.  The  name  is 

The  Gewissas  and  other  Settlers  in   Wessex.     225 

not  a  common  one,  and  is  practically  confined  to  these 
counties  as  far  as  the  Saxon  usage  of  it  is  concerned, 
and  where  it  occurs  in  the  charters  it  is  always  as  a 
boundary  name. 

The  word  as  a  boundary  name  may  have  come  into  use 
among  the  Anglo-Saxons  from  those  people  who  were  called 
Gewissas,  for  it  is  only  found  in  Saxon  charters  relating  to 
the  counties  which  were  settled  by  the  Gewissas  or  colon- 
ised by  them.  Hampshire,  Dorsetshire,  Wiltshire,  and 
Berkshire  were  the  earliest  counties  they  occupied,  and 
after  the  conquests  of  Ceawlin  and  other  kings,  West  Saxon 
settlers  occupied  parts  of  Gloucestershire,  Worcestershire, 
and  Somersetshire.  The  Thames  forms  a  dividing  line 
north  of  which  the  name  crundel  as  a  boundary  does  not 
occur  in  the  charters.  In  Wiltshire  the  name  is  mentioned 
eighteen  times,  in  Dorsetshire  eleven  times,  Hampshire 
nine  times,  Berkshire  fourteen  times,  Somersetshire 
four  times,  Gloucestershire  once,  and  Worcestershire 
four  times.  On  the  Continent  similar  words  occur  in 
both  Scandian  and  Slavonic  countries,  of  which  Carls- 
crona  in  Sweden  and  Kronstadt  are  apparently  examples. 
In  Central  Europe  the  place-names  beginning  with  the 
word  krain  occur  chiefly  in  those  parts  that  are  or  were 
Slavonic.1  The  occurrence  of  these  crundel  names  in 
Wessex,  and  only  in  those  counties  in  which  Gewissas 
settled,  appears  to  connect  its  use  with  these  people. 

As  it  existed  at  the  time  of  the  Domesday  Survey,  the 
extensive  settlement  of  Crondall  in  the  north-east  corner 
of  Hampshire  was  certainly  Scandinavian,  for  among 
the  customs  of  that  great  manor,  which  included  Crondall, 
Yateley,  Farnborough,  and  Aldershot,  that  of  sole  inherit- 
ance by  the  eldest  daughter  in  default  of  sons  prevailed,2 
as  over  a  large  part  of  Cumberland,  and  this  is  a  peculiarly 
Norse  custom. 

1  Rudolph,  H.,  '  Orts  Lexikon  von  Deutschland.' 

2  Baigent,   F.    J.,    '  Records  and  Documents  relating  to    the 
Hundred  and  Manor  of  Crondall,'  163. 



WESSEX  (continued),  WILTS,  AND  DORSET. 

IN  the  Southern  counties,  where  the  underlying  strata 
are  chalk  and  limestone,  there  are  numerous 
streams  whose  upper  courses  are  dry  in  summer 
and  have  water  in  them  only  in  winter.  In  Dorset  there 
are  two  streams  called  Winterborne,  in  Wiltshire  three, 
in  Berkshire  one,  and  in  Sussex  one.  In  these  counties 
there  are  also  many  streams  which  have  water  flowing  in 
them  in  winter  and  not  in  summer,  but  which  have 
not  the  word  winter  connected  with  their  name.  Why 
a  few  should  have  this  and  many  others  not  have  it 
has  not  been  explained.  There  are  also  villages  called 
Winterborne  on  the  streams  of  the  same  name.  In  view 
of  the  fact  that  there  is  a  winter  flow  of  water  in  many 
streams  not  called  by  the  name  winter,  the  popular 
explanation  of  the  origin  of  the  name  Winterborne 
may  not  be  the  correct  one.  The  names  are  old,  the 
earliest  references  to  a  place  or  district  so  called  in  Dorset 
being  A.D.  942  and  949 -1  The  possibility  that  they  have 
been  derived  from  a  tribal  name  must  be  considered. 

The  evidence  already  stated  shows  that  the  earliest 
settlers  in  Hampshire  could  not  have  been  all  of  one  race, 
and  that  there  were  in  that  county  very  considerable 
settlements  of  Goths  and  other  Scandinavians.  There 
are  also  traces  to  be  found  in  parts  of  Dorset  and  Wiltshire 

1  Cart.  Sax.,  ii.  508,  and  iii.  43. 

Wessex,   Wilts,  and  Dorset.  227 

of  early  colonies  of  people  of  more  than  one  race,  and 
of  later  settlements  of  Northmen.  Such  old  place-names 
in  Dorset  as  Godmaneston,1  Goderiston,2  and  Goder- 
thorn  Hundred,2  point  to  settlers  who  were  Goths,  as 
also  does  the  custom  of  partible  inheritance  of  the 
Kentish  type  among  sons,  and  failing  sons,  among 
daughters,  that  survived  at  Wareham  and  Portland. 
The  dialects  spoken  by  the  Northern  people,  whether 
Goths,  Danes,  Norse,  or  Swedes,  were  some  form  of  the 
old  Norrena,3  and  we  may  consider  it  certain  that  if 
there  were  Wends  settled  among  people  of  any  of 
these  races  in  Dorset  and  Wilts  they  would  not  call  them 
Wends,  but  by  the  name  by  which  they  were  known 
in  their  own  language — viz.,  Windr,  Winthr,  or  Wintr. 

There  is  ancient  evidence  that  Scandinavians  used 
the  word  Winthr  or  Windr  for  Wends.  The  words 
of  an  old  writer  on  early  Northern  history  on  this  sub- 
ject are  :  '  Wandali  quos  nos  materna  lingua  vocamus 
Windir.'4  Another  Northern  writer  mentions  the  Western 
Slavs  as  '  Slavi  occidentales,  or  Vestr  Vinthr,'  and  the 
Eastern  Slavs  as  the  '  Slavi  orientales,  or  Austr  Vinthr.'5 

For  this  explanation  of  the  origin  of  the  Winter  place- 
names  in  these  counties  to  be  probable,  or  even  possible, 
it  is  necessary  to  prove  the  settlement  in  them  of  people 
who  spoke  a  Norrena  dialect.  The  ancient  topographical 
names,  some  of  which  are  now  lost,  in  both  these  counties 
supply  this  proof. 

In  Dorset  we  find  Swanage,  Purbeck,  Shapwick,  Ore, 
Witherston,  Butterwike,  Wichampton,  East  Holm,  West 
Holm,  Byrport  (now  Bridport),  Candel  (which  may  be 
compared  with  Candleshoe  Wapentake  in  Lincolnshire), 
Ringstede,  Farnham,  Gillingham,  Grimston,  Swindun, 

1  Tax.  Eccl.  P.  Nicholai,  179. 

2  Hutchins,  J.,  '  Hist,  of  Dorset,'  ii.  205. 

3  Cleasby  and  Vigfusson,  '  Icelandic  Diet.,'  Preface. 

4  Monumenta  Germanise,  Script,  xxix.,  250.       '  Ex  Theodrici 
Hist,  de  Antiq.  Reg.  Norwagiensium.' 

5  Ibid.,  319,  '  Ex.  Hist.  Reg.  Danorum  dicta  Knytlinga  Saga.' 


228  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Savon  Race. 

and  other  names  which  can  be  most  satisfactorily  ac- 
counted for  by  the  Northern  dialects.  The  name  Rolle- 
stone  Barrow,  on  the  border  of  Wilts  and  Dorset,  near  to 
the  dyke  known  by  the  Scandinavian  name  Grimsditch, 
points  to  the  same  conclusion. 

In  Wiltshire  we  find  Burdorp  and  Salthorpe  near 
Swindon,  East  Thorp  and  West  Thorp  on  either  side  of 
Highworth,  Ramsbury  (with  the  old  Estthropp  and 
Westhroppi  on  either  side  of  it),  Rollestone,  Buttermere, 
Normanton,  Maniford,  Burbage,  Scandeburn,  Grimstede, 
Hardicote,  Ulfcote,  and  others,  clearly  denoting  settle- 
ments of  Norrena-speaking  people.  In  the  north  of  the 
county  also  is  a  circle  of  stones  round  an  old  burial- 
place  near  Winterborne-Basset,  and  the  Kennet  long 
barrow,  very  similar  to  those  of  Scandinavia.  The  barrow 
at  Kennet  so  closely  resembles  that  in  which  one  of  the 
Danish  Kings  is  by  tradition  said  to  have  been  buried  at 
Lethra  in  Zealand  that  Fergusson  tells  us  the  age  of  the 
one  must  be  the  age  of  the  other.2  Similarly,  in  Berk- 
shire we  find  places  with  old  Scandinavian  names  around 
Winter  bourne. 

In  Dorset  we  also  find  proof  of  a  large  Scandinavian 
settlement  in  the  Danish  money  computation  mentioned 
in  Domesday  Book  at  Dorchester,  Wareham,  Bridport, 
and  Shaftesbury,  and  at  Ringwood,  near  its  border. 

When  did  this  settlement  take  place  ?  History  is 
silent  in  reference  to  it,  but  the  proof  is  clear  that  some 
Scandinavians  did  settle  in  all  the  counties  of  Wessex. 
Some  of  these  may  be  accounted  for  by  Goths  and  other 
Northern  settlers  among  the  early  Gewissas.  A  large  num- 
ber probably  settled  in  Wessex  after  the  wars  of  Ethelred  I. 
and  his  brother  Alfred.  It  is  certain  that  a  considerable  pro- 
portion of  the  fighting  men  of  the  old  counties  of  Wessex 
had  become  exterminated  before  the  peace  between  Alfred 
and  Guthrum,  and  they  were  probably  succeeded  in  many 

1  Hundred  Rolls,  ii.  265. 

2  Fergusson,  J.,  'Rude  Stone  Monuments,'  284. 

Wessex,   Wilts,  and  Dorset.  229 

localities  by  colonists  "of  Scandinavian  descent.  History 
is  silent  for  the  most  part  concerning  the  Anglian  and 
Danish  settlements  in  Lincolnshire  and  Norfolk,  but 
these  settlements  cannot  be  doubted,  nor  can  the 
settlements  of  Goths  and  Northmen  in  Wessex,  either 
among  the  original  Gewissas  or  after  the  Danish 
wars  of  the  ninth  and  tenth  centuries.  In  any  district 
in  which  Scandinavian  freemen  were  settled  at  a  subse- 
quent date  to  that  of  the  original  settlers  some  changes 
in  land  tenure  and  in  the  customs  of  inheritance  would 
be  likely  to  follow,  as  well  as  a  change  in  some  of  the  local 
names,  which  may  account  for  the  disappearance  here  and 
there  of  some  very  early  customs. 

In  Dorset  the  Domesday  names  Windresorie  and  Win- 
delha  occur,  and  the  old  names  Windleshor'  Hundred  and 
Windregledy  also  are  known.  These  apparently  refer 
to  men  who  were  Vandals,  or  Windr,  as  they  would  be 
called  by  Scandinavian  Goths  and  others  who  spoke  some 
dialect  of  the  old  Northern  tongue. 

This  old  name  Windr  for  Wends  used  by  the  Northern 
nations  is  a  link  in  the  chain  of  evidence  by  which  Wendish 
settlements  may  be  traced  in  our  country.  The  name 
Winter  in  place-names  occurs  most  frequently  in  Dorset, 
but  also  in  Wiltshire  and  some  other  counties.  It  is 
chiefly  attached  to  the  word  bourn,  but  by  no  means 
exclusively,  the  place-names  Winterstoke,  Winterhead 
(anciently  Wintret),  and  Winterburge,  being  known  in  the 
southern  counties ;  also  Wintrinton  in  Dorset,  Wintring- 
ham  in  Huntingdonshire,  Wintrington  in  Lincolnshire, 
and  Winterset  in  Yorkshire. 

The  name  Windresorie  for  the  place  now  called  Broad 
Windsor  in  Dorset  had  its  origin  apparently  under 
similar  circumstances  to  those  which  gave  rise  to  the  name 
Windlesore,  now  Windsor  in  Berkshire.  Among  other 
early  Dorset  names  that  may  be  connected  with  people 
known  as  Windr  are  Windrede-dic  or  Windryth-dic,  a 
boundary  ditch  near  Shaftesbury,  and  Windaerlseh  meed, 

230          Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

near  the  river  Avon,  on  the  Hampshire  border,  which  are 
mentioned  in  Anglo-Saxon  charters.1  These  cannot  refer 
to  winter,  the  season. 

The  connection  of  the  name  of  tribal  people  with  the 
name  of  the  stream  flowing  through  their  territory  is  an 
old  custom  of  topographical  nomenclature.  In  the 
northern  parts  of  Germany  we  find  many  old  examples  of 
this.  Among  the  instances2  are  the  Stur  River  and  Stor- 
mari,  or  Stormar  people  in  the  south  of  Holstein  ;  the 
Hasa  River  and  the  Hassi  tribe  near  Osnaburg  ;  the  Havel 
River  and  the  Havelli,  or  men  of  Havel,  in  Brandenburg, 
mentioned  by  King  Alfred ;  the  Suala  River  and  the  Swal- 
felda  people  ;  the  Ambra  or  Emmer  River  (now  the  Ems), 
and  the  Ambrones  or  Emisga  tribe  ;  the  Meisse  and  the 
people  of  Meissen  in  Wendish  Saxony  ;  the  Warinna  River 
and  the  Werini  or  Waring  tribe  ;  the  Wandalus  River,  or 
Waal,  and  the  Vandals  who  settled  in  Holland  ;  the  Hunse 
River  and  the  Hunsing  people  in  Friesland  ;  the  Hunte 
River  and  the  Huntanga  tribe,  also  in  ancient  Frisia. 

Similarly,  in  England  in  Anglo-Saxon  time  we  find  the 
Wiley  and  the  Wilssete,  the  Meon  and  the  Meonwara, 
the  Arrow  and  the  Areosetna  in  Warwickshire ;  the 
Collingbourn3  and  the  Collinga  people  in  the  east  of  Wilt- 
shire. Further  instances  of  the  same  kind  may  be  traced 
in  the  Old  English  river-names  Swanburne,4  Honeyburn,5 
Broxbourn,  Ingelbourn,6  Coquet,  and  others. 

With  this  evidence  before  us,  both  from  ancient  Ger- 
many and  England  during  the  Anglo-Saxon  period,  the 
probability  that  the  streams  called  Winterborne  may 
have  been  named  after  people  called  Wintr  living  on  their 
banks  is  strong. 

In  Dorset  the  traces  of  Scandinavian  and  Wendish 
settlements  abound,  especially  in  the  valley  of  the  ancient 

1  Codex  Dipl.,  Nos.  470,  489,  658. 

2  Monumenta  Germanise,  River-names. 

3  Codex  Dipl.,  Nos.  336  and  358.  *  Dom.  Bk.,  143  b. 

5  Codex  Dipl.,  Index.  6  Cart.  Sax.,  iii.  92-94. 

Wessex,  Wilts,  and  Dorset.  231 

Stur.  This  is  a  Northern  name,  a  well-known  example 
of  it  being  that  of  Snorri  Sturluson,  the  earliest  Icelandic 
author.  If  we  consider  the  names  of  the  streams  which 
are  the  feeders  of  the  Stour,  and  the  names  of  places  along 
the  course  of  that  river  and  its  tributaries,  we  may 
recognise  the  Scandinavian  origin  of  nearly  all  of  them. 
The  Gale,  the  two  Loddons  or  Liddons,  and  the  Winter- 
borne,  are  tributaries,  while  there  are  two  places  named 
Stourton,  three  places  named  Stour,  and  two  named 
Sturminster.  The  name  Stur  is  also  significant  in  another 
way.  There  was  a  river  Stor  which  was  one  of  the  boun- 
daries of  Stormaria,  north-east  of  Hamburg,  and  that 
was  a  Wendish  tribal  district.  This  leaves  little  room  for 
doubt  concerning  the  Scandian  or  Wendish  origin  of  some 
place-names  in  the  valley  of  this  Dorset  river.  Gilling  is 
a  name  connected  with  Norse  mythology,  and  occurs  in 
the  Dorset  name  Gillingham. 

With  this  evidence  before  us,  it  is  not  surprising  to  find 
a  Norse  name  used  for  the  Wendish  people  settled  on  the 
western  side  of  the  Stour  valley.  It  would  have  been 
strange,  supposing  such  people  had  been  settled  there, 
if  they  had  been  called  by  any  other  name  than  the 
Scandinavian  name  for  their  tribe — viz.,  Winthr  or  Windr. 

The  use  of  the  patronymic  termination  -ing  in  such 
names  as  Wintringa-tun  1  or  Wintrington  in  Lincoln- 
shire, and  Wintrington  in  Dorset,2  are  clearly  cases  in 
which  Wintr  must  have  been  used  in  a  personal  sense,  as 
the  name  for  the  head  of  a  family  or  clan.  Similarly, 
-inga  in  Wintringa-tun  denotes  the  descendants  of  a  Wintr. 
In  such  instances  the  name  can  have  no  reference  to  win- 
ter, the  season.  There  were  other  Wintr  place-names  in 
Dorset  and  Wilts  in  the  Saxon  period  which  had  no 
reference  to  bourns :  Winterburge  geat,3  Wilts ;  Win- 
dresorie,  Windelha,  Windestorte,  Winfrode,  and  Win- 
lande  —  all  Domesday  names.  The  name  Windelha4 

1  Codex  Dipl.,  No.  953.  2  Ibid.,  No.  361. 

3  Ibid.,  No.  436.  *  Domesday  Book,  i.  82  b. 

232  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

clearly  refers  to  a  place  that  was  named  after  a  man  called 
Windel  at  the  time  of  its  settlement.  If,  therefore,  there 
were  some  places  in  Dorset  called  Wintr,  Windr,  or  Windel 
after  Wends,  it  is  very  probable  that  other  Wintr  place- 
names  in  this  and  other  counties  had  a  similar  origin. 
In  the  West  Riding  of  Yorkshire  the  old  name  Winter- 
set1  survived  at  a  later  period,  and  this  may  originally 
have  denoted  the  settlement  of  Wends. 

The  name  Winthr  for  Vandals,  which  was  used  by  the 
Northern  Goths  and  other  Scandians  in  the  sixth  century, 
may  have  partly  lost  its  significance  as  the  dialects  became 
blended  into  one  speech.  There  is  linguistic  evidence  of  a 
great  commingling  of  nations  in  the  body  of  the  English 
settlers.2  The  Anglo-Saxon,  in  its  obscure  etymology, 
its  confused  and  imperfect  inflections,  and  its  anomalous 
and  irregular  syntax,  furnishes  an  abundant  proof  of 
diversity  of  origin.  It  has  the  characteristics  of  a 
mixed  and  ill-assimilated  speech,  and  its  relations  to  the 
various  ingredients  of  which  it  is  composed  are  just  those 
of  the  present  English  and  its  own  heterogeneous  system. 
It  borrowed  roots  and  dropped  endings,  and  appropriated 
syntactical  combinations  without  the  inflections  which 
made  them  logical.3  There  is  no  proof  that  Old  English 
was  ever  spoken  anywhere  but  on  the  soil  of  Great  Britain.4 
The  language  grew  as  the  tribal  people  who  formed  the 
settlers  became  fused.  Anyone  who  will  compare  the 
oldest  remnant  of  Anglo-Saxon  poetry  now  extant,  a  few 
lines  of  Csedmon,  and  the  same  lines  as  they  were  modern- 
ised by  King  Alfred  in  his  Old  English  version  of  Bede 
about  200  years  after  Caedmon's  time,  will  have  no  doubt 
about  the  changes  which  time  brought  in  the  dialects 
and  language  of  the  Old  English  people.  In  this  de- 
velopment, the  Northern  name  Windr  or  Winthr  for  a 

1  Nomina  Villarum,  A.D.  1315. 

2  Marsh,   G.   P.,   'Lectures  on  the  English    Language,'  First 
Series,  pp.  42,  43.  3  Ibid. 

*  Ibid.,  43,  and  Latham,  R.  G.,  '  English  Language,'  105. 

Wessex,   Wilts,  and  Dorset.  233 

tribe  may  have  lost  its  original  meaning,  and  have  been 
confused  with  that  of  winter,  the  season  ;  and  there  are 
other  instances  of  names  having  a  tribal  origin,  which 
subsequently  had  meanings  attached  to  them  which  were 
foreign  from  their  original  ones. 

The  name  Winterborne  appears  to  have  been  used  at 
first  for  considerable  districts  in  Dorset  and  Wilts  that 
were  subsequently  divided  into  manors.  It  is  worth 
noting  also  that  one  of  the  manors  called  Wintreburne 
in  Wiltshire  was  held  at  the  time  of  the  Domesday  Survey 
by  Godescal,1  a  man  of  the  same  name  and  perhaps  a 
descendant  of  Godescalc  the  Wendish  Prince,  who  was 
a  notable  person  in  England  in  the  time  of  King  Cnut, 
and  who  married  that  King's  daughter.  To  the  Norrena- 
speaking  people  this  Wendish  Godescalc  was  a  Vintr. 

Another  fact  which  supports  the  evidence  of  Norrena- 
speaking  settlers  at  an  early  date  in  Dorset  is  the  name 
Thornsaeta  for  the  people  of  that  district,  corresponding 
to  the  Wilsaeta  and  Sumersseta.  This  name  Thornsaeta 
is  mentioned  by  Asser  in  his  Life  of  Alfred,  is  repeated  in 
some  charters,  and  passed  into  Dornsaeta  or  Dorsseta. 
As  the  word  thorn  is  the  name  of  one  of  the  old  Northern 
runes,  it  must  have  been  familiar  to  the  people  whose  name 
was  connected  with  it.  The  inventors  of  the  runes  were 
certainly  the  Northern  Goths,  and  the  circumstance  of  the 
use  of  such  a  name  supports  the  evidence  of  a  settlement 
of  Goths  in  parts  of  Dorset. 

It  is  certain  that  during  the  later  Saxon  period  Wends 
were  connected  with  Dorset,  for  there  is  documentary 
evidence  to  that  effect.  In  a  charter  dated  1033  King 
Cnut  gave  land  at  Horton  in  Dorset  to  one  of  his  huscarls,2 
and,  as  is  well  known,  these  were  originally  a  force  of 
Wends.  This  was  presumably  a  case  in  which  Cnut,  who 
was  also  King  of  Wendland,  rewarded  one  of  his  Wendish 
subjects.  Domesday  Book  tells  us  of  payments  from  the 
boroughs  of  Dorchester,  Bridport,  Wareham,  and  Shaftes- 
1  Domesday  Book,  73  6.  2  Codex  Dipl.,  No.  1318. 

234  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

bury,  which  were  annually  made  to  the  huscarls  as  late 
as  King  Edward's  time.  The  Domesday  record  also  tells 
us  of  a  place  in  Dorset  named  Hafeltone.1  This  is  of  some 
weight,  for  it  is  difficult  to  see  how  such  a  name  arose 
except  from  the  settlement  of  a  man  so  named  because 
he  was  a  man  of  the  Wilte  tribe,  or  Men  of  Havel,  men- 
tioned by  King  Alfred. 

The  old  name  Ruanbergh,  which  occurs  in  a  charter  of 
King  Alfred,2  also  refers  to  an  early  settlement  of  Rugians, 
or  people  of  a  Wendish  or  Slavic  descent,  in  Dorset. 
The  similar  name  Ruwanbeorg  survived  in  Wiltshire  in 
the  later  Saxon  period,  and  gave  its  name  to  the  hundred 
of  Rughe'berg  in  later  centuries. 

Among  ancient  names  in  Dorset  that  are  probably  of 
Wendish  origin  are  Cranborne,  Trent  and  Tarent,  Luse- 
berg  and  Launston.  Crane,  the  name  of  a  stream, 
and  Cranborne,  a  boundary  place-name,  may  be  com- 
pared with  the  Slavic  name  Ukraine,  from  crain,  a  limit. 
Trent,  a  place-name  in  Riigen  Isle,  occurs  also  in  the 
old  Slavic  part  of  the  Tyrol.  Luseberg,  an  ancient 
hundred  name,  reminds  us  of  the  Wendish  tribe  Lusitzes, 
and  Launston  may  be  compared  with  the  Wendish 
Lauenberg.  It  is  remarkable  that  in  Germany  the  Trent 
name  is  only  found  where  Slavic  influence  prevailed,  and 
in  England  where  Wendish  settlers  may  be  traced.  Among 
names  of  old  places  in  Wiltshire  of  similar  origin  are 
Semeleah,  on  the  river  Sem  ;  Wilgi,  a  Domesday  place ; 
Launton,  now  Lavington ;  and  the  Ruan  or  Rughen 
names.  There  is  a  river  Sem  in  the  Ukraine.  Launton 
was  on  the  border  of  the  hundred  called  in  the  Saxon 
charters  Ruwanbeorg,  and  in  later  records  Rughe'berg, 
which  names  correspond  closely  with  those  used  in  the  old 
Germanic  records  to  denote  the  Wendish  people  in  Riigen. 

As  already  pointed  out,  the   name  Wintr  in  Anglo- 
Saxon   records  is  used  in  some  instances  for  persons.3 

1  Dom.  Bk.,  83.  2  Codex  Dipl.,  No.  319. 

3  Searle,  W.  G.,  '  Onomasticon  Anglo-Saxonicum.' 

Wessex,   Wilts,  and  Dorset.  235 

Wintra  was  an  abbot  in  Wessex  in  A.D.  704.  Another 
Wintra  was  a  monk  at  Abingdon  in  699,  and  a  third  so 
named  was  abbot  of  Tisbury  in  Wiltshire  in  750.  Wintred 
also  was  the  name  of  several  monks  who  are  recorded  in 
the  later  Saxon  period,  and  Wintre  was  apparently  the 
name  of  the  head  of  a  family  who  gave  his  name  to  the 
place  called  Wintreshleaw,  now  Winterslow,  in  Wiltshire. 

The  personal  name  Wintre  was  not  confined  to  England, 
one  who  was  so  called  having  been  physician  to  Charles 
the  Great.  It  can  also  be  traced  in  the  form  Wynther 
among  people  of  Norse  descent  in  the  Shetland  Isles1  as 
late  as  the  sixteenth  century,  and  in  England  it  can  be 
traced  from  the  Saxon  age  into  the  later  mediaeval  period. 

A  considerable  area  in  Dorset  in  the  latter  part  of  the 
Saxon  period  was  held  like  the  land  in  the  Isle  of  Wight 
and  the  New  Forest  district,  much  of  which,  Domesday 
Book  tells  us,  had  been  held  collectively  or  in  parage  in 
the  time  of  King  Edward.  At  Wey,  the  Domesday 
WTai,  there  were  three  manors,  which  in  the  time  of  the 
last  Saxon  King  were  held  collectively  by  nine,  eight,  and 
five  thanes — a  total  of  twenty-two  landholders  in  parage 
in  this  place  alone.  At  Hame  the  manor  had  been  held  by 
five  thanes,  at  Ringstede  by  four,  at  Pourtone  by  eight, 
at  Celvedune  by  nine,  at  Mapledre  by  seven,  at  Derwinston 
by  five,  at  Horcerde  by  four,  and  at  a  place  not  named 
there  were  five  hides  held  collectively  by  eleven  thanes. 
At  a  place  called  Goda  the  land  had  been  held  by 
three  free  thanes,  and  the  other  places  in  which  it  had 
been  held  by  brothers  or  by  parceners  are  somewhat 
numerous.  This  system  of  land  tenure,  identical  with 
that  in  the  Jutish  part  of  the  south  of  Hampshire 
and  the  Isle  of  Wight,  points  to  a  connection  in  custom 
and  probably  in  race  between  some  of  the  original  settlers 
in  Dorset  and  the  Goths  and  Jutes  of  the  adjoining  county. 

One  of  the  most  remarkable  peculiarities  which  any 
English  county  shows  in  Domesday  Book  is  exhibited  by 
1  Proceedings  Soc.  Antiq.  Scot.,  xxv.  189. 

236  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

Wiltshire  in  reference  to  those  of  its  inhabitants  who  were 
called  '  coscets.'  These  were  evidently  inferior  tenants  of 
the  cottar  class,  but  they  were  differentiated  from  the 
cottars.  On  some  manors  in  Wiltshire  there  were  at 
the  time  of  the  Survey  both  coscets  and  cottars,  so  that 
there  can  be  no  doubt  that  these  coscets  were  different 
in  some  respects  from  the  cottars.  With  the  exception 
of  five  coscets  who  are  mentioned  in  the  Shropshire 
survey,  all  the  others  enumerated  are  found  in  Wiltshire, 
Dorset,  Somerset,  and  Devon.  The  numbers  men- 
tioned in  these  counties  are,  according  to  Sharon  Turner's 
calculation  :  Wiltshire,  1,385  ;  Dorset,  146  ;  Somerset,  43  ; 
and  Devon,  32  ;  in  addition  to  the  5  found  in  Shropshire.1 
Jones,  in  his  book  on  the  Domesday  of  Wiltshire,  makes 
the  total  number  rather  larger  than  Turner,  but  sub- 
stantially the  two  enumerations  agree.  Jones  says : 
'  There  are  in  the  whole  of  Domesday  but  1,750  registered, 
and  of  these  more  than  1,400  are  found  in  the  Wiltshire 
portion  of  the  record.'2  It  is  to  be  noted  that,  with  the 
exception  of  the  five  mentioned  in  Shropshire,  all  these 
coscets  are  recorded  in  the  survey  of  counties  which  were 
occupied  by  Gewissas  at  the  time  of  the  settlement,  and 
even  in  Shropshire  after  the  conquest  by  Ceawlin  some 
may  have  migrated  to  that  county.  It  is  clear  that 
Wiltshire  was  the  home  ot  the  English  coscets,  and  those 
found  in  neighbouring  counties  can  easily  be  accounted 
for  by  their  proximity  to  Wiltshire,  and  the  migration  of 
some  of  their  descendants. 

The  existence  in  Wiltshire  of  two  classes  of  inferior 
tenants  of  the  cottar  kind  as  late  as  the  time  of  the 
Domesday  Survey  is  a  remarkable  fact.  The  existence 
of  both  cottars  and  coscets  in  large  numbers  in  Wiltshire 
— coscets  alone  being  found  on  some  manors,  cottars 

1  Sharon  Turner,   'Hist,  of  the  Anglo-Saxons,'  ed.   1852,  iii. 

2  Jones,  W.   H.,  '  Domesday  of  Wiltshire,'   Introd.,   xix.   and 
p.  201. 

Wessex,   Wilts,  and  Dorset.  237 

alone  on  some,  and  both  classes  on  some  other  manors — 
points  unmistakably  to  a  peculiarity  in  the  customs  of 
Saxon  Wiltshire  distinct  from  those  which  prevailed  in 
other  counties.  This  sharp  distinction  must  have  arisen 
from  some  ancient  cause,  and  it  is  very  difficult  to  see 
what  it  could  have  been  except  the  attachment  of  people 
of  different  tribes  to  the  immemorial  customs  of  their 
race.  If  this  is  the  explanation,  the  question  arises 
whether  we  can  identify  any  of  these  ancient  Wiltshire 
people  by  their  peculiar  customary  designations  of 
coscets  and  cottars.  The  name  coscets  is  spelt  in  Domes- 
day Book  in  four  ways — viz.,  coscets,  coscez,  cozets, 
and  cozez.1  The  spelling  is  of  little  importance,  the 
sound  of  the  word  is  the  same  in  each  case.  In  Lower 
Saxony,  near  the  old  Wendish  country,  there  exist, 
or  have  existed  until  modern  time,  tenants  of  a  cottar 
kind  who  are,  or  were,  known  by  the  names  kater, 
kotter,  kotsass,  and  kossat,  and  these  have  been  identi- 
fied as  the  representatives  of  the  cottars  and  coscets  of 
our  Domesday  Survey.2 

Those  Wends  who  were  known  by  the  tribal  name 
Wilte,  or  Men  of  Havel,  and  were  located  partly  on  the 
right  bank  of  the  Elbe  below  Magdeburg,  could  easily 
have  sailed  to  England  direct  from  their  own  territory. 
The  evidence  of  the  settlement  of  people  of  a  non-Teutonic 
race  with  others  in  early  Wessex  is  of  a  cumulative  kind  ; 
any  one  part  of  it  may  be  inconclusive,  but  the  whole 
evidence  proves  the  case.  There  is  the  statement  of 
Bede  that  Rugians  were  one  of  the  tribes  from  which  the 
English  of  his  time  were  known  to  have  been  descended. 
There  are  the  old  Rugian  place-names  in  Hants,  Wilts, 
and  Dorset  of  the  Saxon  period.  There  is  also  the  fact 
that  as  far  back  as  historical  references  to  Rugen  and 
its  people  extend,  or  to  the  tribes  on  the  coasts  of  Meck- 

1  Domesday  Book,  General  Introd.,  xxxvi. 

2  Woodward  and  Wilks,  '  History  of  Hampshire,'  i.,  p.  335, 
quoting  Garnet. 

238  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

lenburg  and  Pomerania,  they  are  found  to  be  Wends  and 
of  Slavonic  descent.  Again,  there  is  the  historical  name 
Gewissae  or  Gewissas  for  the  tribal  settlers  in  Wessex, 
and  the  manifest  interpretation  of  this  name  as  con- 
federates. There  is,  next,  the  settlement  of  Jutes  in  the 
Isle  of  Wight  and  South  Hampshire,  and  the  identifica- 
tion of  these  as  Goths  by  the  statement  of  Asser,  and 
the  discovery  of  a  runic  inscription  on  a  relic  found  in 
the  Isle  of  Wight.  The  alliance  of  Goths  with  Vandals, 
so  potent  elsewhere  in  Europe,  could  scarcely  have  been 
altogether  absent  in  England,  and  particularly  in  Dorset 
and  Wilts,  where  Vandal  place-names  survive.  As  the 
Northern  Goths  spoke  a  dialect  of  the  Northern  tongue, 
and  had  a  custom  of  partible  inheritance,  we  might  expect 
to  find  traces  of  their  Northern  speech  and  of  their  customs 
in  early  Wessex,  and  of  both  the  speech  and  custom  of 
inheritance  we  find  unmistakable  traces. 

The  settlement  of  some  part  of  Wiltshire  by  people 
of  the  Wilte  tribe  from  the  south  of  the  Baltic  or  the 
right  bank  of  the  Elbe  does  not  appear  to  be  unlikely. 
Schafarik,  a  great  authority  on  Slavonic  antiquities, 
connects  our  English  Wiltshire  with  this  Slavonic 
tribe,1  but  some  of  our  own  philologists  derive  the  name 
from  Wilton,  the  town  on  the  river  Wiley.2  The  Wilt- 
shire settlers  are,  however,  mentioned  by  the  name 
Wilssete  in  the  Anglo-Saxon  Chronicle  in  the  year  801, 
nearly  200  years  before  the  name  Wiltonscire  occurs. 
The  name  Wilssete  long  survived,  and  is  mentioned  in 
Ethelweard's  Chronicle  about  A.D.  973.  The  name 
'  Wiltene  weie '  for  the  road  from  Damerham  to  Wilton 
is  also  used  in  a  charter  dated  946,  and  Wiltene,  a  variant 
of  Wiltena,  is  the  genitive  plural  of  Wilte.  Such  being 
the  facts,  the  derivation  of  the  name  Wiltshire  from 
Wilton  is  clearly  wrong.  In  a  district  that  affords  other 
traces  of  Wendish  settlers  the  Wilte  name  may  have 
been  the  origin  of  the  Wilssete  name,  and  that  of  the 
1  Morfill,  W  R.,  '  Slavonic  Literature,'  p.  3.  2  Ibid. 

Wessex,   Wills,  and  Dorset.  239 

Anglo  -  Saxon  tribal  people,  the  East  Willa  and  West 
Willa,  whose  districts  are  mentioned  in  the  Tribal  Hidage.1 
The  name  Wilte  Scira  occurs  in  the  Exon  Domesday,  and 
the  name  Wilsaete  was  probably  at  first  only  that  of  the 
settlers  in  the  south  of  the  county. 

The  traces  that  survive  of  a  mythological  or  legendary 
kind  in  the  counties  that  formed  the  early  kingdom  of 
Wessex  find  their  parallels  in  similar  survivals  in  Riigen 
and  Pomerania.  The  most  remarkable  is  that  of  Hertha, 
or  Mother  Earth,  a  goddess  with  somewhat  similar 
attributes  to  the  Norse  Frige  and  the  Saxon  Frea.  The 
name  Frige  survives  in  that  of  Freefolk  in  Hampshire, 
the  Frigefolc  of  Domesday  Book.  In  Wiltshire  the 
mythological  name  which  can  be  most  clearly  traced 
during  the  Anglo-Saxon  period  is  that  of  Hertha. 

Latham  has  pointed  out  that  there  is  no  word  beginning 
with  '  H '  in  any  German  equivalent  denoting  terra  or 
earth.2  The  name  Hertha,  although  mentioned  by  Tacitus, 
appears  to  have  come  from  another  source.  Herkja  and 
Herche  are  among  its  variants.3  Hertha  is  still  remem- 
bered in  the  folk-lore  of  North-Eastern'  Germany,  the 
old  borderland  between  the  Teutonic  and  Slavonic  tribes, 
where  she  goes  by  the  name  of  Frau  Harke,4  the  same  as 
our  Mother  Earth,  but  in  England  she  has  lost  her  per- 
sonality. In  the  old  mythology  the  personified  Mother 
Earth  embodied  also  the  attributes  of  Ceres,6  and  in 
that  capacity  Hertha  was  much  honoured  in  the  Wendish 
parts  of  Germany.  Kine  were  yoked  to  her  car,  and 
her  image  was  conducted  through  fields  on  her  annual 
festival  with  much  solemnity.  We  find  that  Hertha  as 
the  name  for  this  goddess  was  used  by  the  people  of 
Riigen  and  the  Baltic  countries  near  it  from  time  imme- 
morial. The  survival  of  the  name  and  the  folk-lore 

1  Cart.  Sax.,  i.  416. 

2  Latham,  R.  G.,  '  The  Germania  of  Tacitus,'  Notes,  p.  145. 

3  Grimm,  J.,  '  Teutonic  Mythology,'  translated  by  Stallybrass, 
i.  253.  *  Ibid.  5  Ibid.,  ii.  45. 

240  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

connected  with  it  in  Riigen  and  in  Pomerania  at  the 
present  day  is  important,  in  reference  to  the  survival  of 
the  name  in  Wiltshire  at  the  present  time,  and  its  wider 
existence  in  that  county  in  the  Anglo-Saxon  period.  Such 
a  survival  strongly  supports  the  other  evidence  relating  to 
Wiltshire  settlers  of  Wendish  descent.  The  original  Wilssete 
or  Wilte  settlers,  being  at  least  partly  made  up  of  Wends, 
would  naturally  bring  with  them  to  Wiltshire  some  of 
the  mythology  of  Riigen.  Adam  of  Bremen  tells  us 
that  this  island  was  opposite  to  part  of  the  country  of 
the  Wilte.  The  names  Hertha'  and  Heortha'  are  found 
in  Domesday  Book  in  three  places  in  Wiltshire,  and  in 
one  of  these,  Hertham  near  Chippenham,  it  still  survives. 
The  Anglo-Saxon  name  Jerchesfont  in  Wiltshire  is 
also  found  in  Domesday  Book,  and  leads  us  to  the  folk- 
lore of  Hertha  still  surviving  in  the  island  of  Riigen  and 
in  Pomerania.  It  brings  us  to  one  of  the  most  ancient  of 
legends,  the  Lady  of  the  Lake.  The  lady  was  the  goddess 
Hertha,  who,  it  is  believed,  had  her  dwelling  in  the  hill 
in  Riigen  still  known  as  Herthaberg,  where  often  yet, 
as  people  of  that  island  believe,  a  fair  lady  comes  out  of 
the  hill  surrounded  by  her  maidens  to  bathe  in  the  lake 
at  its  foot.1  Similarly,  in  a  wood  in  Pomerania  stands 
a  round  hill  called  Castle  Hill,  and  at  its  foot  is  a  small 
lake,  called  Hertha's  Lake.  Here,  too,  the  mysterious 
lady  is  said  to  bathe.  The  home  of  the  Hertha  legends, 
consequently,  must  be  allowed  to  be  Riigen  and  Pomer- 
ania, where  her  worship  has  been  described  by  historians 
and  her  legends  survive  more  than  elsewhere.  The  old 
Saxon  name  Jerchesfont  connects  her  with  a  legendary 
bathing-place  in  one  of  our  Wessex  counties.  Its  modern 
name  is  Urchfont,  and  it  is  situated  in  the  middle  of 
Wiltshire,  near  the  border  of  the  old  hundred  of  Rughe'- 
berg,  the  Anglo-Saxon  Ruwanbeorg.  At  this  old  settle- 
ment, named  after  Hertha,  there  are  copious  springs, 
where  much  water  rises,  and  hence  the  termination  -font 
1  Hartland,  E.  S.,  '  The  Science  of  Fairy  Tales,'  p.  71. 

Wessex,   Wilts,  and  Dorset.  241 

in  the  name.  Domesday  Book  tells  us  of  three  Saxon 
mills  driven  by  this  stream,  not  far  from  the  springs.  As 
copious  chalk  or  green-sand  springs  never  freeze,  the 
water  being  uniform  in  temperature,  and  in  winter 
much  above  freezing-point,  such  a  pool  may  well  have 
been  associated  in  the  minds  of  the  Wilte  settlers  with 
the  goddess  Hertha. 

These  old  Hertha-names  leave  but  little  room  for 
doubt  that  some  of  the  early  settlers  in  Wiltshire  were 
of  Wendish  extraction,  and  this  conclusion  is  supported 
by  other  mythological  names.  Piriun  and  Pyrgean1 
are  ancient  place-names  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  period  in 
this  county,  but  now  lost.  Perun  was  the  Wendish  name 
for  the  god  of  thunder,  the  Scandinavian  Thor,  and  the 
Frisian  or  Saxon  Thunor,  and  place-names  derived  from 
both  of  these  exist.  The  mythological  names  attached 
to  the  prehistoric  dykes  of  Wiltshire,  Wansdyke,  Grims- 
dyke,  and  Bokerly  dyke,  tell  the  same  story.  Wansdyke, 
the  Wodnesdic  of  the  Saxon  age,  reminds  us  of  Woden, 
Grimsditch  of  the  Norse  Grim,  a  Northern  name  for 
Woden,  and  Bokerly  dyke,  anciently  Boggele  or  Boccoli, 
reminds  us  of  the  circumstance  that  Boge  is  the  name 
for  a  deity  in  every  old  Slavonic  language  or  dialect. 
Another  old  Wendish  name  for  a  god  was  Kirt,  or 
Krodo,  which  corresponded  to  Saturn,2  and  the  name 
Creodan  hylle,  or  hill  of  Creod,  near  Ruwanbeorg, 
Wiltshire,  is  met  with  in  a  charter  of  Egbert,  A.D.  825-3 
One  of  the  most  remarkable  legends  of  Riigen  is  that 
of  the  black  dog  which  guards  the  treasure  of  an  old 
heathen  King  in  that  island,4  and  a  legend  somewhat 
similar  to  this  survives  in  that  of  the  black  dog  at 

One  of  the  most  remarkable  of  the  Celtic  survivals 

1  Codex  Dipl.,  Nos.  1263,  460,  479. 

2  Grimm,  '  Teutonic  Mythology,'  i.  249. 

3  Codex  Dipl.,  No.  1035. 

*  Hartland,  E.  S.,  '  The  Science  of  Fairy  Tales,'  p.  236. 


242  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

during  the  early  part  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  period,  which 
can  be  traced  anywhere  in  England,  is  that  on  the  east 
of  Somerset  and  the  north-west  of  Wiltshire,  and  com- 
prised the  country  which  forms  the  valley  of  the  Frome 
and  that  of  the  upper  part  of  the  Bristol  Avon.  The 
name  Devizes  may  indicate  the  frontier  of  this  British 
province,  which  extended  from  near  Wells  to  Bredon 
Forest,  north  -  east  of  Malmesbury.  Guest  recognises 
Devizes  as  having  been  situated  on  its  eastern  border, 
and  traces  the  name  to  this  circumstance.1  It  was  a 
projecting  strip  of  British  territory  extending  north- 
ward, that  was  left  under  its  native  rulers  for  a  con- 
siderable time  after  the  West  Saxon  King  Ceawlin  had 
defeated  the  Britons  at  Deorham  in  south  Gloucester- 
shire. There  must  have  been  a  commingling  of  race  in 
and  near  to  this  district,  and,  as  Beddoe's  researches 
show,  the  result  of  this  racial  fusion  may  be  traced  at 
the  present  day  in  the  darker  complexion  of  the  people 
in  the  north-west  of  Wiltshire. 

In  Dorset  the  darker  hues  of  the  people  that  have  been 
observed  in  the  Gillingham  district  may  be  due  to 
descent  from  settlers  of  a  darker  race  near  the  fairer 
people  in  the  valley  of  the  Stour.  They  were,  no  doubt, 
for  the  most  part  of  Teutonic  origin,  but  among  them 
were  others  of  the  Wendish  race  who  came  into 
Wilts  and  Dorset  among  the  Gewissas.  The  evidence 
of  the  black-haired  Vikings  of  the  ninth  century  is  from 
contemporary  records  certain,  and  as  the  English  place- 
names  denoting  settlers  of  a  dark  or  black  complexion 
are  names  which  were  in  use  in  the  Saxon  period, 
there  appears  to  be  no  reason  to  doubt  that  there 
were  among  the  Anglo-Saxon  settlers  people  of  a  darker 
race  than  the  fair-haired  Angles  and  Scandians,  or  the 
fair-complexioned  Saxons  and  Germans.  The  anthropo- 
logical researches  of  Beddoe  and  others  have,  however, 

1  Journal  Archesol.  Inst.,  xvi.  116. 

Wessex,   Wilts,  and  Dorset.  243 

shown  the  survival  on  a  large  scale  of  blondes  in  Dorset 
and  Wilts.  The  valley  of  the  Stour  as  far  north  as 
Somerset  is  marked  at  the  present  day  by  blondes. 
Some  of  the  Baltic  races,  such  as  the  Lithuanians,  are  as 
fair  as  Scandinavians.  The  recorded  facts  and  existing 
ethnological  characters  evidently  support  the  conclusion 
that  Wessex  was  originally  occupied  by  a  mixed  popula- 

The  difference  in  the  village  shapes  is  of  some  interest. 
In  the  north  of  Wiltshire  the  isolated  homesteads  are 
more  common  than  in  the  valleys  of  the  Wiley,  Avon, 
and  Nadder,  and  the  isolated  homestead  was  the  Celtic 
arrangement.  The  collected  homesteads  of  South  Wilt- 
shire may  be  compared  with  those  between  the  Elbe 
and  the  Weser  —  i.e.,  in  the  old  Saxon  country;  and, 
allowing  for  variations,  also  with  the  collected  home- 
steads east  of  the  Elbe — i.e.,  in  the  former  Wendish 
country.  The  villages  of  collected  homesteads  in  England 
had  large  areas  of  open  commonable  land,  including  the 
cultivated  fields,  and  it  is  of  interest  to  note  that,  as  late 
as  a  century  ago,  half  the  area  of  Berkshire  was  open 
land,  and  more  than  half  of  Wiltshire.1 

The  evidence  which  the  features  of  the  skulls  from 
burial-places  supply  concerning  the  introduction  of  more 
than  one  race  into  Wessex  has  already  been  given,  and 
there  is  further  evidence  of  the  same  kind  supporting 
the  settlement  in  Dorset  of  people  of  Slavonic  origin. 

Among  the  skulls  in  West  Saxon  graves  a  small  minority 
are  of  the  broad-headed  type,  having  an  average  cephalic 
index  of  81,  whilst  the  majority  are  long-headed,  with 
an  index  of  about  76.  The  reasons  for  concluding  that 
this  was  due  to  the  introduction  of  people  of  a  broad- 
headed  race  with  the  Anglo-Saxon  settlers,  rather  than  to 
a  fusion  of  the  descendants  of  the  remote  Round 
Barrow  men  with  Saxon  immigrants,  have  already  been 

1  Maine,  Sir  H.,  '  Village  Communities  in  the  East  and  West,' 
pp.  88,  89. 

l6 — 2 

244  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

stated.1  The  further  point  that  skulls  from  Saxon  graves 
in  Wessex  show  a  tendency  to  prognathism  has  been  fully 
dealt  with  in  the  chapter  on  settlers  from  the  Baltic 
coasts.2  Fifteen  skulls  from  the  Saxon  burial-ground  at 
Winklebury,  on  the  border  of  Wilts  and  Dorset,  which 
was  explored  by  General  Pitt  Rivers,  were  found  to 
present  differences  in  shape,  showing  that  the  interments 
could  not  have  been  those  of  people  of  homogeneous 
ethnological  characters.  Beddoe  examined  these  skulls,a 
and  found  six  to  be  elliptic,  four  ovo-elliptic,  four  ovoid, 
and  one  oblong-ovate.  Some  were  thus  much  broader 
than  the  others,  and  he  points  out  in  his  report  that 
the  skull  which  he  finds  to  be  oblong-ovate  is  the  same 
as  that  called  Sarmatic  by  the  Continental  anthropologist 
Van  Holder.  The  word  Sarmatic  was  an  older  name  for 
the  Slavic  race  ;  and  the  Wends,  who  have  been  shown 
by  other  evidence  to  have  settled  among  other  tribaL 
people  in  Wilts  and  Dorset,  were  Slavs. 

1  Chap.  VII.,  p.  117.  a  Chap.  VIII.,  p.  129. 

3  Journal  Anthrop.  Inst.,  xix.  5. 





BEDE  tells  us  of  battles  in  Kent  between  the  Jutes 
and  the  Britons  during  the  latter  part  of  the 
fifth  century,  and  it  was  probably  these  battles 
that  opened  the  way  for  the  settlement  around  London. 
He  wrote  from  the  traditional  knowledge  of  these 
events,  and  his  statement  may  be  accepted  as  evidence 
of  a  series  of  conflicts  that  must  have  occurred  before 
the  British  people  abandoned  London — a  distinguished 
city,  which  during  the  later  Roman  period  bore  the 
name  of  Augusta.  There  were  roads  into  it  from  all 
directions :  from  Canterbury,  from  Pevensey,  from 
Chichester ;  from  Silchester  and  the  south-west  parts  of 
Britain ;  from  Uriconium,  or  Wroxeter,  and  the  Midland 
district ;  from  York  and  Lincoln,  and  from  Colchester. 
These  roads  and  other  less  important  ways  radiated 
from  London  like  the  spokes  of  a  wheel,  thus  proving 
the  importance  of  the  Roman  city.  They  all  existed 
at  the  time  of  the  coming  of  the  new  settlers  ;  many 
of  them  exist  to  this  day,  and  the  lines  of  others  can  be 
traced.  The  Romans  made  them,  and  our  Anglo-Saxon 
forefathers  wore  them  down,  and  here  and  there  roughly 
repaired  them. 

The  earliest  Saxon  records  supply  no  evidence  of  the  city 
in  a  ruined  state.     On  the  contrary,  they  show  its  con- 


246  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

tinued  existence  as  a  port  from  the  earliest  date  to  which 
they  relate.  From  its  greatness  in  Roman  time,  Anglo- 
Saxon  London  probably  declined,  but  there  is  no  reason 
to  doubt  that  it  continued  to  be  relatively  a  great 
commercial  city.  The  Goths  and  Frisians,  of  whom  the 
bulk  of  the  settlers  in  Kent  were  composed,  were  the 
greatest  navigators  of  Northern  Europe.  They,  called 
Jutes  by  Bede,  advanced  on  London.  The  Thames 
became  their  great  waterway,  and  London  for  a  time 
their  chief  port.  The  river  by  which  commodities  could 
be  brought  into  the  country  and  the  Roman  roads  by 
which  they  could  be  distributed  are  sufficient  to  show 
the  extreme  probability  of  the  continuous  existence  of 
London.  Nowhere  else  in  England  did  such  a  combina- 
tion of  advantages  exist. 

The  city  which  the  newcomers  found  was  one  of 
considerable  importance.  The  great  roads  alone  are 
sufficient  to  prove  this,  and  the  Roman  remains  which 
have  been  found  attest  it.  It  was  protected  by  defen- 
sive walls,  contained  temples,  elegant  houses,  and  many 
other  structures  characteristic  of  a  place  that  was  the 
centre  of  a  Roman  province. 

We  must  look  on  the  forests  around  London,  in  both 
Roman  and  Saxon  times,  as  necessities.  To  have  cleared 
the  land  and  settled  a  rural  population  on  it,  if  a  sufficient 
population  had  existed,  would  very  likely  have  paralyzed 
the  trade  of  the  city.  In  an  age  when  pit-coal  for  fuel  was 
not  available  a  great  woodland  tract  near  it  was  necessary 
for  any  great  city,  such  as  London  was  at  the  end  of  the 
Roman  period,  and  continued  to  be  during  the  Saxon  era. 
We  see  the  same  connection  of  ancient  forest  land  with  a 
city  in  the  Ainsty,  which  from  very  ancient  time  has  been 
within  the  jurisdiction  of  York,  and  which  was  a  great 
woodland.  The  forests  around  London  supplied  not  only 
fuel  for  household  purposes,  but  charcoal  for  arts  and 
handicrafts.  The  smiths  and  metal-workers  of  all  kinds 
required  charcoal,  and  the  charcoal-burners  in  the  forests 

The  Settlement  around  London.  247 

supplied  it.  Their  occupation  is  one  of  the  oldest,  but 
has  now  almost  disappeared  from  this  country.  In  the 
New  Forest,  however,  the  charcoal-burners  are  not  even 
yet  extinct.  Traces  of  them  exist  around  London 
in  such  place-names  as  Collier's  Wood,  near  Merton. 
The  smiths  in  Saxon  London  must  have  been  numerous, 
and,  as  the  evidence  points  to  settlements  in  and  near  the 
city  of  Northern  Goths,  who  at  that  time  were  the  greatest 
metal-workers  in  Northern  Europe,  they  were  probably 
also  skilful. 

The  Romans  finally  left  Britain  about  A.D.  430,  and, 
although  the  settlement  of  Kent  took  place  before  the 
end  of  the  fifth  century,  we  have  no  records  until  the 
coming  of  Augustine,  and  no  historical  account  until  the 
time  of  Bede,  who  died  in  A.D.  735,  or  three  centures 
after  the  Roman  withdrawal.  This  early  Anglo-Saxon 
age  is  the  darkest  period  of  our  history,  and  yet  it  was  this 
period  that  saw  the  beginning  of  the  English  race,  and  as 
such  must  always  be  a  time  of  much  interest  to  the  people 
of  the  Anglo-Saxon  stock.  As  history  tells  us  nothing  of 
this  period  on  the  evidence  of  contemporary  writers,  we  may 
take  what  Bede  and  the  writers  of  the  various  manuscripts 
of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Chronicle  wrote  to  be  the  traditional 
knowledge  of  this  early  Saxon  period.  We  may  supplement 
these  accounts  by  information  concerning  the  various 
tribes  and  races  which  are  known  to  have  taken  part  in 
the  English  settlement — or  may  reasonably  be  inferred  to 
have  participated — their  customs,  dialects,  arts,  weapons, 
race  characteristics,  and  the  relics  which  have  been  found. 

In  the  Saxon  records  we  first  read  of  London  in  the  year 
A.D.  457,  in  which  year  Bede  and  the  Chronicle  tell  us  the 
great  Battle  of  Crayford  in  Kent  was  fought,  and  the 
British  fugitives  took  refuge  within  the  old  Roman  walls 
of  London  of  which  small  parts  may  still  be  seen.  There 
are  no  records  of  what  happened  in  the  city  after  this  battle 
until  the  year  604,  a  century  and  a  half  later,  when  we  are 
told  that  Augustine  hallowed  Mellitus  as  the  first  Bishop 

248  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

of  London,  and  sent  him  to  preach  baptism  to  the  East 
Saxons  ;  but  we  know  that  it  was  yEthelbert,  King  of  Kent, 
who  gave  him  his  Bishop's  See.  Bede  also  tells  us  that 
j^Ethelbert  built  the  first  church  of  St.  Paul,  and  in  the 
charter  granted  to  it  more  than  four  and  a  half  centuries 
later  William  the  Conqueror  specially  mentions  that  the 
church  was  of  ^Ethelbert's  foundation.  Thus,  in  the  year 
457  we  lose  sight  of  Roman  London  in  connection  with 
a  great  victory  of  the  Kentish  people  over  the  Britons  at 
Crayford,  and  when  we  get  the  next  historical  glimpse 
it  is  in  connection  with  ^Ethelbert,  King  of  Kent,  founding 
a  Bishop's  See  within  the  city.  The  inference  to  be  drawn 
from  these  two  historical  statements  is  plain — viz.,  that 
some  time  between  these  two  dates  the  Kentish  people 
drove  out  the  Britons,  and  took  possession  of  the  city. 
It  may  have  been  early  or  late,  even  as  late  as  the 
early  part  of  the  time  of  ^Ethelbert  himself,  as  Green 

It  has  been  shown  that  the  settlers  in  Kent  must 
have  been  mainly  Goths  and  Frisians,  both  maritime 
nations  known  to  Bede  under  the  general  name  of  Jutes. 
It  must  have  been  the  people  of  the  Jutish  race  in  Kent, 
assisted  probably  by  emigrants  from  their  former  homes, 
who  attacked  and  took  Romano-British  London.  A 
great  prize  was  theirs.  We  know  nothing  about  its  loot, 
but  great  loot  there  must  have  been — sufficient,  no  doubt, 
to  attract  a  host  of  allies  from  the  great  shipping  centre 
in  the  Baltic — Wisby,  in  the  Isle  of  Gotland.  The  city 
became  by  conquest  part  of  the  Kentish  dominion. 

It  would  be  out  of  place  to  discuss  at  any  length  how 
it  was  probably  captured,  but,  considering  that  Goths, 
Frisians,  and  Wends  were  all  maritime  nations,  and  con- 
sidering also  how  centuries  later  it  was  taken  by  the  mari- 
time Danes  and  Norwegians,  there  can  be  little  doubt 
that  a  naval  force  on  the  Thames  played  an  important 
part  in  its  capture.  Did  the  captors  destroy  it  ?  There 
is  no  contemporary  information,  but,  reasoning  from 
1  Green,  J.  R.,  '  Making  of  England,'  109. 

The  Settlement  around  London.  249 

archaeological  associations,  their  self-interest  in  preserving 
such  a  commercial  prize,  and  the  relatively  vast  impor- 
tance of  the  city  in  the  later  Saxon  period,  there  is  sufficient 
reason  to  think  that  they  did  not  destroy  it.  The  con- 
tinuous use  of  the  Roman  roads  which  crossed  London  from 
north  to  south  and  east  to  west  is  evidence  of  the  continu- 
ance of  ways  through  it.  If  the  so-called  Saxons  destroyed 
it,  they  must  have  immediately  set  to  work  and  have 
rebuilt  it.  Some  buildings,  repugnant  to  their  religious  and 
other  ideas,  particularly  those  in  the  continuance  of  which 
they  might  suspect  evil  influences,  they  very  probably  did 
destroy,  but  that  the  city  continued  without  interruption 
there  is  every  reason  to  believe.  It  probably  grew  as  the 
Saxon  conquest  became  more  and  more  complete,  and  the 
country  more  and  more  settled.  By  the  time  of  ^Ethelstan  it 
had  become  so  great  and  wealthy  that  it  required  a  special 
code  (A  laws  of  its  own,  and  by  the  time  of  Cnut  its  wealth 
had  become  so  vast  that  after  his  conquest  he  levied  upon 
it  a  tax  of  ten  and  a  half  thousand  pounds,  equal  to  one- 
seventh  of  that  levied  on  the  rest  of  England,  and  this 
tax  was  paid.1 

Another  circumstance  which  points  to  the  later  wealth 
of  Saxon  London  is  that  the  laws  of  yEthelstan  relating 
to  the  city  are  much  concerned  with  regulations  for  the 
capture  and  punishment  of  thieves.  It  is  clear  that 
opportunities  for  thieves  would  be  greater  in  a  rich  city 
filled  with  merchandise  than  in  other  parts  of  the  country. 
We  read  of  London  first  as  a  city  controlled  by  ^Ethelbert, 
King  of  Kent.  Whether  it  was  or  was  not  part  of  the 
kingdom  of  the  East  Saxons  at  that  time  is  uncertain, 
but  in  any  case  ^Ethelbert  was  their  overlord.  We  have 
no  evidence  that  the  neighbourhood  of  London  was 
originally  settled  by  people  from  Essex.  Some  may 
have  come  westward  through  the  great  forest,  if  the 
eastern  part  of  Essex  was  occupied  by  Saxons  at  that 
time.  On  the  other  hand,  there  is  considerable  evidence 
pointing  to  this  settlement  around  London  having  been 
1  Anglo-Saxon  Chronicle,  A.D.  1018. 

250          Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

made  by  people  of  the  same  races  as  the  people  of  Kent 
— viz.,  Goths  and  Frisians,  with  probably  some  Wends. 
It  is  most  improbable  that  the  Anglo-Saxon  people  who 
conquered  London  could  have  been  any  other  than  those 
of  the  Kentish  race. 

It  was  not  until  the  year  491,  according  to  historical 
statements,  that  the  second  Saxon  kingdom,  Sussex,  was 
founded.  Whatever  local  settlements  may  have  been 
formed  on  the  Essex  coast,  there  was  certainly  no  king- 
dom of  Essex  until  long  after  the  Battle  of  Crayford  ; 
and  when  it  does  appear,  it  comes  before  us  as  a  sub- 
ordinate kingdom  to  that  of  Kent.  History,  therefore, 
if  taken  alone,  points  to  Kent  as  the  Anglo-Saxon  State 
which  first  controlled  London  ;  but  there  is  other  evidence 
of  a  remarkable  kind  which  leads  to  the  same  conclusion. 
There  are  the  customs  of  inheritance  which  survived  in 
the  city  for  many  centuries,  and  on  the  great  manors  that 
existed  around  London  almost  to  our  own  time,  which, 
with  other  customs,  bear  an  unmistakable  resemblance 
to  those  of  Kent.  It  cannot  be  said  that  none  of  these 
have  been  found  in  Essex,  but,  as  Essex  was  subordinate 
to  Kent  in  the  earliest  period  of  its  history,  it  is  but 
reasonable  to  think  that  some  settlers  from  Kent  may 
have  migrated  across  the  Thames  into  it.  The  majority 
of  the  early  people  of  Essex  were  probably  of  a  different 
race  from  the  Goths,  the  dominant  race  in  Kent.  The 
Essex  people  were  called  Saxons  and  those  of  Kent  Jutes, 
and  this  distinction  in  names  must  have  arisen  through  a 
difference  in  race.  Some  Wen,ds,  for  example,  can  be 
traced  as  settlers  in  Essex  more  clearly  than  in  Kent. 
The  name  Middlesex  does  not  occur  in  Anglo-Saxon 
records  until  that  district  became  a  province  of  the  East 
Saxon  kingdom,  and  the  distinctive  name  of  Middle 
vSaxons  would  be  likely  to  have  arisen  from  geographic 

When  we  compare  the   condition  of  the  people  an 
customs  of  London  and  the  manors  around  it  with  those 
of^Kent,  and  still  further  with  those  that  can  be  traced 




The  Settlement  around  London.  251 

to  ancient  Gothland  and  Friesland,  we  find  a  remarkable 
similarity.  Before  customs  of  all  kinds  was  personal 
freedom,  and  in  Kent  alone  of  all  the  English  counties 
every  man  was  from  time  immemorial  personally  free. 
Similarly  in  London,  which  was  called  the  '  Free  Chamber 
of  the  King  of  England,'  every  man  was  personally  free.1 
The  name  Franklins  of  Kent  has  found  a  place  in  our 
literature,  and  all  the  native-born  men  of  London,  or 
those  who  had  resided  in  it  for  a  year  and  a  day,  were 
similarly  accounted  freemen.  Kentish  people,  when  they 
migrated,  carried  with  them  some,  at  least,  of  their  own 
laws  and  customs,  certainly  their  personal  freedom. 

The  very  remarkable  custom  of  Kentish  gavelkind  may 
be  considered  in  reference  to  the  customs  in  and  around 
London.  Its  nature  has  already  been  discussed.  Its 
chief  privilege  was  partible  inheritance  among  the  sons, 
and,  failing  sons,  among  the  daughters.  The  gavelkind 
custom  also  provided  for  the  inheritance  of  the  homestead 
by  the  youngest  son.  The  custom  of  partible  inheritance 
among  sons  was  the  ancient  custom  of  the  City  of  London 
specially  confirmed  to  the  citizens  in  the  charter  of 
William  the  Conqueror.  This  charter  runs  as  follows,  in 
modern  English  :  '  William  the  King  greets  William  the 
Bishop  and  Godfrey  the  portreeve,  and  all  the  burgesses 
within  London,  French  and  English.  And  I  grant  you 
that  I  will  that  ye  be  all  of  your  law  worthy,  that  ye  were 
in  the  days  of  King  Edward.  And  I  will  that  every  child 
be  his  father's  heir  after  his  father's  day.  And  I  will  not 
suffer  that  any  man  do  you  wrong.  And  God  you  keep.' 
As  every  child  was  to  be  his  father's  heir  (not  his  or  her 
father's),  it  is  clear  that  the  custom  referred  to  was  the 
old  Kentish  custom  of  partible  inheritance  among  sons. 
This  custom  of  dividing  the  property  among  the  sons  was 
also  the  custom  of  the  ancient  manors  of  Stepney,  Hack- 
ney, Canonbury  or  Canbury,  Newington  Barrow  or 
Highbury,  Hornsey,  and  Islington.2 

1  Stow,  J.,  '  Survey  of  London,'  A.D.  1598. 

2  Elton,  C.  I.,  '  Robinson  on  Gavelkind,'  34,  36. 

252  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

In  view  of  the  city's  early  connection  with  the  Kentish 
kingdom,  it  is  difficult  to  see  any  other  satisfactory 
explanation  of  such  a  remarkable  parallelism  between 
its  customs  and  those  of  Kent  than  a  settlement  of 
Kentish  people  in  it  and  on  the  east  and  north  of  it  ; 
and  when  we  take  into  consideration  the  early  over- 
lordship  of  JEthelbert,  King  of  Kent,  in  relation  to  Essex, 
that  explanation  is  strengthened.  The  Norman  Kings, 
who  desired  to  see  a  uniform  system  of  primogeniture 
established,  nevertheless  respected  these  ancient  customs 
of  inheritance,  so  different  from  the  rural  primo- 
geniture which  prevailed  in  Normandy,  or  the  feudal 
primogeniture  which  they  established  over  almost  the 
whole  of  England.  We  know  that  the  partition  of  the 
lands,  which  was  an  ancient  custom  on  some  great 
manors  in  various  parts  of  England,  was  allowed  to  con- 
tinue in  many  instances,  for  cases  have  survived  until 
our  own  time.  In  his  general  code  of  law,  William  I. 
expressly  allowed  it,  but  we  know  that  the  change  from 
old  customs  of  inheritance  to  primogeniture  of  the 
feudal  type  went  on  nevertheless,  so  that  in  a  century 
or  two  after  the  Norman  Conquest  the  survivals  of 
customs  of  inheritance  other  than  primogeniture  became 
much  rarer  than  they  must  have  been  during  the 
Saxon  period.  Glanville,  who  wrote  in  the  time  of 
Henry  II.,  tells  us  that  partible  inheritance  was  in  his 
time  only  recognised  by  the  courts  of  law  in  those  places 
where  it  could  be  proved  that  the  lands  always  had  been 
divided.1  Consequently,  as  the  custom  was  allowed  to 
continue  on  the  manors  to  the  north  and  east  of  London, 
it  must  have  been  proved  to  have  been  an  immemorial 
custom  to  the  satisfaction  of  the  law  in  the  twelfth 
century — i.e.,  it  must  have  been  shown  to  have  been  the 
usage  during  the  Saxon  period.  The  custom  of  dividing 
the  inheritance  that  prevailed  among  the  German  tribes 
in  the  time  of  Tacitus,  which  was  of  immemorial  usage 

1  Glanville,  R.  de,   'Tract,  de  leg.  et  cons.  Angliae,'  lib.  vii., 
chap.  iii. 

The  Settlement  around  London.  253 

in  Friesland,  and  can  be  traced  further  back  to  the  Goths 
of  Gothland,  may,  of  course,  have  been  brought  into 
England,  and  to  some  of  the  manors  on  the  north  and 
east  of  London,  by  the  settlers  who  originally  formed 
colonies  there  ;  but  there  are  other  circumstances  that 
connect  early  Kent  and  London.  The  custom  of  partible 
inheritance  among  the  sons  prevailed  at  Kentish  Town, 
and  it  is  a  very  remarkable  circumstance  that  on  this 
manor,  which  bears  the  Kentish  name,  a  Kentish  custom 
actually  survived  until  modern  times. 

As  in  Kent,  so  in  London,  the  people  were  not  liable 
to  the  ordinary  process  of  distress  for  debts. 

Another  custom  which  the  citizens  cf  London  had  in 
common  with  the  people  of  Kent  was  the  power  of 
devising  their  property  by  will.  Kent  alone  among  the 
English  counties  had  this  privilege,  which  was  a  rare  one 
possessed  by  the  tenants  of  only  a  few  isolated  manors 
elsewhere.  It  was  not  until  the  reign  of  Henry  VIII. 
that  copyholds  generally  were  made  devisable  by  will. 
Another  resemblance  in  custom  between  Kent  and  the 
City  was  the  age  at  which  heirs  could  inherit.  Bracton, 
who  wrote  in  the  thirteenth  century,  tells  us  that  the  full 
age  of  heirs  was  twenty-one  in  the  case  of  a  military  fief, 
and  twenty-five  in  the  case  of  a  socman.  In  Kent  a 
son  could  succeed  his  father  at  fifteen  years,  and  the  son 
of  a  burgher  was  understood  to  be  of  full  age  when  he 
knew  how  to  count  pence  rightly,  to  measure  cloths  by 
the  ell,  and  to  perform  other  like  business  of  his  father.1 

There  was  yet  another  resemblance  between  the  customs 
of  London  and  Kent — viz.,  in  the  widow's  dower.  She 
was  entitled  to  half  her  husband's  estate,  even  if  his 
goods  should  be  otherwise  forfeited  for  felony.  This  was 
the  custom  of  Kent,  and  the  Dooms  of  ^Ethelstan  tell 
us  that  it  was  the  custom  also  of  Anglo-Saxon  London.2 

One  of  the  privileged  customs  of  the  Frisians  was  their 

1  Bracton,  H.  de,   '  De   legibus    et    consuetudinibus  Angliae,' 
edited  by  Twiss,  ii.  5. 

2  ^Ethelstan's  Dooms,  vi.  ;  Judicia  Civitatis  Lundoniae,  i. 

254  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

freedom  from  the  wager  of  battle  as  a  judicial  pro- 
ceeding. The  custom  of  settling  disputes  of  right  or 
wrong  by  duel  is  among  the  oldest  judicial  customs  that 
can  be  traced.  We  meet  with  it  in  England  in  the  laws 
of  King  Alfred,  in  which  it  is  stipulated  what  course  a 
man  has  to  take  against  his  foe  in  order  to  obtain  justice 
before  he  proceeds  to  judicial  settlement  by  force  of  arms.1 
To  a  commercial  people  such  as  the  Frisians  there  was 
an  injustice  involved  in  the  merchant  being  liable  to  be 
challenged  to  wager  of  battle  in  order  to  settle  a  dispute 
with  a  possible  swash-buckler,  whose  profession  was  that 
of  arms,  concerning  the  terms  of  a  purchase  or  the  price 
of  a  commodity.  In  the  old  Flemish  charters,  which 
apparently  embody  still  more  ancient  privileges  and 
customs,  we  find  a  law  which  exempts  the  Frisians  of 
the  early  part  of  the  twelfth  century  from  duel  in  every 
market  of  Flanders.2  Similarly,  in  London  one  of  the 
oldest  franchises  was  that  none  of  the  burgesses  should 
be  compelled  to  wager  of  battle,  but  that  they  might 
settle  their  disputes  according  to  the  custom  of  London ; 
and  although  this  privilege  was  subsequently  granted  to 
thirteen  cities  and  boroughs,3  such  grants  do  not  diminish 
the  significance  of  it  in  London,  where  its  origin  is  lost 
in  antiquity,  the  custom  being  known  as  the  '  Custom 
of  London.' 

The  evidences  of  the  early  trade  of  London  in  the 
Anglo-Saxon  period  also  point  to  its  connection  with 
the  chief  traders  of  Northern  Europe  at  that  time — the 
Goths  and  Frisians.  That  the  maritime  trade  of  London 
went  on  without  any  great  break  from  the  Roman  period 
into  that  of  the  Saxons  is  extremely  probable.  In  a 
charter  dated  A.D.  734,  by  which  Ethelbald,  King  of 
Mercia,  granted  leave  for  a  ship  to  pass  into  the  port  of 

1  'Ancient  Laws,'  edited  by  Thorpe,  i.   91;   Maine,   'Early 
Hist,  of  Institutions,'  303. 

2  '  Saxons  in  England,'    by    Kemble,   edited    by    Birch,     ii., 
Appendix,  528,  quoting  '  Flemish  Charters  of  Liberties.' 

3  Ballard,  A.,  English  Historical  Review,  xiv.  94. 

The  Settlement  aroiind  London.  255 

London  without  tax,  he  speaks  of  the  tax  on  shipping  as 
his  royal  right  and  that  of  his  predecessors.  This 
appears  to  be  the  earliest  notice  of  Saxon  London  in  a 
contemporary  document.1  For  maritime  commerce  there 
must  have  been  regulations  of  some  kind  from  the  earliest 
time,  and  the  earliest  that  can  be  traced  in  the  North  of 
Europe  is  '  The  Maritime  Law  of  Wisby.'  At  the  time 
when  Ethelbald  granted  a  remission  of  his  tax  to  this 
ship  in  the  port  of  London,  Wisby  was  the  commercial 
centre  of  the  North.  In  early  London  there  was  prob- 
ably a  maritime  court,  as  there  was  in  Ipswich.  The 
court  sat  daily,  as  shown  by  the  customary  of  that  town, 
to  administer  the  Law  Marine  to  passing  mariners.2 
This  practice  is  referred  to  in  the  Domesday  of  Ipswich, 
and  this  is  probably  the  earliest  extant  record  of  any  court 
sitting  regularly.3  When  and  how  the  practice  originated 
is  uncertain,  but  it  was  a  legacy  of  Imperial  Rome  that 
maritime  causes  should  be  heard  without  delay  by  com- 
petent judges  in  each  province,  and  there  is  good  reason 
for  believing  that  mediaeval  Europe  accepted  this  legacy 
and  never  allowed  it  to  lapse.4 

In  the  shipping  trade  of  the  Netherlands  in  the  Middle 
Ages  we  meet  with  two  codes  of  maritime  regulations, 
one  called  the  Rolls  of  Oleron,  from  a  French  source,5 
and  another  resembling  what  is  known  as  the  Maritime 
Law  of  Wisby.  With  these  mediaeval  maritime  codes 
we  are  only  concerned  so  far  as  regards  the  antiquity  of 
the  Wisby  code  and  its  provisions  in  reference  to  '  lay 
days.'  The  Maritime  Law  of  Wisby  was  first  published 
at  Copenhagen  in  1505,  under  the  name  of  '  The  Supreme 
Maritime  Law.'6  The  provisions  of  this  code  are  similar 
to  those  of  '  The  Usages  of  Amsterdam,'  with  which  those 
of  the  Frisian  ports  of  Enchuysen,  Stavern,  and  others 

1  Cott.  MSS.,  Chart,  xvii.  i  ;  also  Codex  Dipl.,  No.  78. 

2  Black  Book  of  the  Admiralty,  edited  by  Twiss,  ii.,  Introd., 
vii.,  viii. 

3  Ibid.  *  Ibid. 

5  Ibid.,  iii.,  Introd.,  xx.  6  Ibid.,  iii.,  Introd.,  xxi. 

256  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

on  the  Zuyder  Zee,  are  identical.  The  extreme  antiquity 
of  Wisby  as  a  port  points  to  an  early  code  of  some  kind 
necessarily  connected  with  it  as  the  original  source  of  the 
Frisian  regulations.  By  the  Usages  of  Amsterdam  and  the 
custom  of  the  Frisian  ports,  and  by  the  Maritime  Law  of 
Wisby,  the  interval  allowed  as  lay-days  for  a  chartered 
vessel  is  fourteen  days,  the  fortnight  of  English  usage, 
whereas  in  the  '  Judgments  of  Damme,'  or  regulations  of 
West  Flanders,  derived  from  the  Rolls  of  Oleron,  the  time 
is  fifteen  days.1  There  is  thus  a  remarkable  coincidence 
between  the  maritime  usage  of  old  Frisian  and  Gothic 
ports  and  those  of  England,  of  which  London  was  the 
chief.  It  points  to  Frisian  and  Gothic  traders  in  such 
numbers  as  to  be  able  to  introduce  an  important  pro- 
vision of  their  own  marine  customs  into  English  ports, 
and  this  probably  with  people  descended  from  their  own 
races  who  traded  with  them,  as  was  likely  to  have  been 
the  case  in  Anglo-Saxon  London. 

When  we  leave  the  consideration  of  the  Goths  and 
Frisians,  and  turn  our  attention  to  the  remarkable 
customs  which  have  come  down  from  time  immemorial 
on  the  south  and  west  of  the  city,  we  are  met  by 
circumstances  of  another  kind.  Inheritance  by  the 
youngest  son  instead  of  the  eldest,  as  in  common  law, 
prevailed  unto  within  living  memory  on  the  manors  of 
Kennington,  Walworth,  Vauxhall,  Peckham  Rye,  Wands- 
worth,  Battersea,  Lambeth,  Streatham,  Croydon,  Barnes, 
Shene  or  Richmond,  and  Petersham.  On  the  north 
of  the  Thames  it  existed  at  Edmonton,  Tottenham, 
Ealing,  Acton,  Isleworth,  and  Earl's  Court.2  Junior  right 
prevails  among  some  of  the  Frisians  of  Friesland. 
It  can  also  be  traced  and  still  exists  in  parts  of  ancient 
Wendland — i.e.,  Pomerania — and,  as  already  pointed 
out,  is  found  sporadically  in  isolated  districts  of  Ger- 
many, North-Eastern  France,  and  Belgium,  where  isolated 

1  Black  Book  of  the  Admiralty,  iii.,  Introd.,  xix. 

2  Elton,  C.   I.,  loc.  cit.,  and   Corner,    '  Custom  of   Borough- 

The  Settlement  around  London.  257 

colonies  of  Wends  existed.  Since  junior  right  has  pre- 
vailed until  modern  times  at  Wandsworth,  and  at  that 
place  we  have  the  custom  associated  with  the  ancient 
Vandal  name  Wendelesworth,  the  origin  of  the  custom 
around  London  must,  apparently,  be  traced  to  Frisians 
or  Wends,  or  to  people  of  both  races. 

On  the  manor  of  Earl's  Court  the  youngest  son  in- 
herited ;  at  Lambeth  the  youngest  son,  and  in  default  of 
sons,  the  daughters  equally  ;  and  at  Tottenham  the  same 
custom  prevailed.  At  East  Sheen  the  youngest  son 
succeeded,  and  in  default  of  sons,  the  youngest  daughter, 
brother,  sister,  or  nephew  ;  and  at  Croydon  the  youngest 
son,  and  if  no  sons,  the  youngest  in  every  degree.  At 
Vauxhall  the  youngest  son,  and  failing  sons,  the  youngest 
daughter,  was  the  heir.  At  Islington,  on  the  Sutton  Court 
and  St.  John  of  Jerusalem  manors,  the  strict  borough- 
English  custom  prevailed.  At  Isleworth,  Sion,  Ealing,  and 
Acton,  the  borough-English  custom  extended  to  brothers. 
At  Fulham,  Wimbledon,  Battersea,  Wandsworth,  Downe, 
Barnes,  and  Richmond,  the  inheritance,  in  default  of 
males,  passed  to  females  lineally  and  collaterally.1 

In  tracing  this  custom,  as  far  as  we  are  able,  from  what 
appears  to  have  been  its  home  in  Continental  lands  to 
England,  we  have  to  take  into  consideration  the  pro- 
vision which  the  English  custom  shows  for  female  rights. 
In  it  the  widow  had  her  dower  ;  she  held  the  land  for  her 
life,  and  the  youngest  son  succeeded  after  her.  Also, 
if  there  were  no  sons,  either  the  youngest  daughter  or 
youngest  female  succeeded,  or  the  land  was  divided 
among  the  female  heirs.  Whatever  may  have  been  the 
provision  for  females  among  the  ancient  Wendish  tribes, 
we  know  that  the  right  of  dower  was  a  custom  among 
the  Teutons,  and  is  mentioned  by  Tacitus.  We  know, 
also,  that  inheritance  by  females  as  well  as  males  pre- 
vailed among  the  Frisians,  and  was  a  custom  of  the 
Northern  Goths.  We  may  perhaps,  therefore,  see  a 
1  Elton,  C.  I.,  loc.  cit.,  238. 


258  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

Gothic  influence  in  the  junior  right  custom  in  England, 
by  which  dower  for  the  widow  is  secured  and  succession 
by  daughters  provided  for  in  the  absence  of  sons.  The 
growth  of  such  provisions  would  be  easy  to  understand 
on  the  supposition  of  a  fusion  of  Goths  with  a  Vandal 
tribe  which  had  junior  inheritance.  The  result  would  be 
a  compromise,  as  may  possibly  have  been  the  case  in 
Kent,  where,  on  the  supposition  that  Wends,  or  some 
Frisian  clans  which  had  the  same  custom,  were  among  the 
Kentish  settlers,  we  find  partible  inheritance,  not  on  the 
strict  lines  of  the  Gothic,  but  with  daughters  coming  after 
sons,  and  the  youngest  son  having  the  homestead. 

The  territory  south  of  London  and  Middlesex,  which 
afterwards  became  known  as  Suthereye,  appears,  from  the 
custom  which  survived  in  it  and  its  ancient  topographical 
names,  to  have  received  as  settlers  Goths  and  Frisians, 
Norwegians  and  Wends.  Some  reference  has  already 
been  made  to  them.  Junior  inheritance  survived  until 
modern  time  on  many  manors  in  Surrey,  as  mentioned 
in  the  chapter  on  Sussex.  This  points  either  to  coloniza- 
tion from  Sussex,  where  the  same  custom  has  survived 
more  widely  than  elsewhere  in  England,  or  to  the  settle- 
ment of  people  of  the  same  racial  descent  as  those  in  the 
Rape  of  Lewes.  It  is  not  difficult  to  believe  that  colonists 
crossed  the  forest  land  of  the  Weald  and  settled  on  the 
lands  which  form  the  slopes  of  the  chalk  downs  of  Dorking 
and  Reigate.  This  country  of  the  North  Downs  must  at 
an  early  period  of  the  Saxon  settlement,  as  now,  have 
been  more  free  from  wood  than  the  forest  land  of  the 
Weald.  As  this  same  custom  also  prevailed  at  Wands- 
worth,  Battersea,  Lambeth,  Walworth,  Vauxhall,  Peck- 
ham  Rye,  Barnes,  Richmond,  and  Petersham,  all  of  which 
are  on  or  near  the  river,  it  is  probable  that  Surrey  was 
colonised,  in  part  at  least,  by  settlers  who  arrived  by 
water.  We  may  thus,  perhaps,  reasonably  conclude  from 
these  survivals  that  the  country  was  settled  partly  over- 
land from  Sussex  and  partly  by  other  colonists  who  came 

The  Settlement  around  London.  259 

up  the  Thames.  Surrey  thus  appears  to»have  received 
among  its  settlers  some  Goths  of  the  same  Northern  stock 
as  those  who  settled  in  Kent.  From  Kent  to  Surrey 
migration  was  easy.  A  great  forest  area  separated  these 
parts  of  Southern  England  during  the  period  of  the 
settlement,  but  there  were  two  natural  routes  by  which 
people  from  Kent  could  reach  even  the  western  parts  of 
Surrey — viz.,  by  the  Thames  and  along  the  ridge  of  the 
chalk  downs  which  extended  from  east  to  west,  and, 
being  incapable  of  growing  trees,  must  always  have 
afforded  an  open  route. 

The  yEscings  is  one  of  the  names  by  which  the  early 
Kentish  settlers  were  known,  and  a  place  called  Jesting, 
now  Eashing,  part  of  Godalming,  is  mentioned  in  King 
Alfred's  will.  On  the  boundary  of  Hampshire  and  Surrey, 
to  which  the  ancient  limit  of  Godalming  extended,  there 
is  a  hill  still  called  Kent's  hill.  The  name  Godalming 
appears  to  have  been  derived  from  the  descendants  of 
one  or  more  Goths,  its  old  form  being  Godelming,  and 
the  old  popular  form  being  Godliman  or  Godlimen. 

There  are  two  remarkable  entries  in  Domesday  Book 
that  point  directly  to  an  ancient  connection  of  some  of 
the  settlements  in  Surrey  with  Kent.  Under  Waletone, 
now  Wallington,  we  are  told  that  its  woods  were  in  Kent ; 
and  under  Meretone,  now  Merton,  we  are  told  that  two 
solins  of  land  in  Kent  belonged  to  this  manor,  as  the 
men  of  the  hundred  testified.1  We  can  trace  Kentish 
place-names  here  and  there  through  Surrey. 

The  survival  of  the  custom  under  which  the  eldest 
daughter  inherited  the  father's  property  in  default  of 
sons  at  Chertsey,  Beaumond,  Farnham,  Worplesdon, 
and  Pirbright,  shows  that  the  west  of  Surrey  must  have 
received  some  settlers  who  were  neither  Goths,  Frisians, 
Wends,  nor  of  any  mixed  race  which  clung  to  the  custom 
of  inheritance  by  the  youngest  son.  The  Goths  and 
Frisians  had  not^this  eldest  daughter  custom.  Saxons 

1   Dom.  Bk.,  p.  30  a. 

17 — 2 

260  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

and  Angles  had  none  of  it,  for  their  customs  were  strongly 
marked  by  male  inheritance.  As  mentioned  elsewhere, 
there  is  only  one  old  race  to  which  it  certainly  can  be 
traced,  and  that  is  the  Norwegians.  We  may,  conse- 
quently, conclude  that  Norse  colonists,  at  some  time 
or  other,  settled  at  these  western  parts  of  Surrey. 
This  part  of  the  county  adjoins  the  north-east  of  Hamp- 
shire, where  a  similar  custom  prevailed,  and  in  Surrey, 
on  the  east  of  Aldershot,  the  old  place-name  Normandy 

There  is  an  early  charter  relating  to  the  grant  of  land 
at  Batrices-ege,  or  Battersea,  to  St.  Peter's,  Westminster, 
dated  A.D.  693,  in  which  Wendles-wurthe  and  Ceokan-ege 
are  mentioned  in  the  boundaries.1  This  mention  of 
Wandsworth  shows  that  the  name  is  an  early  one,  and 
shows  also  that  it  could  not  have  originated  from  a  settle- 
ment in  the  eleventh  century  during  the  time  of  Cnut, 
who  introduced  Wends  from  Jomberg  into  England  as 
his  huscarls.2  The  settlement  at  Wendles-wurthe  was 
probably  one  of  the  early  settlements  of  Surrey,  and  as 
junior  right  survived  there,  the  settlers  appear  to  have 
brought  it  with  them.  The  name  Ceokan-ege  may  refer 
to  a  man  who  was  a  Chaucian,  or  a  settler  of  that  race. 
It  appears  to  point  in  any  case  to  the  only  tribe  who  had 
such  a  name,  the  Chauci,  settled  between  the  Weser  and 
the  Elbe. 

In  the  Middlesex  settlement  the  old  name  for  the  people 
who  lived  around  Harrow  was  '  Gumeninga  hergae.'  This 
word  gumeninga  can  be  traced  through  the  Anglo-Saxon 
to  the  Gothic  word  guma,  denoting  a  man,  and  thus 
appears  to  have  come  into  the  Old  English  language  from 
the  Goths.  The  words,  gumeninga  hergae  denote  the 
children  or  descendants  of  the  men  of  Harrow,  and  occur 
in  a  charter  of  Off  a  dated  767.3  This  is  important,  as 
it  points  to  an  old  settlement  of  people  of  Gothic  extrac- 

1  Cart.  Sax.,  i.  1 16,  1 17. 

2  Adam    Bremen,    ii.    59,    quoted     by     Kemble,    '  Saxons 
England,'  ii.  120.  3  Cart.  Sax.,  i.  284. 

The  Settlement  around  London.  261 

tion  around  Harrow,  possibly  a  migration  6f  some  of  the 
men  of  Kent,  and  we  find  close  to  Harrow  a  place  still 
called  Kenton. 

Harrow  was  a  great  domain  that  belonged  to  the  See 
of  Canterbury  from  a  very  early  date.  The  Archbishop's 
lands,  apart  from  the  monastic  at  Canterbury,  were 
only  separated  in  the  time  of  Lanfranc,1  just  before  the 
Norman  Survey,  and  Domesday  Book  tells  us  that 
Harrow  was  held  by  the  Archbishop.  It  was  a  great 
estate,  and  possessed  privileges  which  placed  it  outside 
the  jurisdiction  of  the  county.  What  we  are  concerned 
with  is  the  probability  of  the  district  around  Harrow 
having  been  settled  by  Kentish  people  of  Gothic  extrac- 
tion. We  cannot  trace  the  custom  of  partible  inheritance, 
such  as  prevails  in  Kent,  as  having  survived  at  Harrow, 
but  we  can  point  to  a  time  when  the  Archbishop  was 
permitted  to  change  his  estates,  or  some  of  them,  from 
gavelkind  tenure  into  knight's  fees.  This  was  in  the 
reign  of  John,  when  a  license  was  granted  to  Hubert, 
Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  to  that  effect.2  The  non- 
survival  of  the  custom  of  partible  inheritance  on  the 
ancient  estates  of  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury  in 
Middlesex,  that  were  apparently  settled  by  Kentish  or 
Gothic  people,  can  thus  be  accounted  for.  The  settlement 
around  Harrow  was  probably  an  early  one,  before  the 
invaders  had  become  Christian  ;  for  the  most  ancient  name 
of  the  place — Hearge,  or  Hearh  (genitive,  Hearges) — 
denotes  a  heathen  temple,  and  we  cannot  think  that  after 
their  conversion  to  Christianity  any  settlers  would  have 
given  the  place  this  name.  Harrow  was  clearly  a  sacred 
heathen  site,  and  there  was  probably  a  significance  in 
the  early  grant  of  this  estate  to  the  Archbishop,  and  in  the 
subsequent  erection  on  the  highest  site  in  Harrow  of  a 
church  by  the  Anglo-Saxon  prelate. 

The  other  estate  of  the  early  Archbishops  of  Canterbury 
in  Middlesex  was  Yeading,  or,  as  the  manor  was  called 

1  Elton,  C.  I.,  loc.  cit.,  p.  18. 

2  Lambarde,  W.,  '  Perambulation 'of  Kent.'     Ed.  1596,  p.  531. 

262  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

later  on,  Hayes.  It  is  first  mentioned  in  a  charter  of 
Ceadwalla  dated  678,  in  which  that  King  granted  Gedding 
and  Wudeton  to  Archbishop  Theodore.  As  Ceadwalla 
was  a  West  Saxon  King  who  had  succeeded  a  Mercian  as 
the  overlord,  this  was  probably,  a  confirmatory  grant. 
The  name  Gedding,  modified  in  spelling  to  Yeading,  still 
survives  in  the  parish  of  Hayes.  These  grants  of  lands  to 
monasteries  and  Bishops  by  the  early  Anglo-Saxon  Kings 
were  colonization  grants.  All  that  they  had  in  their 
power  to  give  was  the  land,  certain  services  from  the  people 
already  settled  on  the  land,  or  who  might  become  settled 
on  it,  and  the  fines  and  forfeitures  falling  to  the  lord  from 
the  administration  of  the  law. 

Kent,  of  all  the  Old  English  kingdoms,  had  probably  the 
least  room  for  the  expansion  of  its  people.  As  they  in- 
creased in  number,  they  were  necessarily  obliged  to  seek 
new  homes  and  migrate.  We  can  hardly  imagine  any 
more  likely  circumstance  in  relation  to  the  settlement  of 
Middlesex  than  that  some  of  the  surplus  population  on 
the  Archbishop's  land  in  Kent  should  have  been  allowed 
to  settle  on  his  lands  in  Middlesex,  to  the  advantage  of 
both  the  settlers  and  their  lord.  In  considering  this  prob- 
ability, we  should  also  remember  the  clause  in  the  laws 
of  Wihtrsed,  drawn  up  about  685,  which  refers  to  the 
Kentish  freedman,  his  heritage,  wergeld,  etc.,  not  only 
in  Kent,  but  elsewhere,  the  words  used  being,  '  Be  he 
over  the  march,  wherever  he  may  be.'  It  is  quite  clear 
from  these  words  that  some  of  them  had  gone  over  the 
march  at  that  early  time. 

A  considerable  proportion  of  the  people  who  settled  in 
Middlesex  appear  to  have  come  from  Kent,  and  to  have 
retained  privileges  which  their  ancestors  had  also  pos- 
sessed. This  is  shown  as  probable  by  the  Domesday 
records  concerning  the  cottars.  They  were  the  labouring 
class  of  manorial  tenants,  but  had  land  of  their  own,  and 
had  also  more  freedom  as  small  tenants  than  those  called 
borderers  in  many  other  counties.  Cottars  are  only  men- 
tioned in  Domesday  Book  in  considerable  numbers 

The  Settlement  around  London.  263 

Kent,  Sussex,  Surrey,  Middlesex,  Berkshire,  Wiltshire, 
Dorset,  Somerset,  Herefordshire,  and  Cambridgeshire.1 
We  can  trace  them  from  Kent  up  the  Thames  valley. 
Whatever  the  privilege  of  the  cottar  may  have  been  (and 
it  is  generally  agreed  that  he  had  a  cottage  and  a  few  acres 
of  land,  which  he  cultivated  himself  when  not  working 
for  his  lord),  it  is  certain  that  the  man  in  this  position, 
by  whatever  name  he  was  called,  was  more  free  in  Kent 
than  in  any  other  county,  and  probably  better  off  in 
other  respects.  It  is  of  interest,  therefore,  to  trace  the 
existence  of  the  cottar  in  other  counties  into  which  Kentish 
people  may  have  migrated,  or  people  of  the  same  races 
as  those  from  which  the  Kentish  people  were  descended 
may  have  settled.  These  were  mainly  the  freedom-loving 
Frisians  and  Goths,  collectively  called  Jutes.  The  cottar 
was  a  freeman  subject  to  certain  manorial  customs.  He 
paid  his  hearth  penny — i.e.,  his  Rome  scot  or  Peter's 
pence — on  Holy  Thursday,  as  every  freeman  did  ;  he 
worked  for  the  lord  one  day  in  the  week  and  three  days 
in  harvest  time,  and  he  had  five  acres  more  or  less.2  This 
class  of  manorial  tenants  was  relatively  large  in  Middlesex 
and  Surrey  at  the  time  of  the  Domesday  Survey.  If  they 
existed  in  Essex,  they  are  not  mentioned,  and  this  cir- 
cumstance alone  points  to  Kent  rather  than  to  Essex  as 
the  State  from  which  colonists  settled  in  Middlesex — 
i.e.,  rather  to  Frisians  and  Goths  than  the  so-called  Saxons 
of  Essex.  The  cottars  of  Middlesex  lived  at  Fulham, 
St.  Pancras  or  Kentish  Town,  Islington,  Drayton,  Staines, 
Hanwell,  Harmondsworth,  Sunbury,  Greenford,  Shepper- 
ton,  Enfield,  Tottenham,  and  other  places.  These 
Middlesex  cottars,  like  the  Middlesex  villeins,  the  next 
class  of  manorial  tenant  above  them,  were  more  important 
persons  and  more  free  in  their  holdings  than  villeins  and 
borderers  in  other  counties  usually  were.  This,  again, 
points  to  early  migrations  from  Kent,  and  to  the  influence 
of  the  great  city  on  the  country  round  it. 

1  Maitland,  F.  W.,  '  Domesday  Book  and  Beyond,'  p.  39. 

2  Ibid.,  327. 



AS  we  proceed  up  the  Thames  from  Middlesex,  we 
meet  with  evidence  of  settlements  by  people  of 
different  races.  This  is  apparent  in  the  eastern 
part  of  Berkshire  and  the  adjoining  part  of  Buckingham- 
shire. The  name  Windsor,  anciently  Wendlesore,1  is 
similar  to  that  of  Wendleswurthe,  and  can  scarcely 
have  been  derived  from  any  other  source  than  the 
settlement  of  a  Wend  and  his  family,  or  a  community 
of  these  people.  When  we  consider  that  there  are 
Wendish  place-names  in  the  south  of  Essex,  it  is  not 
surprising  to  find  them  higher  up  the  Thames.  Wendlesore 
and  Waendlescumb,  also  in  Berkshire,  are  examples. 
The  old  place-name  Wendlebury,  a  few  miles  north- 
east of  Oxford,  may  have  had  its  origin  in  the  settle- 
ment of  a  family  or  kindred  of  Wends.  Isaac  Taylor,  in 
reminding  us  of  the  statement  by  Zosimus  of  Vandals 
settled  in  Britain  by  the  Emperor  Probus,  mentions  this 
Wendlebury,  near  Bicester,  in  Oxfordshire,  as  a  place 
that  was  likely  to  have  been  a  Vandal  settlement.2  It 
may,  of  course,  have  got  its  name  from  an  early  settlement 
in  the  time  of  the  Roman  Empire,  or  a  later  one  in  the 
time  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  settlement,  such  as  that  of  the 
Rugians,  who  were  Wends,  and  whom  Bede  tells  us  were 

1  Codex  Dipl,,  No.  816. 

2  Taylor,  Isaac,  '  Words  and  Places,'  1873  ed.,  p.  180. 


Settlements  in  the   Thames   Valley.         265 

among  the  many  tribes  from  which  the  English  in  his 
time  had  their  origin. 

In  a  charter  assigning  the  boundaries  of  land  at 
Waltham,  near  Maidenhead,  given  to  Abingdon  Abbey 
the  name  '  Godan  pearruc  '  occurs.1  This  charter  is  dated 
940,  but  the  name  was  apparently  an  older  one,  and  occurs 
in  another  charter.  It  denotes  the  enclosure  of  Goda, 
and  Goda  denotes  a  Goth,  so  that  we  may  take  it  to  have 
been  derived  from  the  settlement  of  a  family  of  Goths. 

There  can  be  no  doubt  that  the  ancient  names  Goda 
and  Geat  denote  a  Goth  and  Jute,  and  if  we  note  the  old 
names  of  this  kind  as  we  proceed  up  the  Thames,  we  find 
Goddards  tything,  Reading ;  Godstow  and  Godefordes 
Eyt,  near  Oxford  ;2  Godeslave,  in  Oxon  ;3  '  terram  Gode,' 
the  name  of  land  belonging  to  the  church  at  Culham  ; 
Geatescumbe,  in  the  boundaries  of  the  land  of  the  Abbey 
of  Abingdon,  near  Oxford,5  and  others. 

These  names  suggest  that  there  was  a  migration  into 
the  Thames  valley  of  people  called  by  the  race-names  of 
the  Goths,  Geats,  or  Jutes,  from  Kent  up  the  river.  If 
we  similarly  trace  the  Kentish  name  itself  up  the  valley, 
we  meet  with  very  old  examples  of  it :  Kenton,  now 
Kempton,  in  Middlesex ;  Kentes,  in  East  Berkshire  ;6 
Kentswood,  near  Pangbourn  ;  and  Kentwines  treow,  at 
Shefford,  near  the  Thames  above  Oxford.7 

When  we  look  for  other  confirmatory  evidence  of  a 
Kentish  migration  up  the  Thames,  we  find  it  in  the 
Hengist  place-names  near  Oxford.  Hengist  is  a  name 
common  in  the  early  history  of  Frisians  as  well  as  Jutes, 
and  these  names  near  Oxford  may  have  been  given  them 
by  Frisians  or  Goths.  People  of  both  these  races  settled 
in  Kent,  and  it  was  apparently  from  Kent  that  the  people 

1  Chron.  MOD.    de   Abingdon,    edited    by  J.  Stevenson,  i.  98, 
and  i.  420. 

2  Wood,  A.  A.,  '  Antiquities  of  Oxford,'  edited  by  Clark,  i.  430. 

3  Domesday  Book,  i.  159. 

4  Chron.  Mon.  de  Abingdon,  edited  by  J.  Stevenson,  ii.  58. 

6  Codex  Dipl.,  No.  1171.  6  Cal.  Inq.,  p.  m.,  iv.  394. 

7  Codex  Dipl.,  No.  714. 

266  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

came  into  the  country  near  Oxford.  The  name  Hengistes- 
ege  is  mentioned  in  a  charter  of  Eadwy,1  and  refers  to 
Hinksey.  Hengesthescumb  also  occurs2  among  the 
boundaries  of  Scypford,  now  Shefford,  not  far  from 

At  Bray,  in  this  same  part  of  Berkshire,  and  at  Wycombe, 
in  Buckinghamshire,  not  far  from  it,  we  find  evidence  of 
settlements  of  some  Scandinavians  ;  for  the  ancient  custom 
survived  by  which  the  eldest  daughter  inherited  the  whole 
of  the  father's  estate  in  default  of  sons.3  This  identifies 
the  settlers  at  these  places,  whenever  they  may  have  come, 
as  Norwegians,  for  in  no  country  but  Norway,  where  the 
eldest  daughter  still  has  her  birthright,  can  the  custom, 
so  far  as  known,  be  traced. 

The  evidence  that  Norse  settlements  existed  in  this  part 
of  the  Thames  valley  is  confirmed  by  the  discoveries  in 
a  mound  at  Taplow  overlooking  the  river.  The  objects 
found  included  two  shield  bones ;  a  sword,  and  frag- 
ments of  others  ;  a  bronze  vessel ;  a  wooden  bucket  with 
bronze  hoops,  like  those  common  in  graves  in  Scandinavia ; 
two  pairs  of  glass  vessels,  green  in  tint,  and  similar  to  one 
found  with  a  burial  ship  in  Void  in  Norway ;  silver-gilt 
ornaments  for  drinking-horns  ;  a  green  glass  bead ;  and  a 
quantity  of  gold  thread  belonging  to  a  garment,  the 
triangular  form  of  the  pattern  still  remaining.4  These 
objects  have  been  recognised  as  apparently  belonging  to 
the  later  Iron  Age  of  Scandinavia.  The  name  Wycombe, 
in  a  charter  of  Offa  in  767,  is  written  Wicham,5  by  which 
it  was  known  as  late  as  the  thirteenth  century  ;  and  it  is 
well  known  that  the  prefix  wick-  in  place-names  is  oftei 
a  sign  of  a  Norse  settlement.  In  the  case  of  Wickai 
the  significance  of  the  name  is  confirmed  by  the  survival  oi 
the  Norse  custom.  At  this  place  there  appear  to  have  beei 

1  Codex  Dipl.,  No.  1216.  *  Ibid.,  No.  714. 

3  Elton,  C.  I., '  Law  of  Copyholds,'  134  ;  Hale,  W.  H., '  Domes 
day  of  St.  Paul's,'  Notes. 

4  du  Chaillu,  P.  B.,  '  The  Viking  Age,'  i.  318,  319. 

5  Cart.  Sax.,  i.  284. 

Settlements  in  the   Thames   Valley.         267 

settlers  of  two  races — viz.,  those  in  which  the  eldest 
daughter  took  the  whole  estate  in  the  absence  of  sons,  and 
those  who  held  land  called  '  molland,'  which  was  divided,1 
thus  pointing,  perhaps,  to  settlements  there  at  two  periods. 

At  Bray  the  original  custom,  which  was  probably  in- 
heritance by  the  eldest  daughter  in  default  of  sons, 
appears  to  have  been  modified  at  some  later  time.  In  the 
thirteenth  century  Bracton  tells  us  that  the  jurors  of  that 
place  say  the  custom  is  that  if  a  man  have  three  or  four 
daughters,  and  all  marry  out  of  the  tenement  of  the  father 
except  one,  she  who  remains  in  the  father's  house  succeeds 
to  all  his  land.2  This  is  clearly  only  a  modification  of  the 
custom  of  Norway. 

A  considerable  part  of  East  Berkshire,  stretching  from 
the  river  to  the  border  of  what  is  now  Surrey,  was  occupied 
in  the  seventh  century  by  people  known  as  the  Sunninges.3 
Their  name  is  mentioned  in  several  Saxon  charters — in 
the  words  Sunninga-wyl  broc,4  and  survives  in  that  of 
Sonning  on  the  river,  Sunninghill  and  Sunningdale  on  the 
border  of  Surrey.  Their  district  is  mentioned  as  '  the 
province  that  is  called  the  Sunninges,'  so  that  it  must  have 
comprised  a  considerable  area  of  country.  The  name  is 
an  interesting  one,  and  may  have  been  that  given  to 
these  settlers  by  their  neighbours  about  Wycombe  and 
Bray,  for  the  Sunninges  were  Southerners  to  the  people 
near  Wycombe  ;  but  there  is  no  evidence  to  show  of  what 
race  they  were.  In  this  district  there  was,  however,  a 
place  called  Swaefes  heale,  which  is  named  as  a  boundary 
of  the  land  at  Waltham  given  to  Abingdon  Abbey  in  940. 
As  mentioned  elsewhere,  Swsefas  is  a  Northern  name  de- 
noting the  Suevi,  which  is  used  as  an  equivalent  for 
Saxons.  Swaefes  heale,  therefore,  may  refer  to  a  boun- 
dary which  was  the  limit  of  the  settlement  of  a  Saxon, 
as  Godan  pearruc,  mentioned  in  the  same  charter,  was  that 

"  *  Cart.  Sax.,  i.  284 ;  Hale,  W.  H.,  '  Domesday  of  St.  Paul's,' 
p.  Ixxv. 

2  Bracton,  H.  de,  Note-book,  ed.  by  Maitland,  Case  988. 

3  Cart.  Sax.,  i.  56.  *  Codex  Dipl.,  208,  441,  1202,  etc. 

268  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

of  a  Goth.  If  this  interpretation  is  the  correct  one, 
Swaefes  heale  points  to  Saxons  settled  in  East  Berkshire, 
with  Scandians,  Wends,  and  Goths  as  their  neighbours. 

In  this  part  of  the  country  we  also  find  the  significant 
name  of  Cookham,  mentioned  in  an  Anglo-Saxon  charter  * 
as  Coccham,  in  Domesday  Book  as  Cocheham.  As 
already  pointed  out,  a  similar  name — Ceokan-ege — occurs 
in  an  early  charter  relating  to  Battersea.  There  are 
many  examples  which  show  that  the  sounds  g  and  k 
were  interchangeable  in  names  of  the  Anglo-Saxon 
period.  Higher  up  the  valley  we  find  similar  names — 
viz.,  Cuxham,  Coxwell,  and  others.  These  apparently 
have  a  common  source,  in  the  tribal  name  of  the 
Chaucians,  the  Frisian  tribe  near  the  mouth  of  the  Elbe. 
The  Chaucians,  as  previously  mentioned,  were  also  called 
Hocings,  and  both  forms  of  their  name  are  probably  met 
with  in  place-names  in  the  Thames  valley.  Hocheston, 
now  part  of  London,  is  the  Domesday  name  for  Hoxton, 
and  may  denote  the  settlement  of  a  Chaucian.  In  the 
eastern  part  of  Berkshire  we  find  separate  hundreds 
mentioned  in  the  Hundred  Rolls  for  Sonning,  Bray, 
Cogham  or  Cookham,  and  Windsor.  This  Cogham 
hundred  of  the  thirteenth  century  may  be  a  survival  of 
a  more  ancient  separate  local  administration,  as  the 
hundreds  of  Bray,  Sunninges,  and  Windsor  may  be,  of  the 
original  settlers  at  these  places.  Another  entry  under  the 
name  Cocheham  occurs  in  Domesday  Book  in  Burnham 
hundred  in  Buckinghamshire,  not  far  from  the  Berkshire 
place  of  this  name,  so  that  some  of  this  family  or  kindred 
appear  to  have  lived  on  both  sides  of  the  river. 

In  the  north  of  Berkshire  there  is  a  river  called  the  Ock, 
written  in  Anglo-Saxon  charters  in  the  inflected  forms 
Eoccen  and  Eoccene,  the  nominative  form  being  Eocce. 
Close  to  the  west  of  Oxford  there  was  a  ford  which  is 
called  Eoccen-ford  in  part  of  an  early  charter  of  Cead- 
walla  which  has  been  preserved  in  a  later  one.  There 
1  Cart.  Sax.,  i.  405. 

Settlements  in  the   Thames   Valley.          269 

was  also  land  or  a  place  close  to  this  ford  which  in  this 
charter  is  named  Eoccene,  and  centuries  later,  in  a  charter 
of  Eadwy,  is  called  Occene.     The  river  Ock  flows  into  the 
Thames  at  Abingdon,  but  the  Eoccene,  or  Occene,  men- 
tioned in  these  last-named  charters  was  certainly  close  to 
the  west  side  of  Oxford.     The  proof  of  this  is  seen  in  fol- 
lowing a  set  of  boundaries  of  land  given  to  Abingdon 
Abbey  by  Ceadwalla.     These  boundaries  are  passed  as  we 
proceed  up  the  river  from  Sandford  to  the  lower  or  old 
mouth  of  the  Cherwell,  up  that  river  a  short  distance, 
round  an  old  river  island,  down  the  other  side  of  it  again 
into  the  Thames,  then  up  the  river  again,  and  further  up 
the  east  side  of  a  triangular  or   forked   island   which 
still  exists  on  the  west  of  Oxford,  and  down  with  the 
stream  on  its  northern  side  into  the  main  stream  of  the 
Thames  again,  and  so  on  again  up  the  river  past  Eoccene, 
the  later  Oseney,   to  Eoccen-ford.     As  there  was  only 
one  river  Cherwell,  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  these 
boundaries  lay  close  to  Oxford.     The  mouth  of  the  Cher- 
well  is  now  changed  by  a  new  cut,  but  we  can  still  stand  on 
the  west  bank  of  the  Thames  north  of  the  gasworks  at 
Oxford,  and  see  the  water  flowing  along  the  north  side 
of    the  forked   island   into    the    river,  as   described  in 
Ceadwalla' s  charter  at  the  end  of  the  seventh  century. 
This  subject  has  been  fully  discussed  by  the  present  writer1 
in  a  series  of  articles  on  the  origin  of  the  place-name 
Oxford.     Eoccen-ford  is  the  earliest  form  of  that  name. 
The  charter  of  Ceadwalla  in  which  it  occurs  contains  in- 
ternal evidence  of  its  authenticity,  and  that  Eoccen-ford 
was  on  the  west  side  of  Oxford  is  proved  independently  by 
the  later  charter  of  Eadwy.     Many  instances  have  been 
referred  to  in  which  streams  have  been  named,  both  in 
Germany  and  England,  after  people  settled  along  them. 
The  supposition  is  that  in  North  Berkshire  and  part  of 
Oxfordshire  there  was  a  colony  or  tribe  of  people  who  bore 
the  name  Eocce,  after  whom  the  Ock  River,  the  stream 
1   Notes  and  Queries,  Ninth  Series,  vols.  iii.,  iv.,  v.,  and  vi. 

270  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

called  the  Oke  at  Hook  Norton,  and  the  ford  at  Oxford, 
were  named.  The  question  which  concerns  us  is  this  : 
Is  there  any  evidence  to  be  gathered  from  the  old  place- 
names  around  Oxford  or  from  other  sources  of  the  existence 
of  people  who  may  be  identified  with  the  supposed  colony 
or  tribe  of  people  called  Eocce  ?  The  only  tribe  whose 
name  appears  possible  in  this  respect  is  the  Chaucians,  a 
nation  in  alliance  with  the  Frisians,  who  are  believed  to 
be  the  same  people  as  the  Hocings  mentioned  in  Beowulf,1 
in  which  an  account  is  given  of  Hnaef,  Prince  of  the 
Hocings,  and  Hengest  the  Jute,  vassals  of  the  Danish 
King  Healfdene,  who  were  sent  to  invade  the  Frisian  terri- 
tory at  that  time  governed  by  Fin,  son  of  Folcwalda,  and 
husband  of  Hildeburh,  the  daughter  of  Hoce.  Whatever 
the  name  Eoccen-ford,  the  earliest  name  for  Oxford,  may 
mean,  it  should  not  be  forgotten  that  in  the  old  Frisian 
land,  close  to  that  in  which  the  Chaucians  lived,  there 
was  a  place  called  Occenvorth.2 

Latham,  as  already  mentioned  in  Chapter  V.,  says  : 
'  In  Beowulf  we  read  of  the  Hocings.  Word  for  word,  this 
is  held  to  be  the  Chauci  by  all  or  most  who  have  written 
upon  the  subject.3  Hoeing  means,  not  so  much  a 
Chaucus  or  Chaucian  as  of  Chauch  blood.'  As  regards 
the  first  syllable  of  Cuxhaven  being  derived  from  Chauc 
or  Chauci,  Latham  says  this  has  been  suggested,  and,  he 
believes,  adopted.  As  regards  the  variation  in  Angle 
Saxon  spelling,  Sweet  quotes  ch  as  equivalent  to  c,  anc 
this  as  passing  into  h.4  Thorpe  quotes  the  Hetware  tril 
as  the  same  as  the  Chatuarii  mentioned  by  Strabo.£ 
Latham  tells  us  further  that  ch  in  Old  Frisian  is  equivalent 

1  Lappenberg,   J.   M.,    '  Hist,   of  England  under  the  Anglo- 
Saxon  Kings,'  i.  276,  note,  quoting  Zeuss. 

2  Annales  Egmundani :    Monumenta    Germaniae   Script., 

3  Latham,  R.  G.,  '  English  Language,'  5th  Ed.,  243. 

*  Sweet,  H.,  '  Dictionary  of  Anglo-Saxon,'  Preface,  xix. 
6  Thorpe,    B.,    '  The    Poems    of    Beowulf,'    Glossarial    Indej 
P.  3J9. 

Settlements  in  the   Thames   Valley.         271 

to  Mn  Anglo-Saxon.1  Maetzner  tells  us  that  the  aspirated 
ch  was  completely  foreign  to  Anglo-Saxon  before  the 
eleventh  century,2  and  he  quotes  the  words  did,  cece, 
ceafor,  ceosan,  for  the  later  English  words  child,  cheek, 
chafer,  and  choose,  as  examples.  These  authorities  will 
probably  be  held  to  be  sufficient  on  this  point.  In  dealing 
with  the  evidence  of  place-names  in  the  Upper  Thames 
valley  which  possibly  may  refer  to  the  Hocings  or 
Chaucians,  there  remains  to  be  considered  briefly  the  use 
of  the  aspirated  h,  or  its  omission.  The  Anglo-Saxon 
language  was  marked  by  the  use  of  the  aspirate,  but  there 
are  examples  which  show  its  omission.  Skeat  attributes 
the  modern  English  misuse  of  the  h  sound  to  French 
influence  after  the  Norman  Conquest,  the  French  h  being 
certainly  weaker  than  the  English,  and  hardly  sounded.3 
He  admits,  however,  that  a  few  sporadic  examples  may 
be  found  in  Anglo-Saxon.4  He  gives  as  an  example  ors  for 
hors  (horse),  found  in  an  unedited  Anglo-Saxon  manuscript. 
The  following  also  appear  to  be  examples  of  its  omission 
or  misuse  :  ymen,  ymn,  for  hymn  ;5  Ybernia  for  Hibernia  ;6 
Wulfhora  and  Wulfora7  and  Ockemere  for  Hokemere.8 
There  are  other  examples,  such  as  Elig  and  Helig  for  Ely. 
The  misuse  of  the  h  among  the  Anglo-Saxons  may  have 
been  due  partly  to  Wendish  influence  or  that  of  settlers 
from  other  Baltic  lands.  The  pastor  Mithof  tells  us  that 
a  peculiarity  of  the  Wends  in  his  day  was  that  whenever 
they  spoke  German  they  were  in  the  habit  of  putting 
an  h  before  words  in  which  it  did  not  exist,  and 
leaving  it  out  where  it  did.9  Morfill  says  that  the  same 

1  Latham,  R.  G.,  loc.  cit.,  p.  93. 

2  Maetzner,  E.,  '  English  Grammar,'  i.  151. 

3  Skeat,  W.  W.,  '  Principles  of  English  Etymology,'  359,  360. 

4  Notes  and  Queries,  Seventh  Series,- vi.  no. 

6  Bosworth,  J.,  Anglo-Saxon  and  English  Dictionary. 

6  Anglo-Saxon  Chronicle,  edited  by  Thorpe. 

7  Codex  Dipl.,  1093  and  1164. 

8  Cartulary  of  St.  Frideswide,  edited  by  Wigram,  i.,  p.  4. 

9  Morfill,  W.  R.,  '  The  Polabes,'  Transactions  Philolog.  Soc., 
1880-1881,  p.  85. 

272  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

confusion  is  found  in  Lithuania.1  The  misuse  of  the  letter 
and  its  sound  which  is  occasionally  met  with  may  there- 
fore have  had  its  origin  in  settlers  from  the  Baltic,  and  we 
have  seen  that  there  are  Wendish  place-names  not  far  from 
Oxford.  It  is  worth  noting  also,  in  reference  to  the  aspirate 
h,  that  an  old  Frisian  Chronicle  of  the  thirteenth  century 
has  Engist  for  Hengist.2  From  what  has  been  said,  it  will 
perhaps  be  admitted  that  the  Anglo-Saxon  aspirated  h 
may  not  always  have  been  sounded  by  all  the  Old  English 
people,  and  that  the  h  sound  was  used  as  an  equivalent 
of  that  represented  by  the  old  ch. 

We  may  now  go  back  to  consider  what  evidence  the 
place-names  in  the  Upper  Thames  valley  afford  of  a  pos- 
sible settlement  of  Chaucians  or  Hocings.  On  the  west 
of  Oxford,  near  Farringdon,  we  find  Coxwell,  the  Coches- 
welle  of  Domesday  Book.  South  of  Witney,  in  Standlake 
parish,  is  Cokethorpe,  the  Cocthrop  of  the  Hundred  Rolls, 
and  east  of  Oxford,  near  Watlington,  is  Cuxham,  the 
Anglo-Saxon  Cuceshamm.3  Coccetley  Croft  is  also  an 
old  name  near  Abingdon.4  Hochylle 5  is  a  name  in  the 
boundaries  of  Sandford-on-Thames,  mentioned  in  Saxon 
time,  and  Hocslew  is  another  mentioned  in  the  boundaries 
of  Witney.6  Hocan-edisce  was  the  name  of  a  place  in 
Berkshire  on  the  Thames  in  the  tenth  century.7  Hockes- 
well  is  mentioned  in  the  Hundred  Rolls,8  and  is  apparently 
the  same  place  as  that  now  called  Hawkswell,  in  the 
northern  suburbs  of  Oxford.  Hokemere  is  an  ancient  name 
at  Cowley,9  near  Oxford,  the  same,  apparently,  as  the 
Anglo-Saxon  name  Ockemere,10  which  occurs  in  an  early 
charter  relating  to  St.  Frideswide's  Abbey.  Hochenartone, 

1  Morfill,  W.  R.,  loc.  cit.,  p.  85. 

2  Bosworth,  J.,  '  Origin  of  the  English,  German,  and  Scandi- 
navian Languages,'  p.  52,  quoting  Spiegel. 

3  Codex  Dipl.,  Nos.  311,  691.  *  Hundred  Rolls,  ii.  19. 
5  Codex  Dipl.,  Nos.  793  and  800.        6  Ibid.,  No.  775. 

7  Cart.  Sax.,  iii.  560. 

8  Hundred  Rolls,  ii.  35. 

9  Wood,  A.,  '  Antiquities  of  Oxford,'  edited  by  Clark,  ii.  507. 
10  Cartulary  of  St.  Frideswide,  edited  by  Wigram,  i.,  p.  4. 

Settlements  in  the   Thames   Valley.          273 

which  had  flowing  from  it  the  stream  called  by  the  old 
name  Oke,  is  the  Domesday  name  for  Hook  Norton,  and  in 
one  of  the  manuscript  copies  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Chronicle, 
under  the  date  914,  it  is  written  Hocceneretune.  There 
was  a  place  in  Buckinghamshire  called  Hocsaga  in  Domes- 
day Book,  and  the  tribal  name  of  the  Chaucians  may 
have  survived  locally,  like  that  of  the  Gewissas,  until 
after  the  Norman  Conquest  ;  for  the  Hundred  Rolls 
relating  to  Oxfordshire  show  a  greater  number  of  inferior 
tenants  entered  under  the  names  Choch,  Cocus,  Coc,  and 
Hok  than  in  any  other  county. 

The  evidence  of  the  settlement  of  Kentish  people  or 
others  of  the  Frisian  or  Gothic  race  that  is  supplied  by 
the  relics  which  have  been  found  in  the  Upper  Thames 
valley  is  very  strong.  At  Iffley  and  at  Abingdon  brooches 
of  the  peculiar  Kentish  pattern  have  been  found,  and  are 
now  shown  in  the  Anglo-Saxon  collection  in  the  British 
Museum.  The  relics  discovered  at  Brighthampton  and 
Wittenham,  where  Anglo-Saxon  cemeteries  were  explored, 
show  a  strong  resemblance  to  those  found  by  Kemble  at 
Stade  in  North  Germany.1  The  ornamented  pattern  of 
a  mortuary  urn  containing  cremated  remains  found  at 
Brighthampton  closely  resembled  one  found  at  Stade, 
where  a  very  large  number  were  discovered,  all  apparently 
containing  cremated  remains.  Urns  containing  calcined 
human  bones  were  also  numerously  found  at  Wittenham, 
and  were  of  a  similar  pattern  to  those  found  at  Stade.2 
In  considering  these  resemblances,  we  must  remember  that 
Stade  is  near  the  lower  course  of  the  Elbe  in  the  middle 
of  the  country  anciently  inhabited  by  the  Chaucians. 

All  these  circumstances  which  indicate  a  settlement 
of  Chaucians  around  Oxford  among  other  Frisians,  Goths, 
and  Kentish  people,  cannot  be  mere  coincidences. 

There  remains  one  other  point — viz.,  the  probability 
of  some  connection  of  the  Chaucians  with  the  Jutes. 

1  Akerman,  J.  Y.,  Archtsologia,  vol.  xxxvii. 

2  Ibid.,  vol.  xxix. 


274  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

Holier1  identifies  the  language  of  the  Jutes  and  Kentish 
people  with  that  of  the  Chaucians.  There  is,  also,  mention 
of  a  people  named  the  Eucii  in  alliance  with  the  Saxons, 
and  that  they  settled  in  Kent.  These  may  be  a  tribe  of 
the  Chaucians,  for  Hengist  and  Horsa  are  said  to  have 
come  from  Engern,  which  at  that  time  extended  over 
the  land  of  the  old  Chaucians  on  the  Lower  Weser.2  The 
reference,  whether  traditional  or  otherwise,  to  a  tribe 
known  as  the  Eucii  cannot  but  be  of  interest  in  consider- 
ing the  evidence  which  points  to  the  existence  of  a  tribe 
of  Eocce  in  North  Berkshire,  of  which  some  of  the  surviving 
traces  may  be  the  names  of  the  river  Ock,  the  Oke  stream 
at  Hook  Norton,  and  that  of  Eoccenford,  the  earliest 
name  for  Oxford. 

The  personal  freedom  of  all  the  people  of  Kent  assists 
us  in  tracing  the  probable  colonization  of  parts  of  the 
Upper  Thames  valley  by  migrations  from  that  county. 
The  manorial  tenants  called  cottars,  who  are  mentioned 
in  Domesday  Book,  were  freemen  in  some  respects,  and, 
as  already  stated,  are  found  in  considerable  numbers  in 
Middlesex.  They  occur  still  more  frequently  in  parts 
of  Berkshire  near  the  river,  and  are  also  mentioned 
numerously  in  parts  of  Oxfordshire  in  the  Hundred 
Rolls.  The  Berkshire  cottars  enumerated  in  the  Domes- 
day Survey  lived  in  certain  hundreds  and  not  in  others. 
These  hundreds  were  Benes  or  Cookham  ;  Heslitesford, 
near  Wallingford ;  Blewbury,  adjoining  it  on  the  west ; 
Wantage  ;  and  Gamensfeld  or  Ganfield,  which  lay  be- 
tween the  Wantage  Hundred  and  the  Thames.  Five 
Berkshire  hundreds  close  to,  or  not  far  from,  the  river 
were  thus  specially  characterised  by  cottars.  That  they 
were  the  descendants  of  an  original  class  of  free  settlers 
is  probable  from  their  number  in  various  places.  Cholsey 
had  98  of  them,  and  Blewbury  65.  In  Heslitesford 
Hundred,  which  included  Cholsey,  there  were  altogether 

1  Molter,  H.,  'Das  Altenglische  Volksepos.' 

2  Meitzen,  A.,  '  Siedelung  und  Agrarwesen  der  Westgermanen 

11.  101. 

Settlements  in  the   Thames   Valley.         275 

144,  and  in  Blewbury  Hundred,  anciently  known  as 
Blitberie,  there  were  166.  They  thus  appear  to  have 
been  too  numerous  as  a  class  in  these  localities  for  their 
origin  to  be  explained  otherwise  than  as  probable  de- 
scendants of  original  free  settlers.  From  the  other 
evidence  already  stated,  the  migration  up  the  river  of 
colonists  from  Kent  can  scarcely  be  open  to  doubt,  and 
the  existence,  centuries  later,  of  these  numerous  cottars 
settled  collectively  in  parts  of  the  county  near  the  river 
leads  to  the  same  conclusion. 

One  of  the  significant  statements  in  Domesday  Book 
relating  to  Oxfordshire  is  this :  '  If  any  shall  kill 
another  in  his  own  court  or  house,  his  body  and  all 
his  substance  shall  be  in  the  King's  power,  except  his 
wife's  portion,  if  she  has  any.'  This  refers  to  a  privilege 
which  corresponds  to  that  of  the  Kentish  tenants  in 
gavelkind — viz.,  that  a  gavelkind  tenant's  land  was  not 
forfeited  if  he  should  be  convicted  of  felony.  The 
custom  in  Oxfordshire  was  not  general,  as  will  be  seen 
by  the  Domesday  extract.  If  the  widow  was  entitled 
to  dower,  her  share  of  the  husband's  estate  could  not  be 
forfeited,  but  there  were  some  people  in  Oxfordshire  at 
that  time  whose  widows  had  no  dower,  as  may  be  inferred 
from  the  words  '  if  she  has  any.'  This  Domesday  entry 
points  to  the  custom  having  been  an  old  one,  and  indi- 
cates the  probable  migration  of  people  up  the  Thames 
from  Kent,  where  the  widow  was  entitled  to  half  her 
husband's  estate  for  her  life,  and  from  the  manors  in 
Surrey  and  Middlesex  where,  by  the  custom  of  borough- 
English,  she  was  entitled  to  the  whole  for  her  life.  The 
Hundred  Rolls  for  Oxfordshire  confirm  the  probability 
of  such  migrations,  for  they  contain  some  entries  which 
show  that  widows  held  a  virgate  of  land  each  among 
other  virgate-holding  tenants,  and  others  showing  widows 
holding  only  half  a  virgate  * — i.e.,  half  the  customary 
holding.  The  Hundred  Rolls  also  show,  in  the  occur- 

1  Hundred  Rolls,  ii.  700,  717,  724,  739,  740,  742,  etc. 

18— 2 

276  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

rence  of  the  personal  name  Franklin  in  Oxfordshire, 
the  probability  of  the  migration  of  Kentish  freeholders 
called  Franklins  from  their  homes  in  Kent. 

Similarly,  in  the  Upper  Thames  valley  we  find  examples 
of  parcenary  tenure  or  partible  inheritance  that  resembled 
in  its  main  features  the  gavelkind  custom  of  Kent. 
Domesday  Book  tells  us  of  brothers  holding  land  jointly 
at  Burfield  in  Berkshire,  Hook  Norton  in  Oxfordshire, 
Hevaford  (Hatford)  in  North  Berkshire,  and  at  Cerney, 
near  Cirencester.  It  is  not  improbable,  also,  that  the 
many  instances  in  Berkshire  and  Oxfordshire  in  which 
manors  were  held  in  the  time  of  Edward  the  Confessor 
collectively  by  thanes  or  freemen  are  examples  of  the 
same  kind,  such  as  that  of  Brize  Norton,  which  was  held 
by  fourteen  thanes,  who  were  probably  of  the  same 
kindred.  These  instances,  which  are  numerous,  are 
apparently  examples  of  manors  that  were  taxed  as  a 
whole,  but  held  collectively,  as  in  Kent,  by  brothers, 
uncles,  and  other  kinsmen. 

The  custom  of  junior  inheritance  is  known  to  have 
prevailed  at  Binsey,1  near  Oxford ;  Garford,2  near 
Abingdon  ;  and  Crowmarsh,3  close  to  Wallingford.  These 
examples  are  probably  the  only  survivals  of  a  custom 
that  prevailed  in  a  larger  number  of  places  in  the  Anglo- 
Saxon  period,  but  which  were  changed  under  the  feudal 
system.  They  show,  in  any  case,  an  identity  with  the 
borough-English  custom  that  existed  on  so  many  manors 
around  London,  and  point  to  probable  migrations  from 
Sussex  or  Surrey. 

The  early  settlers  who  came  from  the  south  into  the 
valleys  of  the  Upper  Thames  and  of  its  tributary  streams, 
the  Evenlode,  Windrush,  and  others,  whose  sources  are 
in  East  Gloucestershire,  probably  travelled  along  the 
great  Roman  road  that  extended  from  Southampton 

1  Wood,  A.,  '  Antiquities  of  Oxford,'  edited  by  Clark,  i.  323. 

2  Bracton's  '  Note-book,'  edited  by  Maitland,  No.  779. 

3  Ibid.,  No.  1005. 

Settlements  in  the   Thames   Valley.         277 

Water  through  Winchester  to  Cirencester.  This  road 
can  be  followed  at  the  present  time  for  the  greater  part 
of  its  course,  so  that  there  can  be  no  doubt  whatever  of 
the  facilities  it  offered  for  a  migration  from  the  south 
coast.  At  Cirencester  it  joined  the  Fosse  Way  that 
connected  Bath  with  Lincoln.  By  proceeding  along  this 
latter  road  colonists  could  pass  to  north-east  Gloucester- 
shire, where  the  observations  of  Beddoe  upon  the  present 
ethnological  character  of  the  people  show  that  the  original 
settlers  were  probably  fair  people  of  the  so-called  Saxon 
type.1  The  ancient  place-names  along  the  border  of 
Oxfordshire  and  Gloucestershire  are  of  much  interest, 
and  point  to  settlers  of  various  tribes  and  races,  as  will 
be  discussed  in  a  subsequent  chapter.  From  Cirencester, 
also,  the  road  known  as  Akeman  Street  passed  eastward, 
through  the  middle  of  Oxfordshire,  and  thence  into 
Buckinghamshire  and  the  country  that  was  brought 
under  the  West  Saxon  rule  in  the  time  of  Ceawlin.  The 
east  and  south  of  Berkshire  were  connected  with  South- 
ampton Water  by  the  great  road  from  Winchester  through 
Silchester,  although  its  course  beyond  the  north  gate 
of  Silchester  cannot  now  be  followed.  A  way  of  less 
importance  also  passed  from  Hampshire  northwards 
through  Speen,  near  Newbury,  so  that  there  were  three 
roads  which  led  directly  into  the  Thames  valley  from 
the  south. 

The  available  evidence  relating  to  the  dialects  that 
have  survived  also  points  to  migrations  from  the  south- 
Eastern  counties  up  the  Thames.  The  researches  made 
on  English  dialects  by  Prince  Lucien  L.  Bonaparte2  and 
A.  J.  Ellis  agree  in  the  conclusion  that  the  dialect  of  the 
south-eastern  part  of  England  extends  up  the  Thames 
valley  into  Oxfordshire.3  The  dialect  of  east  Gloucester- 

1  Beddoe,  J.,   '  Races  in  Britain,'  257. 

2  Philological  Soc.  Transactions,  1875-1876,  p.  570. 

3  Ellis,  A.  J.,  '  Early  English  Pronunciation,'  Map  of  Dialect 

278  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

shire,  however,  has  been  classed  with  that  of  parts  of 
Hampshire  and  Dorset,  with  which  counties,  as  shown, 
it  was  in  direct  communication. 

As  regards  the  villages,  those  of  Oxfordshire  and 
Berkshire  for  the  most  part  consist  of  collected  home- 
steads. The  old  maps  of  both  counties,  made  before 
the  enclosures  of  the  great  areas  of  common  land,  show 
this  in  a  remarkable  way.  If,  therefore,  we  may  draw 
a  conclusion  from  the  resemblance  which  the  shape  of 
the  old  villages  of  Oxfordshire,  especially  those  in  the 
northern  half  of  the  county,  bear  to  those  in  Germany 
east  of  the  Weser  and  north  of  the  Elbe,  it  is  probable 
that  a  considerable  proportion  of  the  settlers  in  that 
county  came  from  these  Continental  areas. 

The  conclusion  in  regard  to  the  actual  settlement  which 
appears  to  be  most  probable  is  that  the  valley  of  the 
Upper  Thames  was  first  occupied  partly  by  a  migration 
of  Gewissas  from  the  South,  and  partly  by  Kentish 
people  or  Goths  and  Frisians,  with  some  Wends,  who 
came  up  the  river. 



ONE  of  the  most  interesting  circumstances  connected 
with  the  settlement  of  Essex  is  the  old  Kentish 
colony  which  was  formed   in  the  north-east  of 
the  county,  and  was  part  of  the  territory  belonging  to 
St.  Paul's  Cathedral. 

^Ethelbert,  King  of  Kent,  was  the  overlord  of  Essex 
in  the  beginning  of  the  seventh  century.  He  was  also 
the  founder  of  St.  Paul's,  and  endowed  it  and  the  Bishopric 
of  London  with  its  earliest  estates.  Three  centuries 
after  his  time  ^Ethelstan,  King  of  Wessex,  confirmed 
its  possessions  to  the  Church.  The  date  and  authen- 
ticity of  the  charter  in  which  .ZEthelstan  is  said  to  have 
done  this  is  perhaps  doubtful,  but  it  is  not  doubtful 
that  the  landed  estates  of  the  See  of  London  had  been 
held  beyond  the  memory  of  man  in  ^Ethelstan's  time. 
The  estate  of  this  church  in  the  north-east  of  Essex 
comprised  Walton-on-the-Naze  and  the  adjoining  parishes 
of  Kirby-le-Soken  and  Thorpe-le-Soken.  These  parishes 
were  known  as  the  '  Liberty  of  the  Soke '  for  many 
centuries,  and  comprised  several  later  manors  within 
them.  The  name  for  this  district  in  the  Anglo-Saxon 
period  was  ^Edulfness  or  ^Eduves-nasa. 

That  this  district  on  the  north-east  coast  of  Essex 
was  a  Kentish  colony  is  proved  by  its  customs,  which 
were  identical  with  the  gavelkind  customs  of  Kent  in 

the  following  particulars  : 


280  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

1.  The  lands  in  .Edulfness,  or  the  later  Liberty  of  the 
Soke,  were  divisible  among  sons,  and  failing  these,  among 
daughters,  as  in  Kent.     The  evidence  of  this  is  found 
in  the  record  known  as  the  '  Domesday  of  St.  Paul's,'  in 
which  a  list  of  tenants  is  given.     In  some  of  these  entries 
the  sons  are  named,  and  in  others  the  daughters,  as  holding 
their  father's  land  in  the  year  1222,  according  to  ancient 

2.  The  services  due  from  the  tenants  are  laid  on  the 
hides  and  not  on  the  actual  tenements.     This  was  the 
case  in  Kent.     Each  hide,  or,  as  in  Kent,  each  sulong — 
the  distinction  being  only  in  name — included  a  great 
number  of  plots.     Some  of  these  plots  were  very  small, 
and  in  many  instances  the  same  person  held  plots  in 
several  hides.     The  system  in  the  Essex  soke  was  in  this 
essential  particular  the  Kentish  system. 

3.  The  widows  of  tenants  had  their  dower  lands,  as  in 
Kent,  many  entries  of  such  lands  being  mentioned  in 
the  '  Domesday  of  St.  Paul's.' 

4.  The  tenants  paid  gafol,  or  small  money  rents,  as  in 

5.  They  could  pull  down  their  houses  or  lease  them,  as 
in  Kent,  without  their  lord's  license,  and  in  other  ways 
act  with  a  degree  of  freedom  unknown  on  other  manors 
in  Essex,  but  common  in  Kent. 

Within  this  ancient  soke  are  Horsey  Island  and  Peutie, 
or  Pewit,  Island,  identical  in  name  to  Horsey  and  Peutie, 
or  Pewit,  Islands  in  the  north  of  Portsmouth  Harbour, 
and  within  the  territory  of  the  Jutes  in  Hampshire,  who 
were  themselves  closely  connected  with  the  people  of  Kent. 

There  is  no  record  relating  to  the  settlement  of  East 
Anglia  and  Essex  similar  to  those  concerning  Kent, 
Sussex,  and  Wessex.  All  we  know  is  that  attacks  on 
this  part  of  England  were  many  and  often  by  people  fiom 
Germany,  who  settled  in  these  counties  and  in  Mercia.1 

1  Henry  of  Huntingdon,  '  History  of  the  English,'  edited  b] 
Arnold,  p.  48. 

Settlers  in  Essex  and  East  Anglia.         281 

The  East  Anglian  State  was  probably  form'ed  in  the  sixth 
century,  for  Bede  tells  us  of  its  King  Raedwald,  son  of 
Tytilus,  whose  father  was  Uffa,1  and  Rsedwald  is  certainly 

The  East  Anglian  people  in  the  ninth  century  do  not 
appear  to  have  been  regarded  as  different  in  designation 
from  those  of  Essex,  for  Asser,  in  his  '  Life  of  Alfred,'  says, 
under  the  year  866,  that  '  a  large  fleet  of  pagans  came  to 
Britain  and  wintered  in  the  kingdom  of  the  Eastern 
Saxons  which  is  called  in  Saxon  East  Anglia.'  The 
important  later  ethnological  circumstance  in  Norfolk  and 
Suffolk  is  the  large  settlement  of  Danes,  who  appear  to 
have  been,  according  to  Malmesbury,  the  ancestors  of 
the  free  tenants  or  sokemen  who  were  so  numerous  at 
the  time  of  the  Domesday  Survey.  Ethelweard,  in  his 
Chronicle,  tells  us  that  after  the  peace  between  Alfred 
and  Guthrum  the  Danes  went  into  East  Anglia  and 
reduced  all  the  inhabitants  of  .those  parts  to  subjection. 
Malmesbury  also  tells  us  that  they  held  East  Anglia  in 
subjection  during  their  later  invasions,  and  that  in  the 
early  part  of  the  eleventh  century — i.e.,  in  the  time  of 
Cnut — they  distributed  themselves  as  best  suited  their 
convenience  in  the  towns  or  in  the  country. 

Among  the  Essex  place-names  apparently  derived  from 
those  of  known  Germanic  tribes  is  Ongar,  which  appears 
to  have  come  from  the  Old  Saxon  Angarian  tribal  name. 
Its  old  forms  in  Domesday  Book  are  Angra  and  Angre. 
In  a  Saxon  charter 2  a  stream  called  Angrices-burne  is 
also  mentioned. 

The  name  Coggeshall  may  possibly  have  been  derived 
from  a  settler  of  the  Chaucian  tribe,  and  Amberden 
or  Amberdon  from  the  Old  Saxon  Ambrones.  In 
the  north-west  corner  of  the  county  we  find  old  places 
named  Radwinter  and  Quendon,  and  these  words,  Wintr 
and  Quen,  are  Old  Danish  or  Norrena  for  Wend  and  Fin. 

In  this  district,  also,  there  are  names  such  as  Wixhoe, 

1  Beda,  '  Hist.  Eccl.,'  ii.  15.  2  Codex  Dipl.,  No.  104. 

282  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

Duddenhoe,  Farnham,  Haverill,  Wicken,  and  others, 
pointing  to  Norrena-speaking  people.  There  are  several 
groups  of  names  in  Essex,  such  as  Roothings  and  Raines, 
which  have  been  derived  from  clan  settlements.  The 
eight  places  called  Roothing  are  all  near  each  other, 
and  Braintree,  anciently  Rayne  Magna,  was  a  centre  of 
the  settlement  of  people  called  by  the  clan-name  Rayne. 
Dengy,  also  called  Danesey,  near  the  coast,  points  to 
Danish  occupants. 

The  Old  English  place-names1  in  Essex  that  are 
suggestive  of  settlements  of  families  or  communities  of 
Wends  are  important.  They  are  Wenesuuic,  Wendena', 
Weninchou,  Wenesteda',  and  the  hundred  name  Wen- 
sistreu.  These  names  appear  to  have  been  chiefly  those 
of  localities  in  the  south  and  west  of  the  county,  and 
Wanstead,  the  ancient  Wenesteda',  survives.  There  is 
also  an  old  place  in  Essex  close  to  the  Thames  called 
Wenington.2  When  we  remember  the  evidence  of 
settlements  of  Wends,  whether  named  from  heads  ot 
families  or  communities,  which  exists  in  the  place-names 
and  surviving  customs  in  the  higher  parts  of  the  valley 
of  the  Thames,  there  can  be  little  doubt  that  these  old 
place-names  in  Esssex  point  to  people  of  the  same  race. 
The  name  Wendena  in  the  genitive  plural  appears  to 
denote  a  kindred  of  them.  The  modern  name  is  Wendens, 
south  of  Chesterford,  where  the  custom  of  borough- 
English  survived,  and  this  confirms  the  Wendish  origin 
of  the  name.  From  the  evidence  of  probable  Wendish 
settlements  in  Essex,  Sussex,  and  parts  of  Wessex,  it 
would  appear  that  the  Saxons  at  the  time  of  the  settle- 
ment of  these  parts  of  England  were  in  alliance  with  some 
tribe  or  tribes  of  Wends,  as  the  Continental  Saxons  were 
with  the  Wendish  Wiltzi  in  the  time  of  Charlemagne. 
These  Wend  names  in  Essex  and  elsewhere  in  England  can 
be  compared  with  similar  names  in  the  old  frontier  lands 

1  Domesday  Book,  Index  to  vol.  ii. 

2  Morant,  P.,  '  History  of  Essex,'  vol.  i.  85. 

Settlers  in  Essex  and  East  Anglia.         283 

in  the  East  of  Germany,  and  even  to  this'day  the  Fins 
call  Russia  Wennalaiset,  or  the  land  of  the  Wends.1 

There  are  in  Essex  other  traces  of  Wendish  settlements. 
Of  these,  Hauelingas,  which  is  the  Domesday  name  of 
places  in  two  hundreds,  is  remarkable,  in  view  of  the 
statement  of  King  Alfred  that  the  Wendish  tribe  known 
as  the  Wilte  or  Wiltzi  were  also  called  the  men  of 
Havel.2  It  is  direct  evidence  of  the  settlement  of  people 
called  by  the  tribal  name  Havel. 

The  Essex  Domesday  names  Ruuenhala  and  Ruenhale 
may  also  reasonably  be  connected  with  settlers  who  were 
Rugians.  These  names  are  similar  to  those  found 
relating  to  Rugians  in  old  Germanic  records,  and  with 
those  in  the  Saxon  charters  relating  to  Wiltshire,  Dorset, 
Somerset,  and  Hampshire. 

In  East  Anglia  there  is  sufficient  evidence  that  Frisians, 
including  Chaucians  and  Hunsings,  and  Wends,  including 
Wilte,  must  be  regarded  as  among  the  settlers.  These 
people  were  certainly  not  of  the  Anglian  race  as  known 
to  Charlemagne,  or  of  the  Angli  as  known  in  the  time  of 
Tacitus.  There  are  still  remaining  in  East  Anglia  traces 
of  Saxon  settlers.  The  earliest  record  we  have  of  Teutonic 
people  on  the  shores  of  the  eastern  counties  is  that  of 
Saxons.  The  name  was,  no  doubt,  sometimes  used  for 
Frisian,  and  Frisian  for  Saxon.  The  Frisian  ports  were 
Saxon  outlets  to  the  sea,  and  it  would  thus  be  likely  that 
some  Saxons  would  be  called  Frisians,  and  vice  versa. 
Domesday  Book  tells  us  of  Saxon  place-names — Sax- 
alinghaham  and  Sastorp  in  Norfolk,  Saxmondeham,  Sax- 
ham,  and  Saxteda  in  Suffolk,  some  of  which  remain  at 
the  present  time.  Among  the  early  Continental  Saxons 
was  the  pagus  or  tribe  known  as  the  Bucki,  of  whom 
records  exist  as  far  back  as  A.D.  775-776,3  and  in  Norfolk 
we  find  Bucchesteda,  Buccham,Bucham  Regis,  Buchestuna, 

1  Morfill,  W.  R.,  '  Slavonic  Literature,'  35. 

2  King  Alfred's  '  Orosius.' 

3  Monumenta  Germanise,  Script,  i.  155. 

284  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

Buchenham,  and  other  names  derived  from  settlers 
recorded  in  Domesday  Book. 

The  name  East  Anglia  which  was  applied  to  the 
country  of  the  North  folk  and  South  folk  is  misleading 
to  some  extent,  for  it  seems  to  imply  that  the  .settlers 
were  chiefly  Angles.  If  they  were  all  Angles  from  Danish 
and  Scandinavian  lands  we  might  expect  to  find  in  these 
counties  some  traces  of  their  runic  letters.  Runes  have 
been  found  in  the  Anglian  districts  north  and  south  of 
the  Humber.  They  have  not  been  found  in  Norfolk  or 
Suffolk  except  in  one  eleventh-century  inscription,  which 
is  of  much  later  date.  This  is  an  important  fact,  espe- 
cially when  considered  in  reference  to  the  absence  of  any 
fixed  runic  monument  or  inscription  in  Friesland,  Old 
Saxony,  or  any  part  of  Germany.  '  The  monuments 
might  have  been  destroyed  and  disappear,'  says  the 
greatest  writer  on  runic  monuments,  '  but  if  they  had 
ever  existed  in  German  or  Saxon  lands  they  would  have 
left  some  trace  behind  them.'1 

This  at  once  establishes  a  sharp  line  of  distinction 
between  the  Goths,  Swedes,  and  Norwegians  of  Scandi- 
navia, the  Danes,  Angles,  and  Goths  or  Jutes  of  England, 
on  the  one  hand,  and  the  Saxons,  Frisians,  Wends,  and 
other  nations  and  tribes  of  Germany  on  the  other  hand. 
As  the  latter  have  left  no  monuments  with  runic  inscrip- 
tions in  their  original  homes,  and  as  certain  parts  of 
England  which  are  supposed  to  have  been  mainly 
colonized  by  them  are  also  marked  by  the  absence  of  such 
monuments,  the  runic  inscriptions  on  fixed  objects  in 
England  help  to  prove  the  settlement  in  some  parts  of 
the  country  of  Goths  and  other  Scandinavians,  whether 
called  Anglians  or  Jutes,  or  by  their  later  names  of  Norse 
and  Danes.  Similarly,  the  absence  of  such  inscriptions 
appears  to  point  to  the  colonization  mainly  of  those  parts 
of  the  country  which  are  wanting  in  them  by  settlers 
of  other  races. 

1  Stephens,  G.,  '  The  Old  Northern  Runic  Monuments,'  i.,  p.  viii. 

Settlers  in  Essex  and  East  Anglia.         285 

The  absence  in  East  Anglia  of  fixed  runic  inscriptions, 
except  a  late  example  about  A.D.  1050  in  the  church  at 
Aldborough,1  therefore  suggests  the  inquiry  whether  East 
Anglia  was  not  originally  occupied  partly  by  settlers  of 
Frisian  and  German  origin  rather  than  exclusively  by 
colonists  of  the  Anglian  race.  It  is  evidence  also  that 
its  early  colonists  came  mainly  from  north  German 
lands  rather  than  from  the  original  homes  of  the  people 
known  as  Angles.  Viewed  in  this  light,  the  original 
settlement  of  the  eastern  counties  must  be  regarded  as 
more  Saxon  than  Anglian,  more  Frisian  than  Gothic  or 
Scandian.  As  regards  the  Goths,  Beddoe2  has,  however, 
pointed  out  that  the  name  of  Tytila  (A.D.  586),  son  of 
Uffa,  King  of  East  Anglia,  is  very  like  that  of  Totila, 
King  of  the  Ostrogoths. 

In  the  eastern  counties,  as  elsewhere,  the  place-names 
derived  from  people  are  probably  as  old  as  the  settlement. 
The  places  must  have  been  the  abodes  of  men  after  whom 
they  were  named,  and  where  they  were  designated  by 
tribal  names  it  probably  was  because  their  occupants 
were  of  these  tribes. 

When  we  think  how  few  must  have  been  the  original 
places  of  settlement  in  any  county  compared  with  the 
total  number  of  inhabited  places  at  the  present  time,  the 
survival  of  even  a  few  place-names  which  may  be  re- 
ferred to  clan  or  tribal  names  must  be  regarded  as  re- 
markable. Many  very  old  tribal  or  family  names  have, 
however,  survived,  of  which  only  a  few  of  each  type 
can  be  quoted,  such  as  Hunn  and  Finbo.  Hunn  is  a 
family  name  at  the  present  time  at  Old  Hunstanton  in 
Norfolk,  which  derived. its  name,  apparently,  from  one 
or  more  settlers  that  were  called  Hunn.  Finbo  also  sur- 
vives in  the  same  neighbourhood.  These  names  point  to 
the  settlement  in  this  part  of  England  of  some  individuals 
of  the  Hunsing  and  Fin  tribes. 

1  Stephens,  G.,  loc.  cit.,  i.  xxiii. 

2  Beddoe,  J.,  '  Races  of  Britain,'  p.  42. 

286  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

The  survival,  also,  here  and  there  in  these  counties  of 
customs  of  inheritance  that  are  different  from  the  common 
customs  point,  probably,  to  different  tribal  usages  of  a  very 
remote  origin  which  were  brought  by  early  tribal  settlers. 

Many  years  ago  some  remarkable  burial  urns  of  the 
Anglo-Saxon  age  were  found  at  Eye  in  Suffolk,  and  at 
Little  Wilbraham  in  Cambridgeshire.  Another  large 
collection  was  found  at  Stade  in  the  old  Chaucian  country 
of  North  Germany.  Kemble  says  of  these  collections  : 
'  Generally  the  urns  in  sepulchres  of  North  Europe  are 
not  of  a  complicated  character.  The  urns  found  at  Stade, 
as  well  as  those  from  Eye  and  Little  Wilbraham,  are,  how- 
ever, beaten  out  and  embossed,  the  raised  parts  most 
likely  pressed  out  with  the  thumb.'  '  The  urns  embossed 
like  those  at  Eye,  at  Wilbraham,  and  at  Stade  stand  by 
themselves.'1  This  is  a  remarkable  coincidence,  for  it 
is  near  Eye  that  we  find  such  old  place-names  as  Fressing- 
field  and  Hoxne,  names  that  are  probably  traces  of 
Frisians  and  Hocings — i.e.,  Chaucians.  Stade  is  in  the 
old  Chaucian  county,  and  Hoxne  is  written  in  Domes- 
day Book  in  the  genitive  plural  form  Hoxna. 

Among  many  places  which  have  old  tribal  names  in 
Norfolk,  we  find  both  Wendling  and  Winterton,  and 
these  not  improbably  refer  to  settlers  of  the  same  race, 
who  were  called  Wends  by  German  tribes,  such  as  the 
Frisians,  and  Winthr  by  the  Scandians.  The  names 
Wendling  and  Winterton,  which  were  probably  given  to 
these  places  by  the  neighbouring  settlers,  may,  perhaps, 
point  to  people  mainly  of  Frisian  descent  near  WTendling, 
and  to  people  mainly  of  Scandinavian  descent  near 
Winterton.  The  name  Somerton,  which  occurs  close  to 
Winterton  in  Norfolk,  is  probably  of  later  origin,  and 
arose  after  the  word  Wintr  had  ceased  to  be  understood 
as  a  race  name.  The  name  Wintretuna  or  Wintretona 
occurs  in  nine  entries  in  that  part  of  Domesday  Book 
which  relates  to  Norfolk. 

1    Kemble,  J.  M.,  Archaologia,  xxxvi.  273. 

Settlers  in  Essex  and  East  Anglia.         287 

King  Alfred,  in  his  '  Orosius,'  says  that  Wendland  was 
also  called  Syssele,  and  in  the  old  name  Syselond  in  the 
Norfolk  Hundred  of  Launditch  we  probably  have  a  trace 
of  it.  This  hundred,  named  Lauuendic  in  Domesday 
Book,  may  be  compared  in  name  with  Lauenberg,  a 
province  and  city  on  the  Elbe,  in  part  of  the  Wendish  area 
of  North-East  Germany.  The  river  Wensum  flowed  on 
the  east  of  the  hundred  of  Launditch,  and  among  the 
Anglo-Saxon  place-names  on  its  banks  are  Wenlinga, 
Lawingham,  Leccesham,  Goduic,  and  Elmenham. 

It  is  not  suggested  that  settlements  of  Wends  in  the 
eastern  counties,  or,  indeed,  in  any  part  of  England,  were 
relatively  numerous,  but  the  collective  evidence  con- 
cerning such  settlers  appears  to  be  great. 

Owing  to  the  later  Danish  settlement,  Lincolnshire 
and  Norfolk  have  an  abundance  of  names  of  Danish  origin. 
These  counties  and  the  East  Riding  are  marked  by  the 
-bys  and  -thorpes,  which  will  be  considered  under  Lincoln- 
shire. The  country  of  the  Danes  was  small,  and  the 
parts  of  England  they  colonized  were  large.  It  is  certain, 
therefore,  that  they  must  have  had  allies  who  came  in 
with  them.  There  are  historical  references  to  their 
alliances  or  political  connections  with  Swedes,  Esthonians, 
Livonians,  Kurlanders,  and  Wends.1  Some  of  these 
probably  settled  in  England.  In  the  country  to  which 
the  Wash  is  the  entrance  from  the  sea  there  are  old  place- 
names  still  surviving  which  appear  to  point  to  the 
Wilte,  one  of  the  Wendish  tribes.  In  Lincolnshire  we 
find  Wilingha,  Wilsthorp,  Wilgesbi ;  in  Cambridgeshire, 
Wandlebury  ;  in  Northamptonshire,  Wilaveston,  Wend- 
lingborough,  now  Wellingborough  ;  and  in  Huntingdon- 
shire, Wansford  and  Wintringham.  Frisians  are  denoted 
by  many  such  names  as  Friston  in  Lincolnshire,  Hunston 
or  Hunstanton  in  Norfolk,  while  Swaffham  in  Cambridge- 
shire and  in  Norfolk  may  reasonably  be  connected  with 
settlers  who  bore  names  derived  from  the  Swaefas  or 
1  Saxo  Grammaticus. 

288  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

Suevi,  a  tribe  of,  or  closely  connected  with,  the  Saxons. 
The  significant  old  place-name  Wynter-worda  occurs  in 
the  early  records  of  Ely,1  and  may  possibly  be  a  survival 
of  a  Norrena  or  Northern  Gothic  name  for  a  worth  that 
was  the  home  of  a  man  named  Winthr — i.e.,  a  Wend. 

Among  the  Domesday  places  mentioned  in  Suffolk 
are  Wellingaham,  Humbresfelda,  Scadena,  Scadenafella, 
and  Elga.  The  name  Wellingaham  denotes  the  home 
of  a  community  known  as  Wellings,  and  the  only  known 
people  of  this  name  are  the  WTeletabi  or  Wilte.  Hum- 
bresfelda apparently  refers  to  settlers  of  the  tribal 
Ambrones  or  Old  Saxons  from  the  country  along  the 
ancient  Ambra  or  Ems.  The  Scadena  name  may  point 
to  Scandians,  and  Elga  probably  to  a  clan  or  ga  different 
from  those  near  it.  Most  of  these  names  so  closely 
resemble  tribal  names  that  it  is  very  difficult  to  see  what 
their  origin  could  have  been  other  than  tribal.  The 
English  race  in  all  parts  of  the  country  appears  to  have 
resulted  from  the  blending  of  people  of  the  same  nations 
or  tribes,  but  in  varying  proportions.  In  the  eastern 
counties  the  later  Danes  formed  a  large  proportion,  and 
the  racial  characters  of  the  English  of  Norfolk  and 
Suffolk  must  have  been  modified  greatly  by  the  later 
Danish  admixture.  In  the  old  record  known  as  the 
'  Liber  de  Hyda '  we  find  what  is  apparently  a  reference  to 
this.  The  writer  says  that  Off  a  first  reigned  in  East 
Anglia,  the  people  of  which  '  were  called  Offingas,  but 
now  they  are  called  Fykeys.'2  A  fusion  of  race  had 
apparently  occurred. 

As  regards  old  customs  of  inheritance  in  the  eastern 
counties,  that  which  prevailed  in  Ipswich  was  the  par- 
tible custom  between  all  the  children,  male  and  female. 
The  old  book  called  '  The  Domus  Day  of  Gippeswich ' 
says  :  '  Alle  tenementz  in  the  foreseid'  toun  ben  partable 
as  weel  betwixen  heires  male,  as  betwixen  heyres  female, 

1  Inquisitio  Eliensis,  Index. 

2  Liber  de  Hyda,  edited  by  Edwards,  E.,  p.  10. 

Settlers  in  Essex  and  East  Anglia.         289 

and  zif  they  be  not  forclosed  by  zifte  or  be  devis  of  her 
antecessourys.'  '  And  zif  the  heritage  be  parted  betwixen 
hem  by  her  comoun  assent,  thanne  have  the  eldere  par- 
cener avauntage  to  chesyn  which  part  that  he  wil.'1 
This  custom  points  to  the  Frisians  or  Goths,  and  that 
Frisians  largely  settled  in  the  eastern  counties  there  can 
be  no  doubt.  The  general  custom  of  inheritance  among 
the  Frisians  was  the  partibility  of  the  property  equally 
among  all  the  children,  males  and  females.  It  will  be 
noted  that  the  burgesses  of  Ipswich  had  the  same  privi- 
leges as  those  of  London  and  the  people  of  Kent  in  regard 
to  devising  their  estates  or  conveying  them  to  others,  and 
the  evidence  is  strong  that  both  Kent  and  the  neighbour- 
hood of  London  was  partly  settled  by  Frisians. 

In  the  eastern  counties  there  are  a  considerable  number 
of  manors  in  which  some  form  of  the  custom  of  borough- 
English  or  junior  right  survived  as  the  customary  mode 
of  inheritance.  Corner,  who  investigated  this  subject, 
tells  us  that  he  found  it  on  eighty-four  manors  in  Suffolk.2 
He  also  states  that  there  were  fourteen  in  Essex  and 
twelve  in  Norfolk  known  to  him.3  Among  the  Norfolk 
manors  are  Kenninghall,  Gessinghall,  Herling  Thorp, 
Semere  Hall,  and  Thelton.  Among  the  Suffolk  manors 
are  Sibton  and  its  members,  Yoxford  and  its  members, 
Aldborough,  Hoxne,  Brockford  near  Woodbridge,  Fres- 
singfield,  Elmswell  (Framlingham),  Geslingham,  Paken- 
ham,  Middleton,  and  Mendlesham.  The  members  of 
the  Court  Leet  of  Clare  were  called  Headboroughs,  a 
similar  name  to  that  in  use  in  Sussex,  where  borough- 
English  largely  prevailed.  Among  the  Essex  manors 
are  Maiden,  Chesterfield,  South  Berstead,  Tony  Wal- 
thamstow,  Wivenhoe,  Wikes,  Wrabness,  and  Woodford. 

1  '  The  Black  Book  of  the  Admiralty,'  edited  by  Sir  T.  Twiss, 
ii.  121-123. 

2  Bury  and  West  Suffolk  Arch.  Inst.  Proceedings,  vol.  ii.,  pp.  227- 


3  Elton,  C.  I.,  '  Robinson  on  Gavelkind,'  quoting  Corner's  list. 


290  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

It  is  not  likely  that  this  custom  originated  on  these 
several  manors.  It  is  more  probable  that  it  was  intro- 
duced by  communities  of  settlers  who  brought  it  from 
the  Continent,  and  it  is  not  necessary  to  look  for  its 
origin  entirely  to  Wendish  tribes,  for  it  is  known  to 
exist  in  some  parts  of  Friesland,  whence  in  some  instances 
it  may  have  been  introduced  by  Frisian  tribal  settlers, 
and  as  their  descendants  formed  new  colonies  or  new 
rural  settlements,  the  custom  may  have  spread  with 
the  growth  of  the  population.  Although  the  custom  of 
junior  right,  by  which  the  youngest  son  in  the  partition 
of  the  father's  possessions  retained  the  homestead,  was 
followed  in  some  parts  of  Frisia,  the  prevailing  general 
custom  among  the  Frisians,  as  already  stated,  was  partible 
inheritance,  and  if  Norfolk  and  Suffolk  received  Frisian 
settlers,  as  there  is  reason  to  believe  they  did,  we  may 
look  for  survivals  of  that  custom  as  well  as  the  custom 
of  junior  succession.  We  find  that  customs  of  partible 
inheritance  in  these  counties  are  mentioned  by  Bracton 
in  the  early  law  cases.  He  quotes  cases  at  Altingeham, 
Fisinges,  and  Hecham  in  Norfolk,  and  at  Gipewico  or 
Ipswich,  Illegha,  Lillesheya,  and  Sproutona  in  Suffolk.1 

The  records  of  the  Court  of  King's  Bench,  Hiliary  Term, 
20  Edward  III.,  also  show  that  the  lands  within  the  Fee 
of  Pickering  were  partible  among  males.2  The  old  manor 
of  Clipsby  in  Norfolk  was  alleged  to  be  within  this  fee 
and  had  this  custom.  The  Marshall's  Fee  and  Billockby 
in  the  same  county  had  a  similar  custom,3  as  had  also  the 
lordship  called  Perting  Fee,  at  Saxham  in  Suffolk.4 

In  Cambridgeshire  there  are  two  names  of  hundreds 
mentioned  in  Domesday  Book  of  much  interest — viz., 
Wederlai  and  Flamindic.  The  first  so  much  resembles 
the  name  Wederas,5  which  was  that  of  the  Goths  of  the 

1  Bracton,  H.  de,  '  Note-book,'  edited  by  Maitland. 

2  Elton,  C.  I.,  loc.  cit.,  33.          3  Ibid.,  34-36.         *  Ibid.,  40. 
6  '  The  Scop,  or  Gleeman's  Tale,'  edited  by  B.  Thorpe,  Glc 

sarial  Index. 

Settlers  in  Essex  and  East  Anglia.         291 

Wedermearc  east  of  Lake  Wetter  in  anCient  Gothland, 
that  it  is  difficult  to  see  a  more  reasonable  origin  of  the 
name,  especially  in  a  county  which  affords  so  many  other 
traces  of  settlements  of  Northmen.  The  name  Flamindic, 
similarly,  appears  to  point  to  some  of  the  people  who 
were  among  the  earliest  to  be  known  as  Flemings.  The 
survival  of  the  old  name  Wendlebury  for  the  earthwork 
on  the  Gog  Magog  Hills  near  Cambridge  may  be  com- 
pared with  the  similar  old  name  Wendlebury  north- 
east of  Oxford,  and  with  Wendel  Hill  in  the  Elmet 
district  of  Yorkshire,  all  apparently  referring  to  settlers 
who  were  called  by  this  name.  Among  other  significant 
Cambridgeshire  place-names  is  Hinxton,  which  is  cer- 
tainly a  contraction  of  Hengesteston,  the  town  of  Hen- 
gest.  Leverington,  written  Liuerington  in  1285,  prob- 
ably represents  a  tribal  name,  as  also  do  Hockington,  the 
town  of  the  Hockings,  and  Haslingfield,  written  Haslinge- 
feld  in  Domesday  Book,  the  field  of  the  Haeslings.1 

The  chief  circumstances  we  can  discover  in  the  records 
of  Cambridgeshire  concerning  the  classes  of  tenants 
within  it  and  their  customs  point  more  clearly  to  the 
later  settlement  of  Danes  than  to  the  earlier  one  of 
Anglians  and  their  allies.  There  was  at  the  time  of 
Domesday  Survey  a  considerable  number  of  cottars  in 
this  county,  and  in  the  Hundred  Rolls,  in  which  the 
actual  holders  of  the  land  are  stated  in  detail,  a  large 
number  of  small  free  tenants  are  mentioned  by  name. 
The  presence  of  numerous  holders  of  crofts,  tofts,  or 
other  small  tenements  is  a  striking  character  of  the 
records  in  the  Hundred  Rolls  relating  to  this  county. 
The  very  large  number  of  small  holdings  of  various 
sizes — 12,  10,  7,  3,  2£,  2  acres,  also  i£  acres  and  i  acre 
— which  were  held  in  many  places  in  Cambridgeshire 
proves  that  the  customary  and  small  free  tenements 
were  divided  on  inheritance,  as  in  Gothland  and  in 

1  Skeat,  W.  W.,  Cambridge  Antiquarian  Soc.,  Oct.  Pub.,  xxxvi. 

19 — 2 

292  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

Another  feature  is  the  number  of  widows  holding  land, 
and  in  some  instances  it  is  expressly  stated  that  they 
hold  their  tenements  for  life,  so  that  it  must  have  been 
by  customary  right.  These  circumstances  point  to  small 
tenants  who  were  free  and,  as  mentioned  in  many  in- 
stances, paid  small  rents,  in  lieu  of  personal  services. 
On  some  manors  parceners  are  mentioned.  In  the  town 
of  Cambridge,  Domesday  Book  tells  us  of  lahmen,  which 
shows  that  officers  originally  Danish  survived  there. 
The  burgesses  also  had  the  power  of  devising  their 
tenements  by  will.  These  customs  indicate  that  in  the 
earlier  or  later  Scandinavian  or  Danish  settlements  a 
large  number  of  free  tenants  were  located  in  this  county, 
and  retained  their  personal  freedom  and  privileges.  In 
Cambridgeshire  the  frequency  of  the  lordless  village  type 
is  a  prominent  feature  of  the  Domesday  record,  as  pointed 
out  by  Maitland. 

As  regards  the  dialect  of  the  eastern  counties,  one  of 
the  most  interesting  circumstances  is  that  stated  by  Ellis, 
who  says  :  '  It  is  remarkable  that  in  the  American  colonies, 
afterwards  the  United  States,  a  distinctly  East  Anglian 
character  was  introduced.'1  There  was,  as  is  well  known, 
a  large  emigration  from  East  Anglia.  Ellis  also  says  : 
'  In  intonation,  the  "  drant  "  of  Norfolk  and  the  "  whine  " 
of  Suffolk  are  well  known,  but,  like  other  intonations,  are 
difficult  to  understand,  and  practically  impossible  to 
symbolize.'2  The  Suffolk  is  the  broader  and  more  drawl- 
ing intonation,  the  speaker's  voice  running  up  and  down 
half  an  octave  of  sharp  notes.  Whatever  may  be  the 
origin  of  these  intonations,  we  may  probably  conclude 
from  their  variations  that  there  were  some  tribal  differ- 
ences in  the  original  settlers  from  whom  the  people  of 
the  two  counties  are  descended. 

Mackintosh,  half  a  century  ago,  expressed  his  opinion 
that  'a  considerable  proportion  of  the  inhabitants  of 

1  Ellis,  A.  J., '  English  Dialects,  their  Sounds  and  Homes,'  p.  87. 

2  Ibid.,  p.  59. 

Settlers  in  Essex  and  East  Anglia.         293 

the  East  of  England  present  the  Dutch  physical  and 
mental  characteristics,  but  the  more  influential  inhabitants 
of  Norfolk  and  the  neighbourhood  are  Danes.'1  This  is 
what  might  be  expected  from-  a  settlement  of  ancient 
Frisians,  and  the  subsequent  domination  of  the  Danes  is 
perhaps  indicated  by  the  records  of  the  tenure  of  land  in 
Domesday  Book,  in  which  it  is  shown  that  there  was  in 
Norfolk  a  much  larger  proportion  of  freemen  or  sokemen 
than  in  any  other  part  of  England.  These  latter  were 
presumably  descendants  of  the  Danish  people,  who 
supplanted  or  partly  enslaved  the  descendants  of  the 
previous  settlers.  Beddoe  says :  '  A  remarkable  tall 
blonde  race  occupies  the  hundred  of  Flegg  in  the  north- 
east of  Norfolk,  where  the  local  names  are  Danish.2 
The  same  physical  characters  have  been  observed  around 
Debenham  in  Suffolk.  People  of  a  blonde  complexion 
form  the  prevailing  type  in  both  Norfolk  and  Suffolk.' 
'  In  Cambridgeshire  and  the  north-west  of  Essex,'  says 
Mackintosh,  '  there  would  appear  to  be  mainly  Saxons, 
but  in  the  east  and  south  of  Essex  the  mass  of  the  people 
show  very  few  signs  of  Teutonic  descent.'3  The  natural 
entrance  open  to  settlers  in  Cambridgeshire  and  north- 
west Essex  would  be  by  way  of  the  Wash  and  up  the 
valleys  of  the  Cam  and  its  tributaries.  The  survival 
of  various  tribal  names  among  the  place-names  of  those 
districts  appears  to  point  to  a  mixed  population  of  much 
the  same  tribes  as  those  indicated  by  the  names  of  Sussex 
and  Wessex,  among  which  Frisian,  Jutish,  or  Gothic, 
and  some  of  Wendish  origin,  can  certainly  be  traced.  In 
the  same  districts  customs  can  be  recognised  which 
certainly  prevailed  among  these  tribal  people. 

1  Mackintosh,  D.,  Transactions  of  the  Ethnological  Soc.,  i.  221. 

2  Beddoe,  J.,  loc.  cit.,  254. 

3  Mackintosh,  D.,  loc.  cit.,  i.  221. 



IT  is  to  Scandinavia  and  Denmark  mainly  that  we  must 
look  for  any  gleams  of  light  in  reference  to  the  suc- 
cessive settlements  of  tribal  people  in  Lincolnshire. 
This  county  was  the  country  of  the  Old  English  tribes 
known  as  the  Lindisware,  or  the  Southumbrians,the  Gainas 
and  the  Gyrwii,  or  Marshmen.  There  appears  to  have  been 
much  that  was  similar  in  the  settlement  of  Norfolk  and 
Lincolnshire.  There  is  a  similarity  in  their  coast,  with 
the  same  sand-dunes  and  gently-sloping  reaches.  As 
we  stand  on  the  cliff  at  Hunstanton  on  a  clear  day  we  see 
as  far  as  the  eye  can  reach  the  low  sand-hills  stretching 
away  towards  the  east,  and  across  the  Wash  on  the 
Lincolnshire  coast  we  see  them  lying  before  us  for  many 
miles  towards  the  north-east.  These  coasts  must  have 
appeared  to  the  ancient  Angles  and  Danes  very  homelike, 
and  similar  to  those  they  had  left  behind  them  in  parts 
of  Denmark.  The  country  was  open  to  them  by  the 
wide  estuary  of  the  Humber  on  the  north,  giving  access 
to  the  valley  of  the  Trent,  and  by  the  Wash,  past  Boston 
and  Lynn,  to  the  great  fens.  The  physical  features  of 
the  coast  must  have  been  attractive  to  a  people  who  had 
been  accustomed  to  similar  surroundings  in  their  old 
homes,  and  who  would  be  able  to  make  settlements  with 
environments  resembling  those  of  the  Danish  lands  they 
had  left.  Fen,  heath,  and  forest  made  up  a  large  pro- 


Tribal  People  in  Lincolnshire.  295 

portion  of  the  area  of  Lincolnshire  at  the  time  of  the 
coming  of  the  Angles  and  Danes.  The  great  freshwater 
swamp  formed  by  the  confluence  of  the  Don,  the  Went, 
the  Ouse,  and  the  Trent,  in  which  the  Isle  of  Axholm  rose 
like  a  beacon,  was  the  barrier  that  divided  it  from  North- 
umbria.1  Lincolnshire  was  the  early  Southumbria  of 
Anglo-Saxon  records,  and  is  mentioned  by  this  name 
in  702.2 

On  the  south  was  the  great  fen  that  reached  from  the 
coast  along  the  course  of  the  Witham  almost  as  far  as 
Lincoln,  also  westward  almost  to  Sleaford,  and  from  the 
north,  near  Horncastle,  southwards  into  Cambridge- 
shire. West  of  this  was  the  great  heath  between  Sleaford 
and  Lincoln,  on  which  no  ancient  settlement  could  be 
made  owing  to  the  poverty  of  the  soil,  and  on  which,  in 
later  centuries,  it  was  a  pious  work  to  erect  a  land  light- 
house to  guide  travellers  at  night  across  it.  Lincolnshire 
was  not  wanting  in  woodlands  and  forests,  a  necessity 
for  all  primitive  settlements.  That  of  Bruneswald 
covered  a  large  extent  of  country  south  of  Bourn,  and 
part  of  the  south  of  the  county  was  also  called  the  Forest 
of  Arundel  as  late  as  the  time  of  King  John.3 

In  our  endeavour  to  trace  the  character  of  its  early 
colonization,  careful  attention  must  be  given  to  the  fact 
that  Lincolnshire  is  pre-eminent  among  English  counties 
as  the  land  of  the  -bys  and  the  -thorpes.  These  -bys 
were  not  domains  of  lords  with  their  serfs,  but  were  the 
characteristic  communities,  in  their  origin  at  least,  of 
freemen  come  from  Northern  lands,  living  under  tribal 
conditions  similar  to  those  they  had  left  behind 
them.  The  -by  place-names  in  Lincolnshire  end  where 
the  old  fens  began.  The  settlement  of  this  county  is 
typical  of  settlements  of  people  of  the  Old  Anglian, 
Danish,  and  Northern  races.  Some  Saxons  and  Frisians 

1  Pearson,  C.,  '  Historical  Maps,',  p.  3. 

2  Freeman,  E.,  '  English  Towns  and  Districts,'  198. 

3  Saunders,  J.,  '  History  of  the  County  of  Lincoln,'  p.  281. 

296  Origin  of  the  Anglo  Saxon  Race. 

there  must  have  been  among  them,  as  the  old  place-names 
indicate,  but  the  villages  which  the  Danes  established 
were  clearly  part  of  a  State  or  States  in  which  the  pre- 
vailing type  of  settlement  was  Scandian  and  not  Ger- 
manic. Nothing  is  more  remarkable  in  considering  the 
evidence  which  the  Domesday  Book  affords  of  the  different 
classes  of  tenants  who  cultivated  the  land  on  which  they 
lived  than  the  far  greater  proportion  of  freemen  or  socmen 
settled  within  the  old  Dane-law,  as  compared  with  those 
parts  of  Mercia  to  the  west  of  it  or  with  Wessex.  The 
-ing  place-names  which  are  characteristic  of  the  Saxon 
State  are  not  conspicuous  in  Lincolnshire,  but  the  -bys 
and  -thorpes  abound.  These  -bys  apparently  mark  the 
Old  English  homes  of  men  among  whom  the  German 
system  of  village  life  was  not  the  prevailing  one,  and  on 
looking  for  their  analogies  in  Continental  lands,  we  must 
turn  to  Denmark  and  the  Scandian  peninsula.  As 
already  mentioned,  the  ancient  kingdom  of  the  Danes 
about  A.D.  880  included  the  provinces  of  Skane,  Halland, 
and  Blekinge.1  It  will  be  seen,  therefore,  that  emigrants 
from  these  provinces  who  in  the  ninth  century  would  be 
called  Danes  were  probably  also  called  by  their  tribal 

If  we  study  the  settlement  of  England  by  the  light  of 
the  very  scanty  historical  records  alone  which  have  come 
down  to  us,  without  reference  to  that  which  may  be 
derived  from  the  archaeology  and  anthropology  of  the 
districts  from  which  our  forefathers  came,  we  shall  not 
be  able  to  arrive  at  any  conclusion  more  satisfactory  than 
that  which  satisfied  the  chroniclers  who  copied  from 
Bede.  They  tell  us  noth'ing  of  runes  or  of  the  parts  of 
the  Continent  where  the  people  lived  who  wrote  in  these 
old  characters,  and  where  they  did  not,  which  we  now 
know  from  archaeological  inquiry;  nor  do  they  tell  us 
anything  of  the  different  shapes  of  the  skulls  or  the  com- 
plexion of  the  Anglo-Saxon  people  in  various  parts  of 
1  Otte,  E.  C.,  '  Denmark  and  Iceland,'  p.  69. 

Tribal  People  in  Lincolnshire.  297 

England,  but  we  now  know  from  anthropological  dis- 
coveries that  there  were  important  differences.  We 
gather  very  little  from  the  chroniclers  concerning  the 
Anglo-Saxon  courts  and  judicial  procedure,  but  we  can 
learn  much  about  these  from  the  codes  or  collections  of 
primitive  laws  which  have  been  preserved,  and  by  a 
comparison  of  them  with  those  that  have  come  down 
to  us  in  other  countries  from  which  some  of  the  Old 
English  came.  Similarly,  the  local  customs  which  have 
survived  on  many  manors,  and  in  some  cases  in  wide 
districts,  are  but  legal  curiosities  until  they  are  compared 
with  similar  systems  of  local  jurisprudence  elsewhere,  in 
the  Continental  countries  from  which  our  remote  fore- 
fathers came.  It  is  by  such  a  comparison  we  should 
study  the  Lincolnshire  -bys.  These  -by  place-names  are 
commonly  regarded  as  Danish,  but  they  are  also  Northern 
Gothic,  as  the  numerous  places-names  ending  in  -by  to 
this  day  in  Swedish  Gothland  prove.  This  shows  that 
some  of  these  places  may  have  got  their  names  from 
so-called  Anglians.  The  strongest  evidence  as  to  what 
these  -by  places  really  were  is  found  in  ancient  Gothland, 
the  old  country  from  which  we  derive  so  much  other 
information  that  throws  light  upon  the  origin  of  the 
Anglo-Saxon  race. 

The  oldest  legal  code  of  any  part  of  Sweden  which  has 
been  preserved  is  the  Westgota-lag,  and  this  contains  some 
references  to  the  administration  of  local  law  in  the  early 
time  among  the  Goths.  It  has  already  been  pointed  out 
that  Anglo-Saxon  legal  procedure  was  local,  that  the 
Hundred  Court  was  a  very  important  institution,  and  that 
the  right  of  proof  between  litigants,  as  to  which  of  them  it 
might  be  given,  was  a  most  important  advantage.  If  the 
disputant  to  whom  the  right  of  proof  legally  belonged 
could  bring  forward  the  required  number  of  oath-helpers, 
to  declare  on  oath  that  they  believed  in  his  oath  and  the 
justice  of  his  cause,  he  won  his  case.  This  right  of  proof 
is  mentioned  in  the  \\estgota-lag  under  the  name  of  the 

298  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

*  vita.'  This  old  Gothic  legal  code  contains  much  in- 
formation concerning  the  parties  to  disputes,  and  to 
which  of  them  by  ancient  custom,  apparently  from  time 
immemorial,  the  right  of  proof  belonged.  Thus,  in  a 
dispute  between  the  Bishop  and  a  bondi,  or  peasant  pro- 
prietor, the  right  of  proof  belonged  to  the  bondi.  He 
had  also  the  right  of  proof  in  any  dispute  between  himself 
and  the  King,  which  circumstances  may  perhaps  be  ex- 
plained by  the  fact  that  the  bondi  as  a  class  existed  before 
either  Bishop  or  King.1  The  value  of  this  ancient  local 
code  in  considering  the  original  nature  of  the  different 
kinds  of  English  villages  is  in  its  reference  to  the  by, 
the  primitive  village  or  rural  community  of  Gothland. 
Between  the  bondi  and  anyone  else,  the  bondi  had  the 
right  of  proof.  This  points  to  the  ancient  rights  of  the 
people,  to  an  old  democracy.  Disputes  might,  however, 
arise  between  communities.  Between  the  haeraed,  or 
hundred,  and  the  by,  the  hundred  had  the  right  of  proof  ; 
Between  the  by  and  the  thorp,  the  by  had  this  right, 
a  circumstance  which  leads  to  two  conclusions — viz.  : 
(i)  That  the  right  of  proof  given  to  the  by  was  assigned 
practically  to  a  number  of  freemen  acting  collectively  as 
a  community ;  and  (2)  that  the  community  of  the  by, 
having  the  right  of  proof  in  a  dispute  with  the  thorp, 
was  the  more  important,  and  probably  the  earlier  insti- 

All  this  is  both  interesting  and  important  in  consider- 
ing the  settlement  of  bys  and  thorpes  in  England,  and 
more  especially  in  Lincolnshire  and  the  East  Riding.     The 
people  of  Lincolnshire  came  from  Anglian,  Danish,  and 
Scandian  lands,  where  communities  of  this  kind  existed. 
They  established  settlements  which  they  called  bys  anc 
thorpes  on  English  soil,  after  the  types  of  rural  life  to  whicl 
they  had  been  accustomed  in  their  old  countries,  anc 
unless  we  are  to  believe  that  the  English  bys  and  thorpe; 

1   Jenks,    Edward,    '  The   Problem  of  the   Hundred,'   Englis) 
Hist.  Review,  xi.  512. 

Tribal  People  in  Lincolnshire.  299 

were  different  from  those  of  West  Gothland — and  of  this 
there  is  no  evidence — we  must  arrive  at  the  conclusion 
that  a  by  was  a  community,  and  a  thorpe  a  member  of  it 
or  an  offshoot  from  it  or  some  similar  community.  We 
must  remember  also  that  it  is  not  to  the  Saxon  laws  of 
Wessex,  or  even  to  the  laws  of  Kent,  that  we  should 
naturally  look  to  find  the  early  prototype  of  some  ancient 
institution  in  Lincolnshire,  but  to  laws  of  Danish  or 
Scandian  lands,  such  as  the  ancient  laws  of  West  Gothland, 
which,  happily,  have  been  preserved.  In  these  laws  the 
vita,  or  right  of  proof,  belonged  as  here  stated  : 

1.  Between  the  asserter  of  common  proprietorship  and 
the  asserter  of  individual  ownership,  to  the  former. 

2.  Between  the  King  and  the  Bishop,  the  Bishop. 

3.  Between  the  laender  (occupant  of  the  spare  lands  of 
the  by)  and  the  Bishop,  the  laender. 

4.  Between  the  bondi  (or  peasant  proprietor)  and  any- 
one else,  the  bondi. 

5.  Between  the  by  and  the  thorp,  the  by. 

6.  Between  the  alleged  heritor  and  the  alleged  pur- 
chaser, the  heritor. 

7.  Between  the  owner  of  the  bol  (homestead)  and  the 
owner  of  the  utskipt  (close),  the  owner  of  the  bol. 

8.  Between  the  land  (the  province)   and   the   hsersed 
(hundred),  the  land. 

9.  Between  the  hseraed  and  the  by,  the  haerced.1 

It  should  be  noted  also  in  reference  to  these  rights  to 
having  the  pi  oof  that  the  disputant  who  asserted  the 
common  proprietorship  of  anything  in  dispute  had  the 
right  of  proof  before  the  asserter  of  individual  ownership 
of  the  same.  The  rule  in  regard  to  communities,  large 
and  small,  was  in  the  following  order  :  (i)  The  province  ; 
(2)  the  hundred  ;  (3)  the  by  or  village  ;  (4)  the  thorp. 
In  Lincolnshire  there  were  all  these  organizations. 
Lindsey,  Holland,  and  Kesteven  were  its  provinces  ;  its 

1  '  The  Westgota-lag,'  quoted  by  Jenks,  English  Hist.  Review, 
xi.  512. 

3OO  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

hundreds  and  wapentakes  were  numerous,  and  its  bys 
and  thorpes  also  numerous  within  these  larger  areas.  In 
Domesday  Book  we  find  some  of  the  hundreds,  such  as 
Hazebi,  Alesbi,  Fenbi,  and  Walesbi,  named  after  some  of 
the  bys,  apparently  from  the  places  where  the  Hundred 
Courts  met.  We  find  also  in  the  Domesday  account  of 
Lincolnshire  instances  in  which  wapentakes  are  men- 
tioned, and  also  the  hundreds  contained  within  them. 

The  -bys  are  much  more  common  than  the  -thorpes  in 
the  wold  district — a  circumstance  which  appears  to  indi- 
cate that  the  open  parts  of  the  county  were  first  settled, 
the  thorpes  having  probably  had  their  origin  as  offshoots 
from  the  bys. 

Lincolnshire  contains  about  sixty  places  whose  names 
have  the  -by  termination,  and  are  of  Scandinavian 
origin,  but  it  also  contains  fifty-six  places  1  whose  names 
have  the  -ham  ending,  and  these  must  be  traced  to 
Anglian  and  Frisian  or  other  Germanic  settlers.  It  is 
probable  that  the  early  place-names  ending  in  -burh,  -berh, 
and  -berge  denoted  places  where  the  people  had  common 
rights  and  privileges  ;  i.e.,  the  places  were  folk  villages, 
more  or  less  free,  rather  than  estates  belonging  to  a  lord, 
and  the  inhabitants  more  or  less  subject  to  him.  A 
curious  survival  of  the  early  burh  has  apparently  come 
down  in  the  name  burley-men,  birla-men,  or  by-law-men.2 
The  burley-men  were  inhabitants  of  certain  manors  who 
were  appointed  annually,  with  the  object  of  settling 
disputes  among  the  inhabitants.  In  some  old  records 
the  name  is  spelt  bye-law-men,  and  they  existed  in  various 
places  in  Yorkshire  in  the  seventeenth  century.  The 
ancient  by-law  was  derived  from  the  old  common-law 
power  to  make  by-laws  that  belonged  to  parishes  anc 
manors.  The  difference  between  burly  and  by-law,  says 
Skeat,  '  is  merely  one  of  dialect.  In  Iceland  people  say 
beer,  in  Norway  bo,  in  Sweden  and  Denmark  by.  Thus, 

1  Peacock,  E.,  '  Scotter  and  its  Neighbourhood,'  p.  6. 

2  Smith,  L.  Toulmin,  Athentsum,  August  9,  1879,  p.  176. 

Tribal  People  in  Lincolnshire.  301 

burly-men  and  by-law-men  are  etymologically  identical.'1 
As  the  -by  place-names  in  the  Danish  districts  of  England 
must  be  regarded  by  their  parallelism  to  the  bys  of 
ancient  Gothland  to  have  been  folk  villages,  we  may 
reasonably  conclude  that  those  places  known  by  the 
equivalent  names  berk,  berge,  etc.,  had  similar  common 
privileges.  In  Lincolnshire,  at  the  time  of  the  Domesday 
Survey,  there  were  11,503  socmen  to  7,723  villeins.  This 
very  large  number  of  socmen  points  to  the  existence  of 
folk  villages  in  that  county  containing  numerous  freemen. 
As  regards  the  people  at  the  present  time,  the  broad  fact 
at  which  we  can  arrive  connected  with  the  settlement  of 
this  county  is  that  they  are  in  complexion  fairer  than 
those  of  Leicestershire  and  Northamptonshire. 

If  we  were  to  confine  our  attention  in  Lincolnshire  to 
the  historical  name  Angles,  that  of  the  people  by  whom 
the  county  is  usually  supposed  to  have  been  originally 
settled,  and  to  the  Danes,  by  whom  it  was  afterwards  over- 
run and  again  presumably  settled,  we  should  necessarily 
look  only  for  traces  of  these  two  nations  or  races.  If, 
however,  apart  from  these  names  and  the  history,  more 
or  less  traditional,  connected  with  their  invasions,  we 
proceed  on  inductive  lines,  and  consider  the  old  topo- 
graphical names  of  the  county,  we  shall  have  no  difficulty 
in  finding  about  a  dozen  groups  which  are  apparently 
tribal  or  national  names,  and  these  neither  Anglian  nor 
Danish.  It  is  very  likely,  indeed,  that  the  people  of 
various  tribes  or  nations  who  migrated  to  Lincolnshire 
came  under  the  general  names  of  Angles  in  the  former 
period  and  Danes  in  the  latter,  but  they  gave  their  tribal 
names  or  personal  names  derived  from  their  tribes,  in 
many  cases,  to  the  new  homes. they  formed.  Domesday 
Book  tells  us  of  a  group  of  three  names — Frisebi,  Frise- 
torp,  and  Fristune.  These  evidently  refer  to  Frisian 
settlements.  Among  the  Frisian  pagi,  or  tribes,  were  the 
Hunsings,  and  the  Domesday  account  of  Lincolnshire  tells 
1  Skeat,  W.  W.,  '  Etymological  Dictionary.' 

302  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

us  of  places  named  Hunbia,  Hundebi,  and  Hundintone. 
Among   the   Frisians   were    the   Chaucians,   also    called 
the  Hocings  ;  and  at  the  time  of  the  Norman  Survey 
we  find  there  were  places  in  Lincolnshire  called  Cocrin- 
ton,  Cocrintone,  Hoctun,  and  Hochtune,  probably  after 
individuals  who  bore  such  names.     Among  the  Frisians 
were  also  the  Brocmen,  or  East  Frisians  ;  and  among  the 
Domesday   names   of   Lincolnshire    are    Broxholm    and 
Brochelesbi,  as  if  apparently  named  after  people  of  this 
tribe.     That  there  were  brown  people  of  some  race  settled 
in  this  county  appears  probable  from  the  names  Brune, 
Brunebi,  Brunetorp,  Dunesbi,  Dunebi,  Dunestune,  and 
Dunetorp.     There  are  seven  entries  in  Domesday  Book  of 
places  called  Normanebi,  three  of  Normanesbi,  and  others 
of  Normaneston  and  Normenton.     These  must  refer  to 
Northmen,  and  not  necessarily  to  either  Angles  or  Danes. 
In  the  Lincolnshire  Domesday  record,  we  find  also  eight 
references  to  a  place  or  places  called  Osgotebi,  and  two  to 
Osgotesbi.     It  is  difficult  to  understand  to  what  people 
these  can  refer,  except  to  persons  or  families  so  called 
because  they  were  of  the  Eastern  Goths  from  that  part  of 
Sweden  east  of  Lake  Wetter.     Some  settlers  from  Skane, 
on  the  Scandinavian  mainland  of  old  Denmark,  are  prob- 
ably indicated   by  the  Domesday  names  Scantune  and 

The  Sweons  or  Swedes  are  perhaps  represented  by  the 
Domesday  names  Suauitone,  Suinhope,  Suinhamstede, 
and  Suinhastede.  In  the  Orkney  nomenclature,  Suin  or 
Swin  is  a  form  of  Suion  or  Sweon.  The  name  Svin 
Kunugr  for  one  of  the  Kings  usually  called  Swein  occurs 
in  early  northern  literature.1  People  of  Saxon  descent 
are  probably  represented  by  the  Domesday  names  Sassebi, 
Saxebi,  and  Scachetorp,  and  the  Swsefas  by  Svavintone  and 
Svavetone.  When  we  look  among  the  Domesday  names 
in  the  county  for  some  evidence  of  people  of  Wendish 

1  Memoires  de  la  Soc.  Royale  des  Antiq.  du  Nord,  1850-1860, 
p.  405. 

Tribal  People  in  Lincolnshire.  303 

descent,  we  find  Wintringeha  and  Wintrirrtone,  of  which 
there  are  four  instances  ;  and  there  are  also  four  entries 
of  places  called  Wilingeham.  The  tribal  Goths  are  appa- 
rently also  to  be  recognised  by  the  people  who  named  their 
settlements  in  Lincolnshire  after  the  city  of  Lund  in  the 
South  of  Sweden.  Of  these  Domesday  names,  there  are 
Lund,  Lund  alter,  Lundertorp,  and  Lundetorp.  These 
names  suggest,  at  any  rate,  that  the  Lincolnshire  people 
at  the  time  of  the  Norman  Survey  must  have  been  a  more 
mixed  race  than  is  usually  supposed.  Lund,  in  Sweden, 
is  a  city  of  great  traditions.  It  is  called  also  by  the  Latin 
name  of  Lundinem  Gothorum,  and  is  said  to  have  been 
so  great  as  to  have  had  200,000  inhabitants.  One  of  the 
traditions  relating  to  its  antiquity  is  that  when  Christ 
was  born  Skanor  and  Lund  were  already  in  harvest, 
meaning  that  they  were  already  prosperous.  Lund  was 
called  the  Metropolis  Danise,  and  was  the  place  of  residence 
and  coronation  of  many  Kings x  of  early  Denmark. 

We  must  bear  in  mind  the  words  of  King  Alfred  in 
describing  the  voyage  of  Othere  from  the  Cattegat  into 
the  Baltic,  when  he  had  Denmark  on  the  baecbord  (the 
left),  and  the  Danish  isles  and  Jutland  on  the  starbord 
(the  right).  '  In  these  lands  dwelt  the  Angles  ere  they  to 
the  land  came.'  The  Lund  people  from  Southern  Sweden 
may  have  been  genuine  Angles ;  the  Wends,  Wilte, 
Frisians,  Hunsings,  Brocmen,  Chaucians,  and  Saxons  of 
Lincolnshire  could  not  have  been,  strictly  speaking,  either 
Angles  or  Danes.  If  we  knew  the  many  alternative  names, 
ekenames  or  nicknames,  employed  by  our  remote  fore- 
fathers to  designate  people  of  various  races  and  tribes,  or 
to  distinguish  persons,  we  should  probably  be  able  to 
read  more  of  the  settlement  of  Lincolnshire  in  the  early 
names  of  its  -bys  and  -thorpes.  This  much  we  do  know, 
that  some  of  the  -bys,  -hams,  and  -tons  had  -thorpes  pre- 
sumably named  after  them  as  local  colonization  went  on. 
Thus  we  find  among  the  Domesday  names  Alesbi  and  Ale- 
1  du  Chaillu,  P.  B.,  '  Land  of  the  Midnight  Sun,'  ii.  463. 

304  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

torp,  Endreby  and  Endretorp,  Frisebi  and  Frisetorp, 
Saxebi  and  Scachetorp,  Bercheha  and  Berchetorp,  Barne- 
tone  and  Barnetorp,  Lund  and  Lundetorp. 

It  does  not  appear  unreasonable  to  adopt  the  view  that 
many  of  these  ancient  place-names  came  into  use  through 
settlements  of  families  of  people  who,  or  whose  heads, 
were  known  by  tribal  names.  Even  if  the  original  place- 
name  was  derived  in  most  cases  from  the  name  of  a  man, 
who  bore  some  such  name  as  Hun,  Osgod,  Suen,  Saxe, 
or  Broc,  it  is  difficult  to  see  how  during  the  settlement 
the  name  became  attached  to  the  place,  except  through 
being  that  of  a  man  so  called  by  his  neighbours  because 
he  was  of  the  tribe  denoted  by  this  name.  An  ancient 
name  for  the  Danish  islands  was  Withesland  and  Withes- 
leth,1  and  it  is  possible  that  such  Lincolnshire  names  as 
Withern  and  others  may  be  traced  to  this  source.  There 
is  certainly  documentary  evidence  of  the  existence  of  a 
tribe  in  England  in  the  early  Anglo-Saxon  period  known 
as  the  Witherigga.2  In  reference  to  the  -by  names,  there 
is  one  of  more  than  ordinary  significance  still  surviving  in 
Lincolnshire — viz.,  that  of  Bonby,  written  in  Domesday 
Book  Bondebi.  The  name  bondi  for  the  yeoman  or 
peasant  proprietor  still  survives  in  Norway  and  also  in 
Gothland,  where  his  ancient  legal  status  is  shown  in  the 
old  laws  of  West  Gothland,  already  mentioned.  Lincoln- 
shire contains  also  some  old  place-names  of  much  interest 
relating  to  fields,  such  as  the  old  name  Waringwang,3  wang 
being  an  old  Northern  name  for  field  or  plain.  The  name 
Waring  may  have  been  that  of  a  man  of  the  Waring  tribe. 

The  Trent  name,  whose  Wendish  significance  has 
already  been  stated,  found  in  Lincolnshire  close  to  Winter- 
ton  and  Winter ingham,  is  remarkable.  The  name  of  this 
river  probably  had  its  origin  in  its  lower  course.  The  name 
Wintringa-tun,  which  occurs  in  a  Saxon  charter,  is  of 

1  Latham,  R.  G.,  '  Germania  of  Tacitus,'  Epileg.  cxxv.,  quoting 
Chron.  Erici.  2  Cart.  Sax.,  edited  by  Birch,  i.  416. 

3  Streatfeild,  G.  S.,  '  Lincolnshire  and  the  Danes,'  152. 

Tribal  People  in  Lincolnshire.  305 

more  than  ordinary  interest.  It  is  similar  to  many  others, 
such  as  Billinga-tun  (the  town  of  the  Billings)  or  Wseringa- 
wic  (the  wic  of  the  Waerings).  Wintringatun  is  thus  a 
word  made  up  of  Wintringa,  gen.  plural  (of  the  Wintrings), 
and  tun,  the  town — i.e.,  the  settlement  of  the  sons  or 
descendants  of  Wintr  ;  and  Wintr  is  the  old  Danish  word 
for  Wends.  The  modern  name  is  Winterton,  but  the  old 
form  of  the  word  shows  that  it  was  derived  from  people. 
The  district  in  which  it  is  situated  was  subjected  to  great 
Scandinavian  influence,  and  the  old  Norrsena  dialects  were 
spoken  by  all  the  Scandinavian  races — Norse,  Swedes, 
Danes,  and  Goths1 — and  this  name  Winthr  for  Wends 
may  thus  have  come  down  to  us  from  its  use  by  Northern 
Goths,  as  well  as  by  Norse,  Swedes,  or  Danes.  As  already 
mentioned,  it  survives  in  the  form  of  Winter  in  several 
English  counties,  notably  Dorset  and  Wiltshire,  where  we 
know  Gewissas  or  the  confederate  tribes  settled  ;  and 
among  these  were  numerous  Northern  Goths  or  Jutes,  or 
others  of  northern  speech. 

In  Lincolnshire,  also,  the  custom  of  inheritance  by  the 
youngest  son  survives  at  Long  Bennington,  Thoresby, 
Kirton-in-Lindsey,  Keadby  in  the  Isle  of  Axholm,2  and 
other  places  close  to  Winterton — a  relic,  probably,  of  an 
old  Wendish  custom  brought  in  by  allies  of  this  race 
among  the  Danes  or  Angles. 

Lincolnshire  people  have  always  been  regarded  as  more 
distinctive  than  other  parts  of  England  in  regard  to  their 
Danish  descent.  All  the  people  who  in  ancient  time  were 
called  Danes  did  not,  however,  come  from  Denmark,  nor 
even  that  greater  Denmark  which  included  part  of 
Sweden.  There  were  so-called  Danes  in  the  Danish  hosts 
who  did  not  come  either  from  Scandinavia  or  Denmark  and 
its  islands,  as  the  evidence  already  brought  forward  shows. 

Bearing  these  facts  in  mind,  it  will  not  be  surprising  to 

1  Cleasby  and  Vigfusson,  '  Icelandic  Dictionary.' 

2  Peacock,   E.,    '  Glossary    of    Words  in  the  Wapentake  of 
Manley,'  p.  66. 


306  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

note  that,  according  to  Mackintosh's  ethnological  observa- 
tions in  Lincolnshire,  the  Danish  type  there  appears  to 
present  two  varieties  :  the  Dane  with  convex  profile  and 
prominent  mouth,  and  the  Dane  with  sunk  mouth  and  pro- 
minent chin.  Both  have  high  cheek-bones  and  a  sinking 
in  above  the  cheek-bones  at  the  sides  of  the  fore- 
head, long  face  and  high  nose,  ruddy  complexion,  and 
red  or  sandy  hair,  the  skull  being  rather  narrow  and 
elongated,  the  body  tall,  and  the  figure  rather  loosely 
made,  with  long  legs  and  arms.1  Beddoe  tells  us  that  in 
Lincolnshire,  as  far  as  the  borders  of  the  Fens,  the  Danish 
element  in  the  physical  appearance  of  the  people  is  par- 
ticularly strong.2 

The  Roman  road,  which  is  part  of  Ermine  Street, 
passing  through  the  length  of  the  county  from  Stamford 
in  the  south  to  Winteringham  on  the  Humber,  affords  evi- 
dence of  the  manner  in  which  part  of  that  county  was 
originally  settled,  and  we  can  scarcely  see  so  good  an 
example  in  any  other  part  of  England.  It  is  interesting 
to  observe  in  connection  with  this  ancient  road  that  there 
are  very  few  villages  actually  on  it,  but  that  there  are 
many  near  to  it  on  either  side.  When  the  Angles  and 
their  allies,  whoever  they  were,  first  came  to  Lincolnshire, 
this  road  was  in  existence.  The  roads  running  irregularly 
in  a  north  and  south  direction,  which  connect  the  chain  of 
villages  and  extend  more  or  less  parallel  to  this  old  Roman 
way,  are  evidently  of  a  later  date.  Their  irregularity 
shows  that  they  were  originally  made  for  local  communica- 
tions to  connect  villages  with  each  other,  but  in  time 
became  more  or  less  continuous.  Almost  all  these 
villages,  however,  have  branch  roads  running  east  or 
west  to  the  Roman  road,  which  thus  appears  to  have  been 
used  as  the  main  highway  by  the  original  settlers. 

1  Mackintosh,  D.,  Transactions  Ethnological  Society,  i.  220. 

2  Beddoe,  J.,  '  Races  in  Britain,'  252. 



THE  early  settlers  in  the  kingdom  of  Bernicia,  which 
included  the  country  from  the  Firth  of  Forth  to 
the  Tees,  were  known  as  Beornicas,  and  those  who 
occupied  Yorkshire  were  called  Deiri  or  Deras.  These 
latter,  like  the  Jutes  of  Kent,  adopted  the  name  of  the 
Celtic  tribe  they  displaced.  There  is  strong  evidence  that 
Frisians  settled  numerously  in  Northumbria  under  the 
Anglian  name,  and  evidence  also  that  among  the  Anglian 
and  Frisian  settlers  in  Yorkshire  there  were  Goths  and 
others  known  by  various  tribal  names.  That  some  of 
the  Angles  were  of  Gothic  or  Scandinavian  extraction  is 
proved  by  the  early  runic  inscriptions  on  fixed  stone 
monuments  still  existing  in  ancient  Northumbria.  That 
some  of  the  settlers  on  the  north-east  coasts  were  also 
known  as  Jutes  is  probable  from  early  references  to 

The  descendants  of  these  early  colonists  in  the  North 
of  England  and  the  South-East  of  Scotland  were,  in  the 
seventh  century,  brought  within  the  kingdom  of  North- 
umbria, which  in  subsequent  centuries  was  conquered 
and  recolonised  by  the  Danes,  Northmen,  and  their 
allies.  The  descendants  of  the  earlier  stock  who  survived 
these  wars  were  absorbed  among  the  later  colonists  of 
a  kindred  race,  and  the  Anglian  kingdom  became  merged 
into  an  Anglo-Danish  kingdom.  It  is,  consequently,  hard 

307  20 — 2 

308  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

to  find  survivals  distinctive  of  the  earlier  tribal  settlers 
in  the  northern  counties  apart  from  those  of  the  later 
Scandinavian  colonists  who  had  so  much  in  common  with 
them  in  ethnological  characteristics,  customs,  and  even 
in  language.  The  Old  English  people  of  the  northern 
counties  had,  at  the  close  of  the  Saxon  period,  well- 
marked  characters,  closely  approaching  to  the  Scandi- 
navian, owing  to  the  large  immigration  from  Norway, 
Denmark,  Sweden,  and  probably  also  from  the  other 
Baltic  coasts,  which  differentiated  them  from  the  people 
of  the  southern  and  midland  counties.  There  is  little 
historical  evidence  concerning  these  counties  to  assist 
us  in  an  inquiry  into  the  successive  immigrations,  except 
the  facts  that  Anglians  and  their  allies  came  first,  and 
that  they  were  followed  by  a  larger  immigration  of  Scan- 
dinavians and  their  allies. 

In  the  evidence  which  the  survival  of  old  customs  of 
inheritance  or  traces  of  them  may  supply,  the  existence 
of  an  early  system  of  primogeniture  is  perhaps  the  most 
important.  The  custom  of  the  eldest  son  having  some 
preference  or  birthright  existed  in  the  North  of  England 
in  the  time  of  Bede,  and  is  mentioned  by  him.1  As 
already  stated,  it  exists  still  in  Norway,  where  it  has  come 
down  in  its  essential  features  from  a  remote  antiquity. 
Two  ancient  laws  relating  to  the  succession  of  land  exist 
in  that  country,  so  old  that  their  origin  is  lost.  These 
are  the  asaedesret,  or  homestead  right,  and  the  odalsret, 
or  allodial  right.  The  asaedesret  is  the  right  of  the  eldest 
son  to  inherit  the  farm  after  his  father,  he,  however, 
being  obliged  to  pay  the  other  heirs  their  share  of  the 
estate,  the  value  of  which  is  given  by  the  father,  or  else 
it  is  estimated  below  its  valuation.  If  the  father  has 
left  no  son,  his  eldest  daughter  inherits.2  Odalsret,  as 
previously  mentioned,  is  the  right  when  a  farm  has  to  be 
sold  of  any  member  of  the  family  to  buy  it,  or  if  sold  to 

1  Beda,  '  Life  of  St.  Benedict,'  s.  xi. 

2  du_Chaillu,  P.  B.,  '  The  Land  of  the  Midnight  Sun,'  ii.  289. 

Settlers  in  Northumbria.  309 

a  stranger,  to  redeem  it  within  ten  years  ^.t  the  price  paid, 
with  the  additional  cost  of  any  improvements  that  may 
have  been  made.  We  are  only  concerned^at  present  in  the 
consideration  of  the  first  of  these  laws — the  right  of  the 
eldest  son  to  inherit  the  farm.  This  early  custom  of 
primogeniture  could  not  have  been  first  introduced  into 
the  North  of  England  by  Norwegian  settlers  of  the  ninth 
century,  for  as  it  is  mentioned  by  Bede,  who  died  in 
735,  it  is  clear  that  it  existed  there  before  they  came. 
That  the  north-eastern  counties  of  England  and  the 
Lowlands  of  Scotland  were  chiefly  occupied  by  Anglian 
tribes  is  generally  admitted.  The  Regiam  Majestatem, 
or  ancient  laws  of  Scotland,  tell  us  that  succession  by 
the  eldest  son  was  the  custom  in  the  case  of  knights,  but 
among  socmen  the  custom  was  to  divide  the  heritage 
among  all  the  sons,  if  from  ancient  time  it  had  been 
divided.  These  considerations  point  to  the  probability 
that  some  of  the  Anglian  tribes  must  have  introduced 
both  customs  into  ancient  Bernicia.  Northern  tribes, 
who  were  afterwards  called  Norwegians,  but  perhaps 
earlier  by  some  tribal  name,  may  have  brought  in  primo- 
geniture. In  considering  this  we  should  remember  that 
King  Alfred  tells  us  the  Angles  came  from  the  lands  on 
both  sides  of  the  passage  into  the  Baltic.  It  is  neces- 
sary to  remember  that  there  was  a  custom  of  rural 
primogeniture  existing  in  England  centuries  before  the 
feudal  system  prevailed.  Our  early  chroniclers  who  tell 
us  of  Angles  and  Saxons  say  little  of  their  customs,  but 
the  information  they  give  can  be  supplemented  by  the 
traces  of  the  customs  which  still  exist,  or  which  are 
known  to  have  existed,  in  parts  of  England  and  parts  of 
Northern  Europe  from  which  the  settlers  came.  The 
rural  primogeniture  such  as  survives  now  in  Norway  so 
clearly  resembles  the  old  rural  primogeniture  of  which 
traces  remain  in  the  North  of  England,  especially  in  that 
it  secures  the  succession  to  the  eldest  daughter  in  default 
of  sons,  that  it  cannot  reasonably  be  doubted  they  had  a 

310  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

common  origin  among  the  early  tribes  of  Norway  or 
adjacent  parts  of  Scandinavia.  It  is  unreasonable  to 
suppose  that  a  body  of  colonists,  whether  in  ancient  or 
modern  time,  would  settle  in  any  particular  locality  and 
afterwards  proceed  to  invent  their  customs.  We  know 
how  in  the  case  of  modern  colonies  the  settlers  take  their 
laws  and  customs  with  them.  So  it  must  have  been  in 
regard  to  the  customary  law  of  rural  primogeniture, 
with  a  reversion  to  the  eldest  daughter,  among  some  of 
the  early  Anglian  or  Scandian  colonists  in  the  North  of 
England.  What  the  tribal  names  of  these  people  were 
it  is  perhaps  now  impossible  to  discover. 

As  we  stand  on  one  of  the  higher  mountains  south  of 
Keswick,  a  great  part  of  the  ancient  lordship  of  Derwent- 
water  is  spread  out  before  us.  In  this  region,  which  still 
retains  so  many  characteristics  of  its  Norse  settlers, 
traces  are  found,  in  the  extensive  districts  of  Castlerigg 
and  Derwentwater,  of  this  Norwegian  custom  of  rural 
primogeniture,  under  which,  in  default  of  sons,  the  eldest 
daughter  succeeds  to  the  inheritance.1  The  same  rule 
survives,  or  did  within  recent  times,  in  other  lordships 
in  Cumberland,  Westmoreland,  the  Isle  of  Man,  at  Kirkby 
Lonsdale,  and  in  Weardale  in  the  county  of  Durham.  The 
evidence  of  Norwegian  settlements  on  the  north-western 
coasts  of  England  is  so  widely  spread  that  the  custom  no 
doubt  formerly  prevailed  on  many  manors  of  these  dis- 
tricts, where  its  traces  are  now  lost.  Something  almost 
identical  with  it  existed  in  the  city  of  Carlisle  under  the 
name  of  cullery  tenure.  The  cullery  tenants  of  this 
city  were  seised  of  certain  customary  estates  of  inherit- 
ance, consisting  of  houses  and  shops,  etc.,  which  they 
held  of  the  mayor,  aldermen,  and  citizens  as  the  lords 
of  the  city.  They  were  admitted  to  these  estates  and 
paid  a  small  annual  quit-rent.  On  the  death  of  a  cullery 
tenant,  in  the  absence  of  sons,  his  eldest  daughter  suc- 

1   Elton,  C.  I.,  '  Law  of  Copyholds,'  p.  134. 

Settlers  in  Northumbria.  311 

ceeded  him  as  sole  heiress  of  his  customary  tenement,1 
instead  of,  as  in  the  case  of  a  freehold,  all  his  daughters 
as  coheiresses.  The  surviving  names  of  places  around 
Carlisle  point  strongly  to  their  Norwegian  origin,  and 
there  can  be  no  doubt  that  this  curious  tenure  which  pre- 
vailed in  the  city  is  a  primitive  one,  which,  like  others  in 
Cumberland,  can  be  traced  to  Norway. 

In  considering  its  origin  and  survival,  we  must  remember 
that  customs  were  the  laws  of  our  Teutonic  forefathers. 
To  alter  a  custom  which  had  come  down  from  a  remote 
antiquity  was  so  great  an  innovation  that  it  may  reason- 
ably be  concluded  such  a  change  would  not  be  made 
except  under  the  pressing  needs  of  altered  conditions  of 
life.  Between  the  custom  of  rural  primogeniture  and 
those  of  equal  division  and  of  succession  by  the  youngest 
son  there  is  so  great  a  difference  that  they  must  have  had 
separate  origins  among  different  races  of  people.  In  the 
North  of  England,  as  elsewhere,  there  can  be  little  doubt 
that  in  many  cases  all  traces  of  these  early  customary 
laws,  which  at  one  time  prevailed  in  certain  districts  or 
manors,  have  now  been  lost.  We  can,  however,  trace 
the  partible  custom  as  having  existed  among  the  ancient 
socmen  of  South  Scotland,  and  rather  extensively  in  York- 
shire, and  in  Tynedale  and  Reedsdale  in  Northumberland,2 
while  that  of  junior  right  prevailed  at  Leeds,3  and  was  not, 
apparently,  unknown  in  ancient  Bernicia  over  the  border.4 

It  is  not  difficult  to  imagine  that  when  a  place  was 
occupied  at  an  early  time  by  people  of  more  than  one 
race  having  their  own  different  systems  of  inheritance, 
these  customs  would  in  the  course  of  time  become  blended 
as  the  population  became  mixed  in  descent.  This  may, 
perhaps,  have  been  the  origin  of  the  ancient  system  of 

1  Nanson,  W.,  Cumberland  and  Westmoreland  Antiquarian  and 
Archaol.  Soc.  Transactions,  vi.  305,  306. 

2  Gray,  W.,   '  Chorographia ;    A   Survey  of  Newcastle,    1649,' 
p.  26.  3  Elton,  C.  I.,  '  Robinson  on  Gavelkind,'  243. 

4  Regiam  Majestatem. 

3 1 2  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

inheritance  which  prevailed  at  Tynemouth.  It  was  an 
old  port  to  which  ships  of  Angles,  Goths,  Frisians,  and 
Northmen  would  all  be  likely  to  have  come,  and  not 
improbably  early  merchants  or  others  of  these  nations 
settled  there.  Those  who  were  Frisians  or  Goths,  having 
a  custom  of  partible  inheritance  in  their  own  lands,  would 
naturally  follow  the  same,  and  those  who  were  Northmen, 
having  some  form  of  primogeniture  and  succession  by 
the  eldest  daughter  in  their  land,  would  naturally  con- 
tinue to  follow  this  custom.  In  process  of  time  these 
customs,  which  may  be  supposed  to  have  prevailed  at 
Tynemonth,  apparently  became  blended,  and  that  of  the 
Goths  and  Frisians,  who,  perhaps,  were  the  more  numerous 
section  of  the  inhabitants,  became  the  more  prominent. 
The  custom  of  descent  in  Tynemouth  is,  or  was,  partible 
inheritance  among  sons  only ;  in  default  of  sons,  the 
eldest  daughter  came  into  the  inheritance  for  her  life, 
and  afterwards  the  next  heir  male  who  could  derive  his 
title  through  a  male.1  In  considering  this  curious  suc- 
cession it  is  necessary  also  to  remember  that  the  custom 
of  inheritance  among  the  Angles  was  marked  by  a  strong 
preference  for  the  male  line,  such  as  that  which  has  sur- 
vived at  Tynemouth  shows. 

In  addition  to  those  places  in  Yorkshire  where  the 
custom  of  partible  inheritance  has  survived  to  modern 
times,  as  at  Pickering,  Domesday  Book  supplies  us  with 
information  concerning  the  land  in  Holderness  and  other 
parts  of  the  county  which  was  held  in  parcenary  at  the 
time  of  the  Survey.  By  the  old  general  law  of  the  country 
land  could  only  be  held  in  parcenary  by  females,  but  by 
the  custom  of  gavelkind  males  might  hold  their  lands 
collectively  by  descent  to  all  the  males  equally.2  Whether 
in  Kent  or  elsewhere,  the  title  of  parceners  accrued  only 
by  descent.3  To  hold  land  in  parcenary  was,  therefore, 

1  Elton,  C.  I.,  '  Law  of  Copyholds,'  pp.  128,  134. 

2  Reeve's  '  History  of  English  Law,'  edited  by  Finlason,  ii.,  587. 

3  Ibid.,  ii.  589. 

Settlers  in  Northiimbria.  313 


an  ancient  custom,  and  that  land  was  held  by  this  custom 
in  many  parts  of  the  East  Riding  and  elsewhere  in  York- 
shire at  the  end  of  the  Saxon  period  is  a  circumstance 
which  assists  us  in  endeavouring  to  discover  traces  of 
ancient  settlers  of  different  races.  In  the  South  of 
England,  as  we  have  seen,  a  great  deal  of  the  land  in  the 
Isle  of  Wight  and  in  the  New  Forest  which  was  colonised 
by  Jutes  was  held  in  parcenary  at  the  time  of  the  Norman 
Survey,  and  Jutes  are  admitted  to  have  been  Goths  or 
Frisians,  or  both.  Among  the  Goths,  but  interspersed 
by  a  diversity  of  local  usages,  the  custom  under  which 
estates  were  administered  by  a  single  heir  for  all  the 
heirs  grew  up  and  spread  through  parts  of  Germany 
and  countries  where  Gothic  influence  prevailed.1 

The  survival  of  the  custom  in  England  points,  therefore, 
to  people  of  Gothic  or  Frisian  descent,  or  to  German  people 
of  some  other  tribe  or  nation.  It  may,  however,  have 
been  Danish,  for  among  Saxons  and  Danes  the  ordinary 
course  of  descent  was  to  all  the  sons.2  As,  therefore,  we 
can  trace  Norwegian  settlements  in  parts  of  Berkshire, 
Buckinghamshire,  Surrey,  and  Hertfordshire  in  the 
custom  of  succession  by  the  eldest  daughter  in  default  of 
sons,  so  by  this  parcenary  system  in  Yorkshire  we  can 
trace  people  of  Gothic  extraction  and  others  who  were 
Frisians  or  of  some  German  race.  In  addition  to  the 
cases  recorded  in  Domesday  Book  where  holdings  in 
parcenary  were  found  in  Yorkshire,  the  custom  of  partible 
inheritance,  more  or  less  resembling  gavelkind  in  Kent, 
prevailed  on  at  least  some  of  the  lands  which  formed  the 
fees  of  Richmond,  Pickering,  and  the  great  fee  of  the 
Archbishop  known  as  that  of  St.  Peter's,  York.3 

Pickering  is  mentioned  in  Domesday  Book  by  the 
ancient  clan-name  of  the  people  living  in  the  district 
round  it,  Picheringa.  On  this  great  manor  the  evidence 

1  Cecil,  Evelyn,  '  Primogeniture,'  p.  114. 

2  Ibid.,  27,  quoting  Hale. 

3  Elton,  C.  I.,  '  Robinson  on  Cavelkind,'  p.  157. 

314  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

of  Gothic  settlement  is  supported  by  another  custom 
which  also  existed  there,  that  of  freedom  from  distraint.1 
It  has  been  mentioned  that  this  was  incidental  to  gavel- 
kind  in  Kent.  The  custom  in  that  county,  as  already 
stated,  was  not  merely  partition  among  all  the  sons 
equally,  but  comprised  several  subsidiary  privileges  of 
great  interest.  Freedom  from  distress  for  debts  was  one, 
and  this  can  be  traced  to  the  laws  of  the  ancient  Goths.2 
By  the  records  of  the  Court  of  King's  Bench,  Hiliary  Term 
20  Edward  III.,  it  is  shown  that  the  lands  within  the  Fee 
of  Pickering  were  partible  among  the  males,3  and  Picker- 
ing also  had  freedom  from  distraint.  The  old  name  of 
Goathland,  anciently  written  Gothland,  still  survives 
on  the  north  of  Pickering  Moor,  and  was  perhaps  a  boun- 
dary name.  It  is  marked  Gothland  on  an  old  map  of 
Pickering  of  the  seventeenth  century,  published  in  the 
first  volume  of  the  North  Riding  Record  Society.  In  the 
case  of  Pickering  we  thus  have  three  circumstances 
pointing  to  a  settlement  of  Goths — viz.,  the  custom  of 
partible  inheritance,  freedom  from  the  general  law  of 
distress,  and  the  survival  of  the  name  Gothland.  Early 
records,  both  English  and  those  of  kindred  nations,  point 
to  a  time  when  distress  was  almost  the  universal  form  of 
civil  remedy.  The  laws  of  the  Visigoths,  however,  pro- 
hibited this  remedy,  and  in  Kent,  in  London,  and  in 
Pickering  the  people  enjoyed  by  custom  freedom  from 
it  in  the  recovery  of  debts  or  rents.  They  were  probably 
all  of  Gothic  descent  ;  and  here  reference  may  be  made 
to  what  has  been  said  of  the  -by  places  which  abound  in 
the  East  Riding.  These  are  Gothic  as  well  as  Danish,  and 
some  of  them  in  Yorkshire  may  have  been  derived  from 
settlers  who  were  Goths. 

The   earliest  of  all  the  settlements   in  the   northern 
counties,  if  we  may  trust  the  account  concerning  it,  was 

1  '  Honor  and  Forest  of  Pickering,'  vol.  iii. 

2  Maine,  Sir  H.,  '  Early  Institutions,'  269,  270. 

3  Elton,  C.  I.,  '  Robinson  on  Gavelkind,'  p.  33. 

Settlers  in  Northumbria.  315 

that  of  people  of  the  same  race  or  races  as  the  people  of 
Kent,  who  are  said  to  have  formed  settlements  on  the 
north-eastern  coast  under  their  Kings  Octa  and  Ebissa1 
in  the  fifth  century.  There  certainly  were  early  settle- 
ments made  by  the  Angles,  and  later  ones  by  the  Danes 
and  Norwegians.  That  of  the  Norse  in  the  north  of 
Cumberland  was  probably  one  of  the  latest,  for  the 
northern  parts  of  Cumberland  and  Westmoreland  were 
still  occupied  by  the  Celts,  while  their  southern  parts  and 
the  districts  of  Furness  and  Cartmel  had  passed  to  Teutonic 
settlers  of  some  kind,  using  the  word  Teutonic  in  its 
widest  sense  as  including  Scandinavians.  The  name 
Ulpha  in  the  valley  of  the  Duddon,  and  another  Ulpha 
in  Cartmel,  near  the  mouth  of  the  river  Kent,  appear  to 
be  of  Gothic  origin.  Ulph  is  a  Gothic  word,  and  appears 
in  the  name  of  Ulphilas,  the  Bishop  who  translated  the 
Gospels  into  Mceso  -  Gothic.  The  customs  of  Kendal 
also  point  to  Goths  among  its  early  settlers,  and  as  there 
were  Goths  in  Kent,  and  they  were  skilled  in  navigation, 
there  appears  nothing  improbable  in  a  Kentish  migra- 
tion, which  would  account  for  the  ancient  name  of  Kent- 
mere.  Kendal  is  the  name  of  the  most  extensive  parish 
in  Westmoreland,  comprising  twenty-four  townships  or 
constable  wicks,  among  which  are  Kentmere  and  Hel- 
sington.  This  name  Helsington  in  a  district  where  there 
is  other  evidence  of  the  settlement  of  Goths  may  be  con- 
sidered in  connection  with  the  Helsings,  the  name  of  the 
people  of  Helsingja-land  in  Sweden.  The  manorial 
tenants  of  Kendal  held  their  lands  by  military  obligation 
and  on  payment  of  certain  rents,  but,  like  the  ancient 
Visigoths,  they  were  not  liable  to  distraint  for  the  re- 
covery of  them.2  Partible  inheritance  cannot  be  proved 
to  have  been  the  custom  at  Kendal,  but  in  the  will  of 
Henri  Fissher  of  that  place,  dated  November  5,  1578, 
we  appear  to  have  a  trace  of  it.  He  says  :  '  Mye  evi- 

1  Nennius,  edited  by  Gunn,  W.,  p.  183,  notes. 

2  Ferguson,  R.  S.,  'History  of  Westmoreland,'  118-122. 

316  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

dences  to  be  safflie  kepte  under  twoo  locks  and  kyes  in 
my  studye  at  Helssington,  and  at  the  full  aige  of  my 
sonnes  to  be  divided  accordinge  to  their  rights.'1 

The  customs  relating  to  the  widow's  dower  that  pre- 
vailed in  South  Westmoreland  and  North  Lancashire  are 
varied.  In  the  Barony  of  Kendal  the  widow  of  a  cus- 
tomary tenant  was  entitled  to  the  whole  of  her  husband's 
customary  estate  during  widowhood.2  In  some  other 
parts  of  the  south  of  Westmoreland  she  received  half 
the  estate.  Similarly,  at  Much  Urswick,  Kirkby  Irleth, 
Lowick,3  and  Nevill  Hall  in  Furness,  the  widow  was 
entitled  to  half  the  estate  during  widowhood.  By  the 
old  common  law  of  the  country  she  was  entitled  to  only 
a  third  share,  and  at  Clitheroe  to  a  fourth,  as  was  the 
custom  among  the  ancient  Lombards.  The  Kendal 
dower  custom  is  the  same  as  existed  so  largely  in  Sussex 
and  on  manors  elsewhere,  as  in  the  vale  of  Taunton, 
where  junior  inheritance  prevailed.  The  half  dower 
custom  is  the  same  as  that  of  Kent,  and  points  to  settle- 
ments of  Goths  or  Jutes. 

The  north  of  Lancashire  and  south  of  Westmoreland 
were  included  in  the  West  Riding  at  the  time  of  the 
Domesday  Survey,  and  apparently  had  been  con- 
sidered a  part  of  the  kingdom  of  Deira,  or  Yorkshire, 
since  the  seventh  century.  In  685  '  the  land  called 
Cartmel  and  all  the  Britons  there  '  was  given  to  Cuthbert 
by  one  of  the  early  Kings,  from  which  record  it  may  be 
considered  certain  that  Celtic  people  survived  there 
among  the  early  Teutonic  settlers.  The  early  church 
dedications  to  St.  Wilfrid  at  Standish,  Preston,  and 
Ribchester,  and  to  St.  Cuthbert  at  Kirkby  Irleth,  were 
received  from  their  Yorkshire  connection.4  The  colonists 

1  '  Wills  and  Inventories  of  the  Archdeaconry  of  Richmond,' 
edited  by  Raine,  J.,  p.  284. 

2  Nicholson  and  Burns,  '  History  of  Westmoreland  and  Cum- 
berland,' 24. 

3  Harland  and  Wilkinson,  '  Lancashire  Folk-Lore,'  281-284. 
*  Fishwick,  H.,  '  History  of  Lancashire,'  185,  200,  201. 

Settlers  in  Northumbria.  317 

of  North  Lancashire  and  South  Westmoreland  appear 
to  have  come  partly  from  Yorkshire  and  partly  by  the 
sea.  Some  of  them  would  probably  be  Northumbrian 
Anglians,  and  others  of  Jutish  extraction.  The  remains 
of  early  stone  crosses  at  Whalley  and  at  Burnley,  of  the 
same  style  as  those  found  in  other  parts  of  ancient  North- 
umbria,  are  traces  of  the  early  Anglian  connection  of 
these  parts  of  Lancashire,  and  the  runic  inscription 
found  at  Lancaster  supplies  confirmatory  evidence  of 
this  connection. 

Close  to  Lancaster  there  are  distinct  traces  of  a  later 
settlement  of  Norse,  for  around  Heysham  and  Halton  the 
hills  are  called  fells,  the  pools  are  tarns,  the  streams  becks, 
the  farms  are  thwaits,  and  the  island  rocks  are  skears.1 

As  regards  the  early  customs  of  partible  inheritance 
which  prevailed  over  large  districts  of  Yorkshire,  Glan- 
ville's  remarks  in  the  time  of  Henry  II.  must  be  remem- 
bered— viz.,  that  partible  inheritance  was  only  recognised 
by  the  law-courts  of  his  time  on  those  manors  where  it 
could  be  proved  that  the  land  always  had. been  divided. 
Consequently,  as  this  custom  was  allowed  to  continue  on 
many  manors  of  the  great  lordships  of  Richmond,  Picker- 
ing, and  St.  Peter's,  York,  it  must  have  been  a  custom  of 
immemorial  usage,  and  proved  to  the  satisfaction  of  the 
law  in  the  twelfth  century.  This  points  to  the  conclusion 
that  these  areas  were  originally  occupied  by  Goths  and 
Frisians  among  the  Anglian  settlers  of  Yorkshire.  The 
proof  lay  in  an  actual  inspection  of  the  subdivided  lands, 
which  must  have  borne  their  testimony,  as  well  as  in  the 
sworn  evidence  of  witnesses.  The  partible  lands  of  the 
Dalecarlian  people  of  Sweden,  who  are  descendants  of  the 
Northern  Goths,  show  at  the  present  day  similar  evidence 
of  this  immemorial  usage.  The  custom  could  not  have 
been  general  throughout  England,  because  it  was  allowed 
to  continue  in  comparatively  few  places.  If  it  had 
generally  prevailed,  its  antiquity  could  have  been  proved, 

1  March,  H.  C.,  Lancashire  and  Cheshire  Arch.  Soc.,  ix.  50,  51. 

318  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

and  the  custom  preserved  by  appealing  to  the  evidence 
of  partition  on  the  surface  of  the  fields  themselves. 

The  old  place-names  in  the  northern  counties  point  to 
people  of  many  tribes  as  having  taken  a  part  in  its  settle- 
ment. If  we  confine  our  attention  to  old  Anglo-Saxon 
names  of  places,  which  had  their  origin  in  all  probability 
from  people  bearing  tribal  names  who  settled  there,  we 
shall  be  able  to  make  a  considerable  list.  Such  a  name  as 
Hunmannebi  clearly  points  to  a  settler  and  his  family  or 
kindred  who  was  a  Frisian  of  the  Hunsing  tribe — i.e., 
he  was  a  man  of  the  Hunni  race  mentioned  by  Bede.  In 
the  same  way,  other  names  indicate  Frisians,  called  by 
their  national  name  ;  others  who  were  either  Frisians  of  the 
Brocmen  tribe,  or  of  the  German  tribe  of  Boructers,  who 
are  also  mentioned  by  Bede  as  among  the  tribes  from 
which  the  Old  English  were  descended.  Such  a  name  as 
Boructer  might  easily  be  shortened  by  use  into  Broc. 
The  Chaucians  or  Hocings  are  probably  represented  by 
the  survival  of  a  number  of  Choc-  or  Hoc-  names  of  places. 
Here  and  there  we  meet  with  the  Engle  name,  and  a  few 
which  appear  to  have  been  derived  from  people  known  to 
their  neighbours  as  Saxons.  Among  other  places  bearing 
names  derived  from  settlers  of  various  ancient  races  are 
those  in  Dan  or  Dene,  which  point  to  Danes  ;  Norman, 
which  points  to  Norse;  Suen,  which  points  to  Swedes; 
Goth,  or  Goda,  which  indicate  Gothic  people ;  and  Wend 
or  Winter  names,  which  indicate  Vandal  settlers.  Among 
the  old  place-names  in  Northumberland  are  the  fifteenth- 
century  names  Waringford  and  Wynt'ingham,  denoting  a 
Waring  and  a  Wendish  settlement.1  Winterset  is  an  old 
place-name  in  the  parish  of  Wragby. 

Borough-English  or  junior  right  is  known  to  have  pre- 
vailed at  Leeds,2  the  only  place  in  the  northern  counties 
where  it  has  been  traced.  Its  prevalence  there  in  the 
midst  of  a  kingdom  such  as  Yorkshire  was,  settled  at  first 

1  Placita  de  quo  Warranto,  586,  591. 

2  Elton,  C.  I.,  '  Gavelkind,'  Index. 

Settlers  in  Northumbria.  319 

by  people  called  Anglians,  and  largely  occupied  later  on 
by  people  commonly  called  Danes  or  Norse,  is  a  very  re- 
markable circumstance,  for,  so  far  as  known,  none  of  these 
had  such  a  custom.  Leeds  is  in  Airedale,  and  was  appar- 
ently the  chief  place  in  the  old  district  known  in  Saxon 
time  as  Elmet.  This  district  is  mentioned  by  Bede  as 
the  '  Regio  Loidis,'  or  the  region  of  Leeds,  Elmet  being 
mentioned  by  the  same  early  writer  as  a  silva  or  wood- 
land.1 If  from  the  occurrence  of  the  custom  of  junior  right 
at  Leeds  we  may  consider  that  it  prevailed  elsewhere  in 
this  region,  then,  as  the  custom  is  an  old  one,  and  it  could 
not  have  been  that  of  Anglians  or  Danes  or  Norwegians,  it 
probably  was  brought  by  a  fair  race  of  people.  Seeing 
that  succession  by  the  youngest  son  to  the  whole 
inheritance  is  not  a  Welsh  custom,  it  is  not  probable  that 
the  junior  right  which  prevailed  at  Leeds  could  have  been 
derived  from  a  survival  of  the  old  British  stock.  More- 
over, the  racial  characters  of  the  Airedale  people,  as  de- 
scribed by  Beddoe,  point  to  descent  from  a  fair  race. 
This  subject  takes  us  back  to  the  time  when  Elmet  was 
first  brought  under  subjection  by  Edwin  in  the  seventh 
century.  Beddoe  considers  it  probable  that  new  settlers 
of  a  fair  stock  were  introduced,  and  it  is  remarkable  that 
an  old  name,  Wendel  Hill,  for  an  earthwork  at  Berewic, 
in  Elmet,  still  survives.2  There  are  some  old  place-names 
in  addition  to  this  one  in  the  northern  counties  which  may 
have  had  their  origin  from  Wendish  settlers,  relatively 
few  in  number,  but  still  significant.  Wendesbery3  and 
Wandesford4  in  Yorkshire,  Windleton  near  Darlington, 
Wensley,  Wendeslowe,5  Wenslawe,  and  Wendeslaghe,6 
are  names  of  this  kind.  Wensleydale  ai\d  Old  Wennington, 
in  the  north  of  Lancashire,  may  also  be  of  the  same  origin. 

1  Beda,  '  Hist.  Eccles.,'  lib.  ii.,  chap.  xiv. 

2  Whitaker,  T.  D.,  '  History  of  Leeds,'  152. 

3  Cal.  Rot.  Pat.  (Henry  III.),  p.  96. 

4  Cal.  Inq.  Post-mortem,  ii.  18.  5  Ibid.,  ii.  125. 
6  Ibid.,  ii.  72. 

320  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

There  is  evidence  of  the  survival  in  Northumbria  of 
people  of  Celtic  descent,  who  were  subsequently  absorbed 
among  the  English  race  of  the  northern  counties.  The 
historical  information  on  this  point  concerning  Cartmel 
has  been  mentioned.  The  probability  of  a  mixture  of 
Celts  among  the  Scandinavian  settlers  of  Cumberland  is 
also  great.  The  Northumbrian  Priest-law,  which  mentions 
the  penalty  for  the  practise  of  heathen  rites  by  a  King's 
thane,  affords  evidence  of  the  survival  of  people  in  York- 
shire of  British  descent,  who  were  known*  as  Wallerwente. 
Heathenism  in  some  of  its  rites  survived  long  in  the  North. 
A  thane  who  was  accused  of  heathen  practices  was  fined 
according  to  the  Priest-law  ten  half-marks,  unless  he  could 
prove  his  innocence  by  thirty  oath-helpers,  ten  of  whom 
must  be  named  by  himself,  ten  by  his  kindred,  and  ten 
others  must  be  Wallerwente.1  These  Wallerwente,  as 
their  oaths  were  taken  in  evidence,  must  have  been  free- 
men. They  were  apparently  men  of  another  race,  and 
chosen  for  this  legal  process  on  that  account,  as  native 
Celtic  inhabitants  living  among  others  of  Teutonic  descent, 
and  whose  testimony  as  native  Christians  would  be  speci- 
ally acceptable  in  such  cases.  This  recognition  of  de- 
scendants of  a  remnant  of  the  old  Celtic  people  is  of 
interest,  seeing  that  the  oldest  name  for  what  is  now 
Yorkshire — viz.,  Deira — is  Welsh,  and  derived  from  its 
Celtic  inhabitants,  the  Deiri,  or  their  country.2 

It  is  well  known  that  two  very  remote  successive 
immigrations  of  Celtic  people  into  Britain  can  be  traced — 
viz.,  those  of  the  Round  Barrow  period,  who  are  also 
known  as  the  men  of  the  Bronze  Age  ;  and  the  later 
Brythons,  from  whom  in  the  main  the  Welsh  are  de- 
scended. From  the  examination  of  the  bones  of  the  men 
of  the  Bronze  Age.  which  are  met  with  but  sparingly — for 
cremation  was  their  common  mode  of  disposing  of  the 
dead — they  are  known  to  have  been  a  broad-headed  and 

1  Seebohm,  F.,  '  Tribal  Custom  in  Anglo-Saxon  Law,'  399. 

2  Rhys,  J.,  '  Celtic  Britain,'  112. 

Settlers  in  Northumbria.  321 

large-limbed  race.  The  later  Celts  are  not  characterised 
by  this  head  form.  The  survival  among  living  people 
here  and  there  of  representatives  of  the  broad-headed  type 
is  an  interesting  ethnological  circumstance.  As  might  be 
expected,  it  is  chiefly  in  the  most  mountainous  part  of 
England — viz.,  in  the  remote  parts  of  Cumberland — that 
traces  of  this  race  may  still  be  met  with.  The  type  is, 
according  to  Beddoe  and  Ripley,  marked  by  being 
*  above  the  average  in  height,  generally  dark  in  com- 
plexion, the  head  broad  and  short,  the  face  strongly 
developed  at  the  cheek-bones,  frowning  or  beetle  browed, 
the  development  of  the  brow  ridges  being  especially 
noticeable  in  contrast  with  the  smooth,  almost  feminine 
softness  of  the  Saxon  forehead.'1  In  Cumberland  there 
had  been  going  on  a  fusion  between  the  descendants  of  the 
Norse  and  those  of  these  more  ancient  Cumbrians,  some 
of  the  descendants  of  whom  are  now  fair  in  complexion.2 

1   Ripley,  W.  Z.,  '  Races  of  Europe,'  309.  2  Ibid. 




THE  settlement  of  Frisians  in  Northumbria  is 
probable  from  the  historical  evidence  of  Procopius, 
who  says  that '  three  very  numerous  nations  possess 
Brittia,  over  each  of  which  a  King  presides,  which  nations 
are  named  Angeloi,  Phrissones,  and  those  surnamed  from 
the  island,  Brittones.'  Some  of  these  Phrissones  must 
have  settled  in  the  northern  counties  of  England  and  in 
the  south  of  Scotland,  for  the  Firth  of  Forth  is  called  by 
Nennius  the  Frisian  Sea,  and  part  of  its  northern  coast 
was  known  as  the  Frisian  shore.1  The  name  Dumfries 
appears  also  to  afford  a  trace  of  the  same  people. 

It  is  reasonable  to  conclude  that  in  the  settlement  of 
the  coasts  of  the  North-east  of  England  and  the  South  of 
Scotland  by  the  Angles  their  neighbours  the  Frisians  took 
a  large  part.  Even  at  the  present  time  the  resemblance 
between  the  Frisian  dialects  and  Lowland  Scotch  is  in 
some  respects  very  close.  As  we  have  seen,  Octa  and 
Ebissa,  with  whom  as  leaders  the  early  settlements  in 
Northumbria  are  connected,  have  characteristic  Frisian 
names  ending  in  a.  The  early  kingdom  of  the  Beornicas 
included  the  Lowlands,  and  these  people  had  a  Frisian 
name.  Halbertsma  refers  to  the  name  Beornicas  as 
having  been  derived  from  the  Frisian  word  beam, 
denoting  men,  used  possibly  in  the  sense  of  descendants.2 

1  Skene,  W.  F.,  '  Celtic  Scotland,'  i.  192. 

2  Halbertsma,  J.  H.,  '  Lexicon  Frisicum.' 


Settlers  in  Northumbria.  323 

There  are  in  Yorkshire  old  place-names  which  point 

directly  to  Frisians,  such  as  Fristone  in  the  West  Riding, 
mentioned  in  Domesday  Book ;  Freswick,  an  old  place 
in  the  North  Riding  ;  and  Frismarsk,  or  Frysemersh,  a 
lost  place  that  formerly  existed  in  Holderness.1  It  is 
probable  there  was  a  very  early  colony  of  Frisians 
in  this  district,  for  Ptolemy  mentions  a  race  of  people 
resident  there  whom  he  calls  the  Parisi.2  The  Teutonic 
equivalent  of  Parisi  is  Farisi,  and  the  probability  is  that 
these  were  a  colony  of  Frisians  from  the  opposite  coast. 
This  identification  of  the  Parisi  of  Ptolemy  as  Frisians  is 
supported  by  some  remarkable  circumstances  pointing  to  a 
Frisian  migration  to  the  country  of  the  Humber.  Holder- 
ness  had  an  alternative  name,  that  of  Emmertland,  and 
among  the  ancient  river  names  of  the  northern  part  of 
Old  Saxony  or  Frisia  was  the  Emmer  or  Ambra,3  which  we 
now  call  the  Ems.  Along  the  course  of  this  river  the  tribal 
Ambrones,  or  people  of  the  Emisga  pagus,  lived.4  These 
Ambrones  are  mentioned  by  Roman  writers.  From  the 
consideration  of  all  the  circumstantial  evidence  connected 
with  them  and  with  Holderness,  the  settlement  of  Frisians 
of  this  old  tribe  at  an  early  date  near  the  mouth  of  the 
Humber  is  practically  certain.  It  was  from  this  tribe 
that  in  all  probability  the  Humber  received  its  name, 
after  that  of  the  Ambra  in  their  old  country.  It  should 
also  be  remembered  that  Paulinus  is  said  to  have  preached 
for  forty  days  among  certain  old  Saxons.  We  know  he 
did  carry  on  this  mission  among  the  people  south  of  the 
Humber,  and  these  may  have  preserved  their  old  tribal 
designation  of  Ambrones,  or  old  Saxons,  until  that  time. 
The  Holderness  dialect,  which  has  probably  come  from 
more  than  one  source,  is  one  of  the  most  interesting  in 
Yorkshire,  for  it  shows  variations  in  vocabulary  in 
different  parts  of  the  district.  It  has  usually  only  one 

1  Cal.  Patent  Rolls,  1340-1343,  p.  449. 

2  English  Dialect  Society,  '  Glossary  of  Holderness,'  p.  2. 

3  Monumenta  Germanise,  i.  166,  167.          4  Ibid.,  ii.  386. 

21 — 2 

324          Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

form  of  the  verb  for  the  three  persons,  many  participles 
ending  in  -en  or  -in,  many  adjectives  ending  in  -ish  or 
-fied,  and  no  possessive  case.1  The  pronunciation  of  the 
place-names  in  some  of  the  northern  parts  of  England  at 
the  present  time  strongly  points  to  Frisian  settlements. 
In  Northumberland  there  are  many  places  whose  names 
end  in  -ham,  but,  with  the  exception  of  Chillingham,  they 
are  all  pronounced  as  if  ending  in  -um,  like  the  terminal 
sound  so  common  in  the  present  place-names  of  Friesland. 
In  the  Cleveland  district  of  Yorkshire,  also,  examples  of  the 
same  kind  occur,  in  which  the  local  pronunciation  making 
names  ending  in  -um  is  very  marked.  Thus,  Yarm  is 
pronounced  Jarum  ;  Moorsholm,  Morehusum  ;  Acklam, 
Achelum  ;  Lealholm,  Laclum  or  Lemm  ;  Airsome,  Aru- 
sum ;  and  Coatham,  Cotum,  and  so  on.2  A  similar 
pronunciation  of  names  in  Sussex  has  been  referred  to  in 
the  chapter  relating  to  that  county. 

There  can  be  no  doubt  that  Frisian  was  one  of  the  dia- 
lects used  by  the  settlers  in  the  northern  counties,  and  that 
many  Frisian  words  passed  into  the  Anglian  speech.  As 
late  as  1175  we  find  a  Frisian  dialect  separately  mentioned 
by  Reginald,  a  monk  of  Durham.3  In  referring  to  the 
eider-duck,  he  says  these  birds  are  called  lomes  by  the 
English,  but  eires  by  the  Saxons  and  inhabitants  of 

The  dialect  of  Northumberland  and  on  Tyneside  shows 
important  differences  from  that  in  the  middle  and  south 
parts  of  Durham  and  Yorkshire.4  This  helps  to  prove  that 
when  the  Danes  overran  and  conquered  Northumbria  it 
was  chiefly  in  Yorkshire  they  settled.  The  country  north 
of  the  Tyne  was  left,  apparently,  more  in  the  occupation 
of  the  descendants  of  the  original  colonists.  The  old 
Northumbrian  dialect  was  the  language  of  the  Anglian 

1  English  Dialect  Society,  '  Glossary  of  Holderness,'  p.  6. 

2  Atkinson,  J.  C.,  '  Glossary  of  the  Cleveland  Dialect.' 

3  Reginald!  Monachi  Dunelm.  Libellus,  chap,  xxvii. 

4  English  Dialect  Society,  '  Glossary  of  Northumberland,'  viii. 

Settlers  in  Northumbria.  325 

and  Frisian  settlers  from  Aberdeen  to  the  south  of  York- 
shire. When  Yorkshire  was  recolonised  by  Danes  and 
their  allies,  a  modified  dialect  arose.  The  evidence  of  the 
place-names  affords  striking  testimony  to  the  extent  of  the 
Danish  settlements.  North  of  the  Tyne  the  terminations 
-ham  and  -ton  are  conspicuous,  while  -by,  which  abounds 
in  the  East  Riding,  does  not  occur.  The  streams  in 
Northumberland  are  called  burns,  and  not  becks,  as  in  the 
Scandinavian  districts  of  the  northern  counties.  The 
pronunciation  of  the  word  '  the '  is  not  clipped  in  North- 
umberland into  '  t','  as  it  is  in  the  Danish  districts  of 
Yorkshire  and  Lancashire.  The  contrast  in  this  respect 
between  Northumberland  and  Tyneside  on  the  one  hand, 
and  the  south  of  Durham  and  East  Riding  of  Yorkshire 
on  the  other,  is  very  marked.1  There  are,  however,  some 
traces  to  be  found  in  Northumberland  of  Norse  colonists 
of  a  kind  different  from  those  of  the  Danes  in  the  East 
Riding,  although  traces  of  Angles  and  Frisians  are  most 
in  evidence. 

The  Firth  of  Forth,  mentioned  by  Nennius  as  the 
Frisian  Sea,  and  a  part  of  its  northern  shore  known  as  the 
Frisian  shore,  must  have  had  an  early  connection  with 
the  Frisians,  although,  as  Skene  says,  '  the  great  bulk  of 
immigrants  are  Anglians.'2  This  is  of  interest  in  reference 
to  the  people  of  Northumberland,  a  county  in  which  traces 
of  Frisian  occupation  are  strong.  It  is  known  that 
Frisians  came  to  Britain  among  the  Roman  military, 
and  Skene  says  that '  of  the  Saxons  who  settled  in  Britain 
before  the  year  441,  the  colony  which  occupied  the 
northern  district  about  the  Roman  wall  were  probably 
Frisians.'  This  may  well  have  been  the  case,  and  the 
traces  of  people  of  this  race  which  the  Northumberland 
place-names  supply  may  therefore  be  of  older  date  than 
the  time  of  Hengist  and  Horsa.  There  may,  indeed,  have 
been  settlements  in  the  time  of  the  Roman  Empire  of 

1  English  Dialect  Society,  '  Glossary  of  Northumberland,'  ix. 

2  Skene,  W.  F.,  '  Celtic  Scotland,'  ii.  192. 

326  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

both  Frisians  and  their  allies  the  Chaucians.  This  view 
possibly  receives  support  from  the  discovery  in  Northum- 
berland of  a  Roman  altar,1  bearing  the  inscription  '  Deo 
Cocidi ' — a  reference,  perhaps,  to  a  supposed  Chaucian 

The  name  of  the  river  Coquet  and  others,  apparently 
connected  with  Chaucians,  may  be  traces  of  a  settlement 
before  the  end  of  the  Roman  rule  in  Britain.  A  garrison 
of  Frisians  was  certainly  located  on  Hadrian's  Wall  early 
in  the  fifth  century.2 

The  Roman  place-name  Hunno3  has  been  identified 
with  Sevensdale  in  Northumberland,  and  that  named 
Cocuneda  civitas  4  with  Coquet  in  the  same  county.5  In 
the  Boldon  Book  relating  to  the  tenancies  held  under  the 
Bishop  of  Durham  in  the  eleventh  or  twelfth  century  we 
find  old  place-names  that  are  apparently  traces  of  settlers 
who  had  Frisian  names,  such  as  Hunwyk  and  Hunstan- 
worth.  The  same  record  also  affords  instances  in  which 
brothers  held  land  jointly,  and  of  other  parceners 
more  or  less  resembling  the  holdings  in  Kent.  In  con- 
nection with  these  Hun  names,  it  is  of  special  interest 
to  note  the  existence  of  a  Roman  station  called  Hunnum 
in  Northumberland.  As  an  old  tribe  called  Phundusii  is 
mentioned  by  Ptolemy  living  near  the  mouth  of  the  Elbe, 
not  very  far  from  the  later  Frisian  districts,  inhabited  by 
the  Hunse  or  Hunte,  the  name  Hunnum  may  have  been 
one  used  in  Roman  time  in  connection  with  the  Frisian 

If  further  proof  were  wanted  of  Frisians  among  the 
Angles  of  this  part  of  England  and  the  adjacent  coast  of 
Scotland,  the  remarkable  inscribed  stone  found  at  Kirklis- 
ton, Edinburghshire,  would  supply  it.  Stephens  describes 
it  as  a  heathen  stone  of  the  fourth  or  fifth  century,  bearing 

1  Ferguson,  R.,  «  The  River-names  of  Europe,'  85. 

2  Notitia  Imperil,  and  Wright,    T.,  Lancashire   and  Cheshire 
Historic.  Soc.,  viii.  141. 

3  Notitia  Imperii.  *  Ravennas. 

5  Pearson,  C.  H.,  '  Historical  Maps,'  quoting  authorities. 

Settlers  in  Northumbria.  327 

Roman  letters  and  words  to  commemorate  a  fallen  chief- 
tain, with  a  name  so  rare  that  it  has  only  been  found  three 
times  in  English  literature  and  once  in  Northern.  It  has 
also  his  father's  name,  a  rarer  one  still.  Both  these  names 
are  Frisian,  and  are  still  found  among  modern  Frisian 
personal  names.1  The  inscription,  by  dividing  the  letters 
into  words,  reads  :  '  In  oc  tumulo  iacit  Vetta  f  (ilius)  Victi.' 
The  name  Wyttenham  in  Northumberland,  apparently 
derived  from  a  similar  name  Witte,  is  mentioned  in  the 
Hundred  Rolls.  Sweet  has  pointed  out  another  linguistic 
connection  of  the  Anglians  of  Northumbria  with  the 
Frisians.  He  says  that  the  Anglian  dialect  was  character- 
ised by  a  special  tendency  to  throw  off  the  final  n  in 
names.2  Of  this  many  examples  may  be  found  among  old 
place-names  of  the  Northern  counties,  and  the  early  per- 
sonal names  connected  with  them,  some  of  which  have 
been  referred  to.  It  was  also  a  Frisian  characteristic. 

In  his  '  History  of  Cleveland,'  Atkinson  tells  us  of  four 
places  whose  ancient  names  were  Englebi,  of  two  whose  old 
names  were  Wiltune,  and  of  two  named  Tollesbi.  They 
may  have  been  so  named  after  heads  of  families  who  bore 
tribal  names.  The  Tollenzi  on  the  Tollensee  were  a 
Wendish  tribe.3 

In  considering  the  evidence  relating  to  the  settlement 
of  people  of  different  races  in  the  North  of  England,  that 
afforded  by  the  runic  monuments  is  of  the  first  importance. 
The  Anglian  runes  are  the  older  Gothic  with  modifications, 
and  their  modifications  were  made  on  English  soil.  This 
points  to  Goths  among  the  so-called  Anglian  settlers,  or 
Angles  from  Swedish  Gothland.  In  any  case,  the  know- 
ledge of  runic  writing  must  have  been  brought  into 
Northern  England  by  early  settlers  from  Gothland  or 
the  countries  near  it.  The  Frisians  who  formed  settle - 

1  Stephens,  R.  G.,  '  Old  Northern  Runic  Monuments,'  i.  60. 

2  Sweet,  H.,  '  Dialects  and  Prehistoric  Forms  of  Old  English,' 
PhiloL  Soc.  Transactions,  1875-6,  560,  561. 

3  Latham,  R.  G.,  '  Germania  of  Tacitus,'  Prolegomena,  xvii. 

328  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

ments  in  Northumbria,  on  the  contrary,  had  no  knowledge 
of  runes. 

In  one  of  the  old  Norse  records  we  are  told  of  Old 
Northumbria,  that  '  Nord-imbraland  is  for  the  most 
part  inhabited  by  Northmen.  Many  of  the  names  are 
in  the  Norrsena  tongue  Grimsbser  (Grimsby),  and 
Hauksfljot  (Hawkflot),  and  many  others.'1  This  refers 
to  the  older  and  larger  Northumberland,  and  includes, 
apparently,  part  of  South  Humberland  or  Lincolnshire. 
The  earliest  runic  inscriptions  of  old  Northumbria  are 
not  within  the  limits  of  the  present  county,  but  are 
within  the  kingdom  of  the  Northumbrian  Anglians. 
Among  them  are  those  on  the  Bewcastle  column  in  north- 
west Cumberland,  and  on  the  Ruthwell  cross  in  Dumfries. 
The  date  of  the  Bewcastle2  monument  is  about  A.D.  670, 
and  the  words  used  in  the  inscription  on  the  Ruthwell 
cross  show  that  it  cannot  well  be  later  than  the  middle 
of  the  eighth  century,3  The  inscriptions  on  the  Colling- 
ham  cross  in  Yorkshire,  and  on  a  slab  found  at  Lancaster, 
have  been  assigned  to  the  seventh  century.4  All  these 
and  others  are  inscriptions  of  the  Anglians,  and  not  of 
the  later  Danes  or  Norse,  whose  runic  letters  differed  in 
some  instances  from  those  of  the  earlier  Anglian. 

One  of  the  Old  English  tribes  that  can  be  clearly 
recognised  in  Northumbria  is  that  of  Lindisfarne.  This 
name  was  not  originally  given  to  the  island  off  the  North- 
umbrian coast,  but  to  a  strip  of  country  along  it.  Lindis- 
faran  was  part  of  the  mainland  along  the  courses  of  two 
rivers — the  Lindis,  which  was  the  old  name  for  the  Low, 
and  the  Waran,  that  ran  into  the  sea  a  little  north  of 
Bamburgh.5  This  island  was  the  island  of  the  Lindis- 
farne people  or  territory,  as  mentioned  by  Bede.  This 
small  Anglian  tribe  is  one  of  the  most  interesting  of  which 

'  The  Heimskringla/  by  Sturluson,  trans,  by  Laing,  ii.  6. 

2  Stephens,  G.,  loc.  cit.,  vol.  i.,  398. 

3  Sweet,  H.,  '  Oldest  English  Texts,'  125.      *  Ibid.,  124-130. 
5  Proceedings  Soc.  Antiquaries,  Newcastle-on-Tyne,  iii.,  p.  401. 

Settlers  in  Northumbria.  329 

any  trace  has  come  down  to  us.  Its  rulers  derived  their 
origin  from  Woden,  through  a  line  of  mythological 
ancestors  of  their  own,1  and  it  is  not  improbable  that 
their  island  was  known  as  Halig  or  Halige,  the  Holy 
Isle,  before  they  became  Christians,  for  the  Continental 
Angles  and  Frisians  had  a  Holy  Isle  off  their  coast,  and 
it  still  retains  the  name  of  Heligoland.  The  Wends  of 
the  Baltic  coast  also  had  their  sacred  island  —  viz., 
Riigen — where  their  chief  pagan  temple  was  situated. 
The  possession  of  a  sacred  or  holy  isle  for  their  pagan 
rites  was,  therefore,  probably  considered  by  the  pagan 
Angles  who  settled  in  Northumberland  as  part  of  their 
religion  ;  and  after  their  conversion  the  sacred  isle  of 
the  pagan  time  was  selected  for  the  site  of  the  Christian 

Some  of  the  old  shire  and  district  names  in  the  northern 
counties  were  apparently  derived  from  Scandinavian 
and  other  tribal  names.  Hallamshire  appears  to  have 
got  its  name  from  a  manor  mentioned  in  Domesday  Book 
as  Hallun.  As  this  district  is  called  a  shire,  and  this 
as  a  designation  for  a  district  is  Scandinavian,  Hallun 
may  not  improbably  have  been  connected  in  ks  origin 
with  people  from  Halland,  in  the  South-west  of  Sweden, 
and  within  the  limits  of  Old  Denmark.  Gillingshire,  also, 
for  Gilling  Wapentake  in  Yorkshire,  appears  to  be  a 
Scandinavian  name.  Gylling,  an  island  in  Halogaland,  is 
mentioned  in  the  Northern  Sagas.2  One  thing,  therefore, 
is  certain  in  reference  to  old  settlements  in  the  northern 
counties,  that  we  find  districts  which  contain  many  traces 
of  Norse  near  others  in  which  traces  of  Anglians  have 
survived.  There  may  have  been  a  connection  between 
the  name  Rossendale  in  Lancashire  and  the  Wrosn  tribe 
of  the  Pomeranian  coast.  As  the  settlement  of  Norse 
and  their  allies  in  Lancashire  was  probably  late,  the 
possibility  of  such  a  connection  is  strengthened  by  the 

1  Grimm,  J.,  'Teutonic  Mythology,'  iv.  1711. 

2  '  The  Heimskringla,'  by  Sturluson,  trans,  by  Laing,  ii.,  180. 

330          Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

known  association  of  Danes  and  Norse  with  the  Jomberg 
Wends  of  Pomerania. 

The  Yorkshire  Domesday  names  Scotona,  Scotone, 
Englebi,  and  Engleston,  point  to  family  settlements  of 
people  who  were  Scots  and  Engles.  Similarly,  there 
can  be  little  doubt  that  the  Domesday  names  Danestorp, 
Danebi,  Wedrebi,  Leccheton,  and  Lecchestorp,  point  to 
settlers  who  were  Danes,  Wederas  or  Ostrogoths,  and 
Lechs,  who  were  their  allies.  Traces  of  Swedes  are  met 
with  in  the  old  names  Suanebi  in  Yorkshire  and  Suenesat 
in  Agremundreness  in  Lancashire,1  and  other  names 
similar  to  those  of  tribal  allies  of  the  Danes  may  be 

The  name  Wensleydale  and  the  old  Semer  names  which 
it  contains  suggest  some  connection  with  Wends,  and 
this  is  strengthened  by  the  folk-lore.  A  special  char- 
acteristic in  the  folk-lore  of  the  Northern  Slavs  is  that  of 
magic  horses,  of  which  many  examples  occur  in  Russian 
folk- tales.2  In  Wensleydale  folk-lore  the  kelpie  or  water- 
horse  comes  up  occasionally  out  of  the  water,3  and,  like 
the  Russian  horses,  is  a  wonderful  beast.  The  place- 
name  Semer  also  occurs  in  Cleveland,  near  Stokesley,4 
and  Domesday  Book  tells  us  of  Semser  in  the  North 
Riding  and  Semers  in  the  West  Riding,  these  names 
being,  apparently,  of  old  Wen  dish  origin,  from  zieme, 
the  land.  Their  parallels  may  be  found  in  Slavic 
countries,  and  other  examples  of  their  occurrence  in 
Wiltshire  and  Sussex  have  already  been  mentioned. 

The  earliest  frontier  between  the  kingdoms  of  North- 
umbria  and  Mercia  on  the  west  of  the  Pennine  Range,  along 
the  Mersey,  appears  to  have  been  subsequently  altered  to 
the  Ribble.  There  is  some  documentary  evidence  relating 
to  this  later  boundary.  In  923  KingEdward  ordered  a  body 

1  Dom.  Bk. 

2  Ralston,  W.  R.  S.,  '  Russian  Folk-Tales,'  243-258. 

3  Gomme,  G.  L.,  '  Ethnology  in  Folk-Lore,'  78. 

4  Abbrev.  Rot.  Originalium,  vol.  i.,  i8i: 

Settlers  in  Northumbria.  331 


of  Mercians  to  take  possession  of  Manchester,  and  to  repair 
and  fortify  it.1  We  read,  also,  that  the  northern  limit 
of  Mercia  was  Hwitanwylles  geat,2  which  may  be  identified 
with  Whitwell  in  the  upper  part  of  the  valley  of  the 
Kibble.  Whitaker's  researches  point  to  the  Ribble  as 
having  been  an  ethnological  frontier.3  The  Fylde, 
between  the  mouths  of  the  same  river  and  the  Lune, 
exhibits  evidence  of  Scandinavian  settlements.  Its 
name  may  be  compared  with  the  Norse  Fjelde,  the  name 
for  the  Norwegian  wastes.  The  Lancashire  Fylde  con- 
sists even  at  the  present  time  of  a  great  extent  of  more 
or  less  peaty  soil,  commonly  called  moss.  Danes  pad, 
or  path,  the  name  for  an  old  road  across  it,  Angersholm, 
Mythorp,  Eskham,  and  other  place-names  in  the  district, 
are  distinctly  Scandinavian. 

When  we  remember  that  the  Anglian  kingdom  of 
Northumbria  was  conquered  by  Northmen,  and  was  a 
Danish  kingdom  for  about  200  years,  until  reduced  in 
status  to  one  of  the  great  earldoms  of  the  later  Saxon 
period,  we  naturally  expect  to  find  more  characteristic 
remains  of  Danes  and  Northmen  than  of  the  earlier 
Anglians.  Some  interesting  evidence  of  the  agricultural 
customs  of  Northmen  connected  with  the  old  farm- 
houses called  onsteads  survived  in  Northumberland  as 
late  as  1827,  and  may  still  survive  in  part.  The  customs 
may  be  ancient,  even  if  the  farms  are  comparatively 
modern.  They  are  scattered  over  a  large  part  of  that 
county,  at  a  distance  of  two  or  three  miles  from  each 
other,  and  from  the  villages  or  towns.  In  these  onsteads 
the  farmers  resided  with  their  dependents.  Immediately 
adjoining  them  a  number  of  cottages  were  situated,  pro- 
portionable in  some  degree  to  the  size  of  the  farms.  They 
are,  or  were,  inhabited  by  the  steward,  the  hinds,  and  in 
some  instances  by  the  bondagers,  who  have,  or  had,  their 
cottages  at  a  small  rent,  and  are  entitled  to  a  certain 

1   Anglo-Saxon  Chronicle.  *  Ibid.,  A.D.  941. 

3  Whitaker,  T.  D.,  '  History  of  Whalley,'  4th  EdM  i.  52. 

332  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

quantity  of  potatoes.     The  wages  of  the  steward  and 
hinds  were  chiefly  paid   in   kind,   and   they  had   their    \ 
cottages  rent  free,  with  hay  or  grass  for  one  or  two  cows 
and  other  privileges,  and  a  small  sum  of  money .1 

The  system  in  Norway  is  very  similar  to  this.  The 
farms  have  houses  for  housemen,  with  enclosed  land  to 
each,  that  extends  to  the  keeping  of  two  cows  and  six 
sheep  all  the  year  round,  and  to  the  sowing  of  a  certain 
quantity  of  corn  and  potatoes.  A  small  general  rent 
is  paid  for  these  holdings.  In  this  system  the  main  object 
provided  for  is  that  the  labourer  may  be  able  to  live  on 
the  produce  of  the  land.2 

We  may  recognise  the  Scandian  or  Danish  influence  in 
the  northern  counties  in  some  of  the  ancient  designations 
of  the  tenants  mentioned  in  the  Boldon  Book  of  Durham, 
such  as  Cotmanni  and  Malmanni,  the  former  corresponding 
to  the  cottars  of  southern  counties.  The  Danes  commonly 
used  the  word  manni3  in  names  of  this  kind.  The  char- 
acteristic Scandinavian  termination  -hope  or  -op  in  place- 
names  is  found  in  many  instances  in  the  west  of  North- 
umberland—  Bowhope,  Ramshope,  Wickhope,  Blenkin- 
sop,  Killhope,  and  Hawhope  being  examples.  The 
significance  of  these  -hope  names  will  be  discussed  in  the 
chapter  relating  to  the  Welsh  border.  The  word  -side, 
also,  which  is  a  characteristic  in  the  Cumberland  names, 
is  found  in  the  western  parts  of  Northumberland,  such 
as  Hesleyside,  Whiteside,  Wheelside,  and  Monkside. 
These  point  to  a  similarity  in  dialect,  and  hence  prob- 
ably in  race.  The  place-names  originally  derived  from 
shelter  names,  such  as  booth,  shield,  and  scale,  are  more 
frequently  met  with  in  the  northern  counties  than  else- 
where. They  had  their  origin,  probably,  in  summer 
huts,  commonly  erected  by  pastoral  people  among  the 

1  Mackenzie,  E.,   '  View  of  the  County  of  Northumberland,' 
ii.,  pp.  52,  53. 

2  Laing,  Samuel,  '  Journal  of  a  Residence  in  Norway.'  ed.  1851, 
pp.  101,  102. 

3  du  Chaillu,  P.,  '  Viking  Age,'  i.  23. 

Settlers  in  Northumbria.  333 

hills  or  on  the  upland  wastes,  for  temporary  abodes 
while  pasturing  their  cattle  away  from  their  permanent 
homesteads,  as  is  the  custom  in  Norway  at  the  present 

The  descendants  of  Danish  or  Norse  settlers  may  be 
distinguished  in  Lancashire  as  late  as  the  time  of  Domesday 
Survey  by  the  statements  that  some  of  them  paid  their 
rents  in  the  Danish  computation.  Thus,  in  many  places 
between  the  Ribble  and  the  Mersey  each  carucate  of  land 
paid  a  tax  or  tribute  of  two  ores  of  pennies.1  The  ore 
was  a  Danish  coin  of  the  value  of  sixteen  pence,  and  later 
of  twenty  pence.  Similarly,  it  may  be  noted  in  the 
ancient  Northumbrian  Priest-law  that  the  fines  men- 
tioned are  in  half -marks,  also  of  old  Northern  origin. 

People  of  the  same  descent  may  be  recognised  in  the 
land  register  of  the  monastery  of  Hexham,  which  tells 
us  of  '  husbands  '  and  '  terrae  husband.'2  These  husbands 
were  no  doubt  descended  from  Northern  settlers  known 
as  bondi,  a  name  still  used  for  the  peasant  proprietors 
of  Scandinavia. 

The  race  characters  shown  at  the  present  time  by  the 
people  of  Northumberland  are,  according  to  Beddoe, 
strongly  Anglian,  and  can  be  well  seen  in  the  rural 
population  around  Hexham.3  The  Northumberland 
people  are,  in  the  main,  above  the  average  English  size. 
It  is  on  evidence  that  a  regiment  of  men  of  that  county 
standing  in  close  formation  occupies  more  space  than  an 
average  regiment  of  the  same  number.  The  old  race 
in  north  Durham  is  also  Anglian  in  the  main.  The 
North  and  East  Ridings  of  Yorkshire  have  an  Anglo- 
Danish  population,  the  prevailing  types  being  Anglian 
and  Danish.  Phillips  describes  these  people  as  tall, 
large-boned,  and  muscular,  with  a  visage  long  and 

1  Domesday    Book,    quoted    by    Fishwick,    H.,    '  History   of 
Lancashire,'  54. 

2  Nasse,    E.,    '  The   Agricultural   Community,'   translated   by 
Oudry,  p.  71. 

3  Beddoe,  J.,  '  Races  in  Britain,'  249. 

334  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

angular,  fair  or  blonde  complexion,  blue  or  gray  eyes, 
and  light-brown  or  reddish  hair.1  In  the  more  elevated 
districts  of  the  West  Riding  he  describes  the  people  as 
robust  in  person,  of  an  oval,  full,  and  rounded  visage, 
with  a  nose  often  slightly  aquiline,  a  complexion  some- 
what embrowned  or  florid,  brown  or  gray  eyes,  and 
brown  or  reddish  hair.  This  brown,  burly  breed  Phillips 
thought  to  be  Norwegian,  but  Beddoe  considers  it  to  be 
a  variety  of  the  Anglian  race,  as  it  abounds  in  Stafford- 
shire, which  is  a  very  Anglian  county. 

In  the  plains  of  Yorkshire,  Durham,  and  Northumber- 
land the  old  agricultural  arrangements  of  the  townships 
appear  to  have  been  largely  those  of  the  nucleated 
villages  or  collected  homesteads.  This  system  corre- 
sponds to  that  now  prevailing  in  Holstein,  part  of  Schles- 
wig,  which  was  within  part  of  the  Anglian  country,  a 
circumstance  that  points  to  the  plan  of  collected  home- 
steads having  been  introduced  into  these  parts  of  the 
northern  counties  by  people  of  that  race.  On  the  other 
hand,  on  both  sides  of  the  Pennine  Range  isolated  home- 
steads have  largely  survived  in  both  west  Yorkshire 
and  east  Lancashire,  and  these  are  probably  traces  of 
ancient  Celtic  occupation.  The  homestead  arrange- 
ments in  these  districts  have  much  in  common  with  those 
found  in  Cumberland  and  in  Wales. 

1   Beddoe,  J.,  '  Races  in  Britain,'  250. 



IN  some  of  the  counties  which  were  comprised  within 
the  kingdom  of  Mercia  we  meet  with  remarkable 
traces  of  old  tribal  customs.  There  is  a  charter 
relating  to  the  borough  of  Leicester  granted  by  Simon  de 
Montfort,  and  dated  October  25,  1255.  In  this  docu- 
ment he  ordered,  apparently  as  Earl  of  Leicester,  that 
the  burgage  tenements  of  the  people  of  that  town  which 
by  custom  descended  to  the  youngest  son  should  there- 
after follow  the  course  of  common  law  and  go  to  the  eldest. 
This  charter  never  received  the  King's  ratification,  but 
its  validity  does  not  seem  to  have  been  questioned.1 
By  similar  arbitrary  measures  changes  were  probably 
made  in  other  places.  Junior  right  is  known  to  have 
existed  in  Derby,  Nottingham,  Stamford,  and  Stafford, 
in  addition  to  a  considerable  number  of  rural  manors  in 
the  Midland  counties.  It  could  not  have  been  spon- 
taneously developed  in  these  towns,  nor  at  the  other  more 
numerous  places  in  which  traces  of  it  can  be  found,  and 
was  probably  brought  in  by  the  early  settlers. 

Partible  inheritance,  more  or  less  resembling  the  gavel- 
kind  custom  in  Kent,  as  well  as  junior  right,  can  be  traced 
unmistakably  in  the  counties  of  Leicester  and  Notting- 
ham.    To  what  extent  they  prevailed  originally  it  is  not 
possible  to  say,  for  in  some  places  customs  may  have 
1   Elton,  C.  I.,  '  Robinson  on  Gavelkind,'  p.  66. 

336  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

been  changed  and  all  traces  of  them  lost,  either  by  the 
later  settlements  of  Danes  or  by  compulsory  orders  like 
that  made  at  Leicester.  In  Leicestershire,  partible 
inheritance  is  known  to  have  been  the  rule  in  the  soke  of 

This  place  is  situated  in  the  north  of  the  county,  and 
at  the  time  of  Domesday  Survey  included  twenty-one 
members  or  subordinate  manors,  among  which  were 
Allexton,  Baresbi,  Segrave,  Markfield,  Halstead,  Frisby, 
Saxelby,  Bagrave,  and  Gaddesby.1  It  comprised  at  that 
time  204  sokemen,  157  villeins,  and  94  bordiers,  who 
together  formed  an  administrative  district  apart  from 
the  hundreds  of  the  county.  In  this  liberty  the  lands 
held  by  a  sokeman,  and  presumably  also  by  the  other 
tenants,  were  on  the  death  of  the  holder  parted  between 
his  sons,  or  in  the  absence  of  sons,  among  his  daughters. 
If  he  left  only  one  son  and  one  daughter,  the  son  took  the 
whole.  If  he  left  a  widow,  she  held  the  land  for  her  life, 
provided  she  remained  single,  but  if  she  married  again 
she  kept  only  a  third  as  her  dower,  and  the  rest  passed 
to  the  heirs. 

There  is  much  similarity  between  this  custom  and  that 
of  Kent.  There  can  thus  be  little  doubt  that  Leicester- 
shire received  among  its  Anglian  colonists  some  settlers 
who  migrated  from  Kent  or  came  from  Gothland  and 
Frisia.  It  should  be  noted  that  Frisby  and  Gaddesby 
are  among  the  names  of  ancient  places  which  were 
included  within  the  Soke  of  Rothley.  The  early  Anglo- 
Saxon  inhabitants  of  Leicestershire  were  known  as  the 
Middle  Angles,  but  the  laws  of  the  Angles  of  the  Conti- 
nent were  especially  marked  by  preference  for  male 
inheritance  in  the  time  of  Charlemagne.  If  we  may 
assume  that  this  was  an  earlier  custom  characteristic  of 
the  race,  as  it  was  among  the  Continental  Saxons,  it 
would  not  be  likely  that  the  Angles  of  Leicestershire 

1   Domesday  Book,  and  Maitland,  F.  W.,  '  Domesday  Book  and 
Beyond,'  114. 

Settlements  in  Mercia.  337 

brought  in  a  custom  which  recognised  daughters  such 
as  prevailed  at  Rothley.  To  account  for  it  we  must 
conclude  that  there  must  have  settled  among  these 
Middle  Angles  people  who  had  a  custom  of  female  in- 
heritance— at  least,  in  default  of  sons.  As  the  burgesses 
of  Leicester  had  another  custom — that  of  junior  inherit- 
ance— which  was  different  altogether  from  what  pre- 
vailed generally  among  the  Saxons  or  Angles,  we  are  led 
to  the  conclusion  that  the  original  settlers  at  Leicester 
must  have  come  from  some  other  part  of  the  Continent 
where  this  custom  prevailed  ;  and  there  is  reason  to 
believe  it  did  prevail  among  the  Burgundians  of  the 
Baltic  or  people  of  Slavic  or  mixed  Slavic  descent.  Such 
tribes  may  have  been  allies  of  the  Danes  who  settled  in 
Leicester,  Nottingham,  and  other  towns  before  the  end 
of  the  ninth  century.1 

The  evidence  that  the  five  Danish  towns  of  Leicester, 
Lincoln,  Nottingham,  Stamford,  and  Derby,  were  per- 
manently occupied  by  Northmen  of  some  kind  during 
the  earlier  Danish  conquests,  in  or  before  the  time  of 
Alfred,  appears  conclusive  from  the  reference  to  these 
places  in  the  Saxon  Chronicle  in  the  year  941.  This  was 
the  time  when  Eadmund  succeeded  /Ethelstan,  and  his 
various  territories  are  stated.  We  are  told  that  he  sub- 
dued Mercia  and  the  five  towns  '  that  were  ere  while 
Danish  under  the  Northmen.'  This  statement  places 
the  antiquity  of  the  Danish  settlement  in  these  towns 
beyond  doubt,  and  the  custom  of  junior  right  which  is 
known  to  have  prevailed  in  four  of  them,  but  not  in 
Lincoln,  is  significant,  as  pointing  to  people  who  had 
different  tribal  usages  having  probably  settled  in  them, 
although  all  called  Danes.  There  is,  indeed,  some  evi- 
dence that  under  the  pressure  of  population  which  urged 
them  to  the  west,  Slavs  '  established  themselves  in  parts 
of  the  southern  isles  of  Denmark,  Laaland,  Falster,  and 
Langeland,  where  their  traditions  and  place-names  bear 

1  Anglo-Saxon  Chronicle,  A.D.  941. 


338  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

witness  to  their  settlements.'1  If  this  migration  took 
place  at  an  early  date,  as  is  probable,  some  of  these 
Danes  of  Wendish  descent  may  well  have  come  into 
England  with  other  Danes  during  their  earlier  as  well 
as  their  later  incursions. 

Beddoe  tells  us  that  as  a  result  of  his  observations  on 
the  people  of  Leicestershire  and  Northamptonshire, 
compared  with  those  of  Lincolnshire  and  Nottingham- 
shire, he  found  a  considerably  higher  percentage  of  dark 
hair  and  eyes  in  the  two  former  counties  than  in  the  two 
latter.  From  observations  on  540  persons  in  Leicester- 
shire and  300  in  Northamptonshire,  he  found  the  index 
of  nigrescence  to  be  20-8  in  the  county  of  Leicester  and 
31-2  in  that  of  Northampton ;  while  of  500  persons 
observed  in  Lincolnshire,  it  was  only  12-3  ;  and  of  700 
observed  in  Nottinghamshire,  it  was  14-1.  Regarding 
Leicestershire  and  Northamptonshire,  he  says  :  '  There 
is,  if  I  may  judge  by  the  colour  of  the  hair  and  eyes,  a 
strong  non-Teutonic  element.'2  In  order  to  account  for 
this  darker  character  of  the  people  we  must  assume  either 
a" survival  of  people  of  a  darker  British  race,  or  that  a 
considerable  proportion  of  brown  or  dark  people  settled 
in  these  counties  with  the  fairer  Angles  and  Scandi- 
navians. It  has  already  been  shown  in  reference  to 
similar  observations  in  Hertfordshire  and  Buckingham- 
shire that  there  are  Continental  areas  within  the  parts 
from  which  Anglo-Saxon  settlers  came  where  people  of 
a  darker  complexion  still  live,  and  apparently  have  from 
time  immemorial. 

The  original  Mercians  formed  a  comparatively  small 
State,  which  absorbed  the  Gyrwas,  or  Fen  people  of  Lin- 
colnshire, Northampton,  and  Huntingdon  ;  the  Lindis- 
ware  of  north  Lincolnshire  ;  the  South  Humbrians,  or 
Ambrones,  in  the  north  of  Nottinghamshire,  Derbyshire, 

1   Reclus,  E.,  '  Nouvelle  Geographic  Universelle,'  v.  25,  quoting 
Schiern,  '  Om  Slaviscke  Stednavne.' 
3  Beddoe,  J.,  '  Races  of  Britain,'  p.  24. 

Settlements  in  Mercia.  339 

and  part  of  Lincoln  ;  the  Middle  Angles  of  Leicester  ;  and 
the  Pecsetena  of  Derby.  The  Mercians  acquired  the 
southern  part  of  their  territory  around  Bedford  and  west- 
ward from  the  West  Saxons.  The  Hwiccii  of  Gloucester- 
shire and  part  of  Worcestershire  were  also  originally  under 
Wessex.  The  Hecanas  of  Herefordshire,  the  Maegasetas 
of  west  Gloucestershire  and  part  of  Hereford,  the  Wrocen- 
setnas  and  other  tribes  of  Shropshire,  were  probably 
always  Mercian.  The  Derbyshire  people  appear  to  have 
been  annexed  from  Northumbria,  as  later  on  were  the 
Lancashire  people  south  of  the  Ribble.  Under  the  year 
941,  as  already  mentioned,  the  Saxon  Chronicle  describes 
the  Mercian  boundaries  as  extending  from  Dore  to  Whit- 
well's  Gate  and  the  Humber — i.e.,  from  Dore  Valley,  in 
Herefordshire,  to  near  Whitwell,  north-east  of  Clitheroe, 
in  Lancashire,  and  thence  south  and  east  to  the  Humber. 
The  ancient  Diocese  of  Lichfield,  which  also  extended  to 
the  Ribble,  appears  to  confirm  this  identification  of  the 
north-west  extension  of  Mercia. 

The  river  Trent  was  apparently  a  boundary  between 
people  of  different  tribes  at  the  time  of  the  settlement, 
and  even  at  the  present  time  a  fairer  population  is  found 
in  Nottinghamshire  and  Derbyshire  than  in  Leicestershire. 
The  most  probable  view  of  the  settlement  of  these  parts 
is  that  the  British  people  in  the  country  north  of  this 
river — as  far  westward,  at  least,  as  Staffordshire,  the 
Derbyshire  mountains,  and  Cannock  Chase — were  expelled 
or  enslaved  by  an  extension  of  the  settlers  from  what  is 
now  Yorkshire,  or  an  extension  up  the  Trent  valley  of  the 
Gainas  and  Lindiswaras  from  North  Lincolnshire.  In 
this  way  it  is  probable  that  a  compact  Anglian  State, 
which  was  at  first  dependent  on  Deira,  was  formed.1  In 
any  case,  anthropological  research  has  shown  that  both 
Derbyshire  and  Nottinghamshire  have  a  population  at  the 
present  time  which  is  distinctly  fairer  than  that  of 
Leicestershire.  Beddoe  says  of  Derbyshire  :  '  The  type  of 
1  Beddoe,  J.,  loc.  cit.,  p.  66. 

22 — 2 

340  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

the  population  is  certainly  Anglian.  My  own  observa- 
tions, the  military  statistics,  and  those  of  the  Anthro- 
pometric  Committee,  all  agree  in  representing  the  Derby- 
shire people  as  having  lighter  hair  than  all  but  very  few 
English  counties.  East  Staffordshire  is  also  very  Anglian, 
but  no  wise  Danish.'1  It  is  in  Staffordshire  and  the  parts 
of  other  counties  adjoining  it  on  the  west  and  south,  of 
all  the  counties  in  England,  that  traces  of  any  Danish  or 
Norse  settlements  are  the  least. 

One  of  the  most  interesting  of  the  old  frontiers  in 
England  is  that  between  Northamptonshire  and  Oxford- 
shire.    The  former  county  was  within  the  later  Danelaw, 
the  latter  was  not.     The   Danish  territory,   as    settled 
between  Alfred  and  Guthrum,  had  Watling  Street  for  its 
boundary   north    of    Stony   Stratford.     As   extended   a 
century  later,  it  included  the  counties  of  Northampton, 
Buckingham,  Middlesex,  and  Hertford.     There  must  have 
been  a  reason  for  this  extension  of  Danish  law  over  the 
parts  of  Northampton  and  Buckingham  which  are  west 
of  Watling  Street,  and  this  probably  was  the  settlement 
of  Danish  subjects  in  these  counties  between  the  time  of 
Alfred  and  the  end  of  the  Danish  rule  in  England.     They 
were  forest  counties,   and  Danes  were  probably  given 
settlements  in  them.     The  old  place-names  in  the  south 
parts  of  Northamptonshire  bear  witness  to  this.     We  find 
Aynho,   Farthingho    or    Faringho,   Furtho,    Grimsbury, 
Overthorp,  Astrop,  W7arkworth,  Thorpe,  Byfield,  Ab thorp, 
Wicken,  Badby,  Barby,  Farendone,  Ravensthorp,  Kings- 
thorp,  Catesby,  Kilsby,  and  other  characteristic  Scandian 
names.     On  the  Oxfordshire  side  of  this  frontier  names  of 
this  kind  are  scarcely  met  with.      The  names  ending 
in  -o  may  be  compared  with  those  still  in  use  in  Norway, 
where  they  are  very  numerous.     This  Scandian  settle- 
ment in  the  south-west  of  Northamptonshire  was  probably 
a  late  one.      This  extension  of  the  Danelaw  frontier  is 
significant  of  a  change  in  the  general  population,  as  is  also 
1   Beddoe,  J.,  loc.  cit.,  p.  253. 

Settlements  in  Mercia.  341 

the  circumstance  that  as  late  as  the  time  of  the  Domesday 
Survey  payments  to  the  royal  revenue  from  this  county 
were  made  in  Danish  money,  twenty  silver  pennies  being 
reckoned  to  the  ora.  The  survival  of  the  custom  of  in- 
heritance by  the  eldest  daughter  in  the  absence  of  sons 
at  Middleton  Cheney,1  in  the  south-west  of  the  county, 
is  confirmatory  evidence  of  Norse  colonists. 

In  Northamptonshire  we  find  also  a  trace  of  the  Frisians, 
under  the  Northern  name  Hocings,  in  the  name  of  the 
Domesday  hundred  Hocheslau. 

There  are  reasons  for  believing  that  Northamptonshire 
was  partly  occupied  by  immigrants  into  it  from  the  north- 
east, as  well  as  others  from  the  south-west.  Steinberg, 
who  wrote  many  years  ago  on  its  dialect  and  folk-lore, 
says  that  two  distinct  and  opposite  modes  of  speech  may 
be  observed  among  the  rurul  population  of  the  two  ex- 
tremities of  the  county.2  This  immigration  from  two 
directions  would  probably  be  up  the  river  valleys  from  the 
Wash,  and  along  the  Roman  roads  from  the  south  and 
west.  Among  its  immigrants,  earlier  or  later,  some  Wends 
must  have  been  included.  It  has  already  been  pointed 
out  that  in  the  old  place-names  Wendlingbury,  or  Wendles- 
berie  and  Wansford,  also  called  Wandlesworth,3  in  the 
Nen  valley,  we  have  traces  of  Wendish  settlers,  and 
these  people  have  also  apparently  left  other  traces  in  the 
folk-lore.  The  most  remarkable  instance  is  that  of  the 
May-trees,  which  at  the  present  time  are  such  a  character- 
istic custom  in  Russia.  In  Northamptonshire  a  young 
tree  ten  or  twelve  feet  high  used  to  be  planted  in  some 
villages  before  every  house  on  May  Day,  so  as  to  appear 
as  if  growing.4  This  custom  does  not  apparently  prevail 
except  in  Slavonic  counties,  and  where  old  Wendish  settle- 
ments were  made.  / 

1  Elton  and  Mackay,  '  Law  of  Copyholds,"  134. 

2  Sternberg,  T., '  Dialect  and  Folk- Lore  of  Northamptonshire,  ix. 

3  Camden,  W.,  '  Britannia,'  1722,,  Ed.  by  Gibson,  192. 

4  Frazer,  J.  G.,  '  The  Golden  Bough,'  1890  Ed.,  i.  75. 

342  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

Another  example  of  Northamptonshire  folk-lore  which 
points  to  Wendish  influence  is  that  concerning  Bogie. 
This  name  in  reference  to  a  ghost  is  common,  but  in  this 
county  the  word  was  used  in  a  somewhat  more  personal 
sense.  '  He  caps  Bogie  '  was  a  proverbial  expression, 
often  amplified  to  '  He  caps  Bogie,  Bogie  caps  Redcap, 
and  Redcap  caps  Nick.'1  Boge  is  the  Wendish  equivalent 
for  a  god,  and  the  word  is  common  in  Slavonic  languages 
for  a  deity.  Northamptonshire  being  within  the  later 
Danelaw,  the  old  dialect,  in  common  with  that  of  the  East 
Midland  counties,  points  to  a  Danish  influence.  In  these 
counties  the  Southern  expressions  '  I  be,' '  we  be,'  etc.,  are 
not  heard  ;  but  '  I  are  '  for  '  I  am,'  analogous  to  the 
Danish  jeg  er,  is  not  uncommon.  Sternberg  says  that 
'  he  are  '  for  '  he  is,'  analogous  to  the  Danish  han  er,  was 
used  in  north  and  east  Northamptonshire.2  When 
Sternberg  wrote,  the  legend  of  the  Wild  Hunt  had  not 
quite  died  out  in  this  county.  In  Pomerania  and  Mecklen- 
burg, Wode  (Woden)  is  said  to  be  out  hunting3  when 
stormy  winds  blow  through  the  woods,  and  formerly  the 
wild  huntsman  was  heard  along  the  gloomy  avenues  of 
Whittlebury  Forest.4 

As  mentioned  in  a  previous  chapter,  the  county  of  Buck- 
ingham shows  traces  of  settlements  by  Northmen*  Danes, 
and  their  allies,  including  Wends,  in  various  parts  of  it. 
One  of  the  historical  facts  bearing  on  this  settlement  is  the 
Wendish  connection  of  Cnut.5  He  was  King  of  Vindland, 
as  well  as  of  Denmark,  and  Vindland  was  the  name  of 
Mecklenburg  and  Pomerania  in  the  Old  Norrsna  language. 
In  the  early  part  of  the  eleventh  century,  consequently, 
when  England  had  a  King  who  was  also  King  of  the  Wends, 
it  is  certain  that  a  considerable  immigration  of  Danes  and 

1  Sternberg,  T.,  loc.  cit.,  128. 

2  Bonaparte,    Prince    Louis    L.,    '  English     Dialects,'     Philol. 
Soc.  Transactions,  1875-1876,  p.  573. 

3  Wagner,  W.,  '  Asgard  and  the  Gods,'  71,  72. 

4  Sternberg,  T.,  loc.  cit.,  131. 

6  Seebohm,  F.,  '  Tribal  Custom  in  Anglo-Saxon  Law,'  34. 

Settlements  in  Mercia.  343 

Wends  into  England  took  place.  The  formation  by  Cnut 
of  the  body  of  huscarls,  many  of  whom  were  Wendish 
exiles  from  their  native  land,  is  historical.  In  the  north 
of  Buckinghamshire  the  name  Wendover,  which  still  sur- 
vives, is  suggestive  of  some  Wendish  connection  with  that 
part  of  the  county,  and  Domesday  Book  contains  other 
similar  names,  among  which  are  Weneslai,  now  Winslow, 
and  Wandene.  The  same  record  tells  us  that  in  the  time 
of  King  Edward  the  manors  of  Senelai,  Achecote,  Stanes, 
Hamescle,  Haiscote,  and  Lauendene,  had  all  been  held 
by  huscarls  of  King  Edward,  who  had  continued  the  body 
of  men  Cnut  had  established.  The  land  they  occupied 
appears  to  have  been  held  by  huscarl  service,  for  in  one 
instance  Domesday  Book  tells  us  it  was  held  by  one 
described  as  son  of  a  huscarl.  It  is  worth  noting  also  that 
the  name  Lauendene,  now  Lavendon,  closely  resembles 
the  Wendish  name  of  Lauenberg,  and  that  Lauendene 
was  held  by  a  huscarl  in  King  Edward's  time. 

In  the  Anglo-Saxon  Chronicle,  Buckingham  is  written 
Buccinga-ham,  a  name  clearly  referring  to  a  kindred 
called  Buccings.  A  pagus  of  a  similar  name  is  also  known, 
that  of  the  Bucki  in  Saxony,  mentioned  in  the  time  of 
Charlemagne.1  This  or  another  pagus  of  the  same  name 
is  mentioned  as  the  '  Bucki,  pagus  Angariorum  '  in  the 
eighth  century. 2  The  Angarians  of  the  Carlovingian 
period  are  the  same  as  the  Angrivarii  mentioned  by  Taci- 
tus, who  pressed  upon  and  well-nigh  exterminated  the 
Boructarii  in  the  Engern  district,  which  lies  between 
Westphalia  and  Hanover — i.e.,  the  country  anciently 
known  as  Ostphalia.3  By  looking  at  a  map  of  Germany, 
we  shall  see  that  this  '  Bucki,  pagus  Angariorum  '  must 
have  been  located  not  far  from  Brunswick,  and  near  the 
western  border  of  the  more  extended  Saxony  of  the  eighth 
century.  Tacitus  says  the  Angrivarii  were  an  intrusive 

1  Monumenta  Germanise,  Scriptores  i.  155. 

a  Ibid.,  154,  155. 

3  Latham,  R.  G.,  '  Handbook  of  the  English  Language,'  24-26. 

344          Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

people,  and  as  the  advance  in  his  time  was  from  the  east, 
they  probably  came  from  that  direction,  as  their  name 
still  lingers  in  the  old  Wendish  parts  of  Germany.  The 
places  whose  names  begin  with  the  word  Buk-  are  almost 
all,  as  far  as  Germany  is  concerned,  found  in  its  eastern  or 
ancient  Slavic  parts.1  Some  are  also  found  in  the  Slavic 
parts  of  Austria.  West  of  the  Elbe,  Buchau  is  the  name  of 
a  suburb  of  Magdeburg  in  Prussian  Saxony,  a  district 
which  was  close  to,  or  within,  the  ancient  Slav  frontier. 
It  must  therefore  be  allowed  that  the  evidence,  both  ancient 
and  modern,  which  connects  the  name  of  the  people  known 
as  the  Bucki  with  the  old  country  of  the  Wends  in  Eastern 
Germany  is  by  no  means  slight. 

The  traces  of  people  of  different  tribes  which  the 
Domesday  names  in  Hertfordshire  and  Buckinghamshire 
exhibit  are  of  interest.  Danais  and  Daneslai,  in  Hertford- 
shire, point  in  all  probability  to  Danish  settlements, 
while  Wenriga  and  Wenrige  probably  denote  Wendish 

The  fact  already  mentioned  that  there  is  in  Bucking- 
hamshire a  higher  percentage  of  brunettes  at  the  present 
time  shows  that  there  was  some  unusual  element  among 
the  people. 

In  Bedfordshire  there  were  at  the  time  of  the  Survey 
two  hundreds  which  had  the  significant  names  Weneslai 
and  Wilga.  It  is  difficult  to  see  how  they  could  have 
arisen  except  from  settlements  of  people  with  Wendish 
names.  The  name  Wilga  seems  to  denote  a  community 
of  the  Wilte  or  Wiltzi,  the  largest  known  tribe  of  the  Wends. 

Among  the  old  Mercian  shires,  Bedfordshire  and  Buck- 
inghamshire are  remarkable  for  the  various  kinds  of  land 
tenure  which  prevailed  in  them  at  the  close  of  the  Saxon 
period.  In  the  former  there  were  land-holders  who  could 
let  their  land  to  whom  they  pleased,  others  who  could  sell 
their  land,  others  who  could  both  let  and  sell,  and  others 
who  could  neither  let  nor  sell  without  license  from  the 
1  Rudolph,  H.,  '  Orts  Lexicon  von  Deutschland.' 

Settlements  in  Mercia.  345 

superior  lord.  Some  tenants  in  these  counties  were  very 
differently  circumstanced  in  other  respects  in  regard  to  the 
land  they  held,  the  privileges  they  enjoyed,  or  the  obliga- 
tions they  were  under,  and  these  facts  point  to  differences 
in  tribal  custom  extending  back  to  an  early  period. 

The  Anglo-Saxon  names  Huntandune  and  Huntedune,1 
for  Huntingdon,  like  that  of  Buckingham,  were  probably 
given  to  it  from  the  name  of  the  head  or  chief  of  its  original 
family  community.  There  was  a  pagus  of  the  Huntanga 
known  in  Frisia  in  the  eighth  century.2  The  eastern  part 
of  Groningen  in  Holland  appears  to  have  been  its  western 
boundary,  and  the  river  Hunte,  a  branch  of  the  Weser,  to 
be  a  survival  of  this  tribal  name.  As  the  evidence  of  the 
settlement  of  Frisians  in  England  is  unshakable,  and  the 
Huntanga  were  a  Frisian  tribe,  the  old  name  Huntandun 
may  reasonably  be  connected  with  it,  as  derived  from  a 
settler  of  that  tribe  with  his  family  or  kindred. 

There  are  traces  of  Frisians  to  be  found  in  Hertfordshire 
and  the  valley  of  the  Lea.  Such  names  as  Broccesborne 
(now  Broxbourne),  Brockhall,  and  Brockmans,  an  ancient 
manor  connected  with  North  Mimms,3  suggest  the  settle- 
ment of  Frisian  Brockmen  ;  and  those  of  Cockernoe, 
Cochehamsted,  an  old  part  of  Braughing,  and  Hockeril, 
close  to  Bishop's  Stortford,  suggest  similar  settlements  of 
Chaucians  or  Hocings  ;  while  Honesdon,  or  Hunsdon,  is 
suggestive  of  a  settler  of  the  Hunni  tribe.  The  parish  of 
St.  Margaret,  near  Ware,  was  formerly  known  as  Theele,4 
which,  like  Mimms  and  others,  are  manorial  names  sugges- 
tive of  Frisian  origin.  Like  the  custom  on  the  Theel- 
lands  in  part  of  Frisia,  that  of  inheritance  by  the  youngest 
son  has  survived  until  modern  time  at  Much  Hadham  and 
at  Cheshunt  in  this  county.5 

Although  we  cannot  trace  the  survival  of  junior  in- 

1  Codex  Dipl.,  575,  579. 

2  Monumenta  Germanise,  Annales  Weissem.,  A.D.  781. 

3  Chauncy,  Sir  H.,   '  Historical  Antiquities  of  Hertfordshire,' 
p.  530.  *  Ibid.,  p.  284. 

6  Notes  and  Queries,  Seventh  Series,  ix.  206. 

346  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

heritance  over  any  considerable  districts  in  the  Midlands, 
as  we  can  in  Sussex,  and  some  counties  on  the  eastern  or 
south-western  coasts,  yet  examples  of  its  existence  have 
been  found  in  a  few  manors  of  nearly  all  the  old  Mercian 
shires.  It  may  have  existed  among  copyholders  in  other 
manors  only  known  locally.  Elton  says  that  although  in 
the  Midland  counties  it  is  comparatively  rare,  yet  it  has 
been  found  at  the  rate  of  about  two  or  three  manors  to  a 
county.1  From  its  survival  on  a  comparatively  large  scale 
in  some  of  the  maritime  counties  and  on  numerous  manors 
around  London,  and  its  rarity  in  the  Midlands,  we  appear 
justified  in  drawing  the  conclusion  that  this  custom,  as  it 
existed  in  England,  was  brought  by  maritime  settlers, 
and  that,  as  some  of  their  descendants  migrated  farther 
inland,  they  carried  it  with  them.  In  Huntingdonshire 
borough-English  was  the  customary  law  of  inheritance 
at  Gumecester,  or  Godmanchester,2  and  at  Eynesbury.3 
The  name  Gumecester,  or  Gumycester,  may  be  traced  to 
the  Gothic  guma  (a  man),  so  that  the  settlement  of 
northern  Goths  at  Godmanchester,  close  to  Huntingdon, 
appears  to  be  shown  by  both  its  ancient  and  modern 
names.  Some  of  their  allies  who  settled  there  with  them 
may  have  brought  in  the  junior  right. 

In  the  custom  that  prevailed  at  Godmanchester  we 
appear  to  have  an  example  of  the  blending  of  those  of  two 
races — viz.  :  (i)  That  in  favour  of  the  youngest  son,  which 
was  not  Anglian  ;  (2)  that  in  favour  of  males  in  preference 
to  females,  which  was  Anglian.  By  the  laws  of  the  Con- 
tinental Anglians,  males  were  preferred  to  females  as  far 
as  the  fifth  generation.  The  custom  of  Godmanchester 
provided  '  that  if  a  man  have  two  sons  by  his  wife,  and 
one  of  these  have  an  heir  masculine  and  the  other  an  heir 
feminine,  and  if  after  these  sons  do  depart  and  die,  the 
father  of  them  being  alive,  and  after  it  chances  the  father 

1  Elton,  C.  I.,  '  Origins  of  English  History,'  p.  184. 

2  Fox,  R.,  '  History  of  Godmanchester,'  p.  92. 

3  Hundred  Rolls,  ii.  669.  ' 

Settlements  in  Mercia.  347 

of  them  do  die,  then  the  same  heir  masculine  shall  be  the 
heir,  and  not  the  heir  feminine,  though  she  be  of  the 
younger  son.'1 

In  the  manor  of  Liddington-cum-Caldecot,  in  Rutland, 
the  junior  inheritance  custom  that  prevailed  was  that  the 
land  descended  to  the  youngest  son,  and  if  no  son,  to  the 
daughters  in  parcenary.2 

At  Kimbolton  the  custom  in  regard  to  succession  was 
division  among  the  sons,  the  whole  estate  being  kept 
together  under  one,  as  the  nominal  head.  This  was  a 
family  or  tribal  arrangement,  the  parage  or  parcenery 
tenure.  The  Domesday  account  tells  us  that  the  manor 
was  held  by  six  socmen — Alwold  and  his  five  brothers  3 — • 
and  the  entry  probably  points  to  descendants  of  North- 
men of  some  tribe  who  had  retained  a  custom  of  their 
forefathers.  Two  of  the  hamlets  at  Kimbolton  bore  the 
names  of  Wormedik  and  Akermanni,  as  shown  by  the 
Hundred  Rolls,  both  apparently  of  northern  origin. 

The  chief  districts  in  the  midland  counties  where 
partible  inheritance  prevailed  were  the  soke  of  Rothley 
in  Leicestershire,  and  the  soke  of  Oswaldbeck  4  in  Notting- 
hamshire. The  continuance  of  the  custom  to  modern 
time  shows  that  it  must  have  been  of  immemorial  usage 
to  have  satisfied  the  courts  of  the  twelfth  century,  when 
primogeniture  had  become  the  general  law.  Oswaldbeck 
soke  comprised  the  area  of  country  in  the  north-east  of 
Nottingham  between  the  river  Idle  and  the  Trent.  The 
soke  was  a  separate  administration,  and  apparently  was 
bounded  on  the  south  by  places  now  called  East  and  West 
Markham.  It  comprised  the  old  Domesday  manors  of 
Sutton,  Lound,  Madressi,  Crophill,  Laneham,  Ascham, 
Bolun,  Bertun,  Waterlege,  Leverton,  North  Muskham, 
and  Scrobi.  Most  of  these  old  manors  can  still  be 
identified,  but  the  district  contains  at  the  present  time 

1  Fox,  R.,  loc.  cit.,  p.  94. 

2  Elton,  C.  I.,  '  The  Law  of  Copyholds,'  130. 

3  Domesday  Book,  i.  206.  *  Elton,  C.  I.,  '  Gavelkind,'  32. 

348  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

many  newer  villages  and  hamlets.  The  old  list  shows 
which  places  in  the  district  were  probably  settled  first. 
The  custom  of  partible  inheritance  in  Oswaldbeck  was 
limited  to  males,1  whereas  that  of  Rothley  in  Leicester- 
shire provided  for  the  inheritance  to  be  divided  among 
daughters  in  default  of  sons.2  This  latter  custom  points 
to  Goths  and  Frisians,  while  that  of  Oswaldbeck  points 
to  Angles  or  Saxons,  among  whom  male  inheritance  was 
the  rule.  The  country  of  the  South  Humbrians,  or 
Ambrones,  a  tribe  of  Old  Saxons,  may  have  included 

In  reference  to  the  missionary  works  of  Paulinus  or 
one  of  his  contemporaries  among  these  people,  Nennius 
tells  us  that  he  was  engaged  for  forty  days  in  baptising 
the  Ambrones.3  As  they  were  in  all  probability  a  tribe 
of  Old  Saxons,  the  statement  must  refer  to  some  of  them 
who  had  settled  in  England,  and  had  brought  their  tribal 
name  from  the  borderland  of  Frisia  and  Old  Saxony.  The 
old  name  for  the  river  Ems,  as  already  mentioned,  was 
Emmer  or  Ambra  ;  the  country  near  the  Humber  was 
Ymbraland,  and  an  old  Continental  tribe  called  the  Ymbre 
is  mentioned  in  the  '  Traveller's  Song.'4  Under  the  year 
697,  there  is  a  reference  in  the  Anglo-Saxon  Chronicle  to 
the  South  Humbrians,  and  there  are  traditions  of  Paulinus 
baptising  in  the  river  Trent.  In  Derbyshire  there  is,  or 
was,  a  river  named  the  Amber,  from  which  Ambergate 
takes  its  name.5  The  thirteenth-century  records  show  also 
that  there  was  a  place  named  Ambresbur'  in  Derbyshire, 
and  another  of  the  same  name  in  Nottinghamshire.6 
These  old  names  and  the  circumstances  mentioned  appear 
to  denote  that  the  settlements  of  the  tribe  called  Am- 
brones extended  to  some  parts  of  these  counties. 

In  the  borough  of  Nottingham  two  ancient  customs  of 

1  Elton,  C.  I.,  '  Gavel  kind,'  32.  2  Arch&ologia,  xlvii.  97. 

3  Nennius,  '  Historia  Britomim,'  i.  117. 

4  Latham,  R.  G.,  '  Germania  of  Tacitus,'  Epil.  cix. 

5  Derbyshire  Arch&ol.  and  Nat.  Hist.  Soc.,  ii.  33. 

6  Placita  de  quo  warranto,  pp.  154,  659,  Calendar. 

Settlements  in  Mercia.  349 

succession  at  one  time  prevailed,  those  connected  with  its 
English  and  French  inhabitants,  respectively  called  by 
the  Norman-French  names  Burgh  Engloyes  and  Burgh 
Frauncoyes.  The  borough-English  custom  by  which  the 
youngest  son  succeeded  also  prevailed  at  Southwell,1 
which  was  a  soke  having  twelve  berewicks,  or  sub- 
ordinate manors,  belonging  to  the  Archbishop  of  York, 
at  the  time  of  the  Domesday  Survey.  Its  connection 
with  that  See  was  very  ancient,  going  back  to  the  early 
days  of  Christianity  in  York.  Here  it  should  be  noted 
that  the  custom  at  Southwell  was  different  from  that  of 
Oswaldbeck,  the  Archbishop's  extensive  district  in  the 
north  of  the  county.  It  also  differed  from  the  general 
custom  which  prevailed  on  that  prelate's  Yorkshire  land. 
It  could  not,  therefore,  have  been  owing  to  uniformity  of 
tenure  on  those  lands  that  junior  right  prevailed  and  sur- 
vived at  Southwell.  The  custom  was  continued  probably 
because  it  was  the  custom  of  the  early  settlers  at  that  place, 
and  if  so,  it  points  to  people  of  a  different  race  or  tribe  to 
those  in  the  soke  of  Oswaldbeck — to  some  tribal  allies  of 
the  early  Angles  or  later  Danes. 

In  Leicestershire  the  Domesday  place-name  Brochesbi 
may  refer  to  the  by  or  settlement  whose  chief  was  one 
Broche,  so  named  from  being  either  a  Frisian  of  the 
Brocman  tribe,  or  possibly  a  Boructer  of  the  tribe  of  the 
Boructware,  from  whom,  Bede  tells  us,  some  of  the 
English  of  his  time  were  known  to  have  descended.  In 
Leicestershire,  also,  the  Domesday  place  Frisebi  must 
have  been  the  settlement  of  a  Frisian,  as  Hunecote 
probably  was  of  a  Hunsing  named  Hune  ;  Osgodtorp  was 
the  thorp  of  Osgod  —  i.e.,  an  Eastern  Goth;  Suevesbi 
that  of  one  of  the  Suevi,  and  Saxebi  that  of  a  Saxon, 
the  early  settlers  from  whom  the  places  originally  derived 
their  names  being  probably  so  named  in  each  case  after 
the  name  of  their  tribe  or  nation.  The  Domesday 
name  Cuchenai,  in  Nottinghamshire,  points  to  one  or 
1  Elton,  C.  L,  '  Gavelkind.' 

350          Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

more  settlers  of  the  Chaucian  tribe,  and  may  be  com- 
pared with  that  of  Cuxhaven  at  the  mouth  of  the  Elbe, 
which  has  come  down  to  us  in  the  old  Chaucian  country 

Such  old  place-names  as  these  in  parts  of  the  old 
kingdom  of  Mercia  show  that  among  the  so-called  Angles 
that  settled  in  the  Mercian  States  there  must  have  been 
people  of  other  tribes.  The  Angles  of  these  States  may 
have  been  more  Germanic  than  those  of  Northumbria. 
That  there  were  differences  is  certain  from  the  large 
number  of  runic  inscriptions  on  monuments  in  the 
northern  counties,  while  only  two  appear  to  have  been 
discovered  in  the  Mercian  shires — viz.,  at  Bakewell  in 
Derbyshire,1  and  at  Cleobury  Mortimer  in  Shropshire.2 

The  old  Mercian  counties  present  a  remarkable  con- 
trast in  the  manner  in  which  the  original  homesteads  of 
the  settlers  were  arranged.  In  the  east  midland  coun- 
ties villages  of  collected  homesteads  must  have  very 
largely  prevailed,  for  this  is  the  common  type  of  village 
met  with  in  these  counties.  The  old  villages  with 
the  homesteads  more  or  less  collected  always  was  the 
system  in  these  shires  since  the  coming  of  the  Anglo- 
Saxon  people.  They  are  especially  noticeable  in  North- 
amptonshire, Leicestershire,  Huntingdonshire,  Bedford- 
shire, and  Buckinghamshire,  and  they  may  be  commonly 
seen  to  have  roads  leading  to  them  from  various  direc- 
tions, originally  the  ways  from  the  villages  to  the  common 
fields  that  lay  around  them.  At  the  beginning  of  the 
nineteenth  century  130,000  acres  in  Huntingdonshire, 
out  of  a  total  of  240,000,  were  open  commonable  lands,3 
chiefly  pasture.  On  the  other  hand,  in  the  west  midland 
counties,  such  as  Gloucestershire,  Worcestershire,  and 
Shropshire,  the  old  Celtic  arrangement  of  isolated  home- 
steads has  survived  much  more  largely,  especially  in  the 

1  Stephens,  G.,  '  Old  Northern  Runic  Monuments,'  i.  373. 

-  Ibid.,  iii.  160. 

3  Maine,  Sir  H.,  '  Village  Communities,'  88,  89. 

Settlements  in  Mercia.  351 

vale  of  the  Severn,  and  more  particularly  in  the  parts 
east  of  that  river.  The  collected  homestead  system 
which  now  prevails  over  so  large  a  part  of  Holstein  is 
probably  due  to  the  survival  of  the  Anglian  type  of 
village  in  one  of  the  homelands  of  the  Angles,  and  so 
many  of  the  collected  villages  of  the  East  Midland  counties 
are  probably  survivals,  in  plan,  of  the  Anglian  immigrants. 

As  regards  possible  British  survivals  among  the  Anglo- 
Saxon  people  of  the  old  Mercian  shires,  we  must  look 
for  any  traces  of  them,  apart  from  the  country  along  the 
Welsh  border,  in  those  districts  which  were  chiefly  char- 
acterized by  forests  and  fens.  In  the  fen  district  of 
Huntingdonshire  we  meet  with  traces  of  people  of  British 
descent  as  late  as  the  beginning  of  the  eleventh  century, 
for  the  early  historian  of  Ramsay  alludes  to  '  Britones 
latrones,'  or  Welsh  robbers,  as  still  possible  in  that  part 
of  the  country  as  late  as  the  time  of  King  Cnut.i  The 
Fen  country  was  long  a  stronghold  of  Britons,  as  of  Anglo- 
$axons  after  them. 

There  are  incidental  traces  showing  that  during  the 
Anglo-Saxon  period  some  Wilisc  men — i.e.,  Welsh  or 
British — lived  in  Mercia,  as  well  as  in  Northumbria  and 
Wessex.  These  were  treated  as  strangers,  and  their 
wergeld  was  only  half  that  of  others  of  the  same  class. 
They  were  outside  the  kindred  organization,  so  that  in 
the  case  of  crime  being  imputed  to  them  they  could  only 
prove  their  innocence  by  the  ordeal,  the  oaths  of  their 
family  relations  not  being  acceptable,  as  they  were  not 
accounted  freemen.2 

1  Freeman,  E.  A.,  '  Norman  Conquest,'  i.  477,  note. 

2  Seebohm,  F.,  loc.  cit.,  403,  499. 



WE  can  trace  the  expansion  of  the  older  settlements 
in  the  south-western  counties.  Somersetshire 
obtained  its  name  from  its  original  settlers,  the 
Sumersaetas.  These,  as  the  name  implies,  probably  first 
formed  summer  settlements  on  its  marshes,  hill  pastures, 
and  in  its  forests.  To  have  used  these  parts  of  the 
county  for  summer  purposes  at  first  the  Sumersaetas  must 
have  come  almost  wholly  from  Wiltshire  and  Dorset. 
Their  pasturage  places  were  probably  of  the  same  kind 
as  the  Scandinavian  saeters  or  summer  pasture  houses, 
often  many  miles  from  the  permanent  homesteads,  are 
at  the  present  time.  As  the  population  increased  the 
summer  settlements  became  permanent,  and  in  various 
portions  of  the  country,  as  in  the  Vale  of  Taunton, 
immigrants  from  more  distant  parts  were  no  doubt 
located.  Somerset  was  not  conquered  by  the  West 
Saxons  until  after  their  conversion  to  Christianity,  or 
at  least  until  subsequently  to  the  conversion  of  the  royal 
house.  This  probably  explains  the  continuous  existence 
of  Glastonbury  and  its  abbey  from  the  British  period 
into  that  of  the  Saxons.  A  fusion  of  some  of  the  British 
people  with  the  Saxons  went  on  in  this  county,  and  in 
this  the  influence  of  the  abbey,  whose  estates  were  appar- 
ently— at  least,  in  part — confirmed  to  it,  must  have  been 
very  considerable.  This  fusion  probably  explains  Beddoe's 


Settlements  in  the  South-Western  Counties.     353 

conclusion  that  '  almost  everywhere  in  Somerset  the 
index  of  nigrescence  is  greater  than  in  Wiltshire  or  in 
Gloucestershire  east  of  the  Severn. 5l 

It  is  of  some  interest  to  note  that  among  the  early 
settlers  in  Somerset  there  were  colonists  from  Sussex. 
In  the  great  manor  of  Taunton  Dean  the  customs  which 
prevailed  were  almost  identical  with  those  in  the  Rape 
of  Lewes.  This  great  liberty  in  Somerset  resembled  in 
its  constitution  a  Sussex  rape  in  containing  hundreds 
within  it.  These  hundreds  were  Holwey,  Hull,  Nailsborne, 
Staplegrove,  Taunton  Borough,  and  Taunton  Castle.2 

The  chief  customs  of  the  tenants  within  the  barony  of 
Lewes  and  within  the  manor  of  Taunton  Dean  may  be 
compared  under  the  following  heads,3  in  which  they 
were  practically  the  same  : 

1.  The  tenants  were  able  to  alienate  their  land,  and 
so  to  dispose  of  it  by  a  process  of  surrender  in  court,  and 
this  privilege  extended  in  both  districts  to  parcels  of  the 
land  as  well  as  the  whole. 

2.  The  lands  passed  from  a  tenant  to  his  heir  at  his 

3.  By  the  custom  both  at  Lewes  and  at  Taunton  the 
widow  inherited  the  estate  for  her  life.     She  was  admitted 
for  life  by  the  court. 

4.  On  both  manors  if  the  husband  made  a  surrender 
in  favour  of  some  other  person  than  his  wife,  even  if 
done  on  his  deathbed  before  legal  witnesses,  the  widow 
lost  her  right  to  succeed. 

5.  The  guardianship  of  infant  heirs,  at  Lewes  and  at 
Taunton,  was,  by  the  custom  of  both  places,  entrusted 
to  one  or  more  of  the  next  of  the  infant's  kindred,  to 
whom  the  land  could  not  descend. 

6.  By  the  custom  of  both  manors  the  youngest  son 

1  Beddoe,  J.,  '  Races  in  Britain,'  258. 

2  Shillibeer,  H.  B.,  '  History  of  the  Manor  of  Taunton  Dean,' 
Appendix,  xxvii. 

3  Ibid.,  pp.  31-67,  and  Horsfield,  T.  W.,  'History  of  Lewes,' 
178,  179. 


354          Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

succeeded  to  the  estate,  and  if  there  was  no  son,  the 
youngest  daughter.  If  there  were  no  children,  the  estate 
was  similarly  inherited  by  the  youngest  relative  collater- 

7.  The  customary  tenants  on  both  manors  had  to  keep 
their  houses  and  other  customary  tenements  in  repair. 

8.  The  tenants  on  both  manors  were  unable  to  let  or 
farm  their  copyholds  for  a  longer  time  than  a  year  and 
a  day  without  license  from  their  lord's  court. 

9.  The  customary  tenants  both  at  Lewes  and  Taunton 
were  required  to  do  their  suit  at  the  lord's  court  held 
from  three  weeks  to  three  weeks.    There  were  also  similar 
regulations  by  which  defaulters  were  essoyned  or  fined. 

10.  A  reeve  was  appointed  in  every  manor  of  the  barony 
of  Lewes  and  in  every  hundred  of  the  manor  of  Taunton 
Dean  to  collect  the  rents  and  to  act  as  the  lord's  im- 
mediate officer. 

When  we  consider  that  junior  inheritance  and  the  other 
customs  incidental  thereto  were  not  part  of  the  common 
law  of  the  country,  but  prevailed  only  in  certain  dis- 
tricts, having  apparently  come  down  from  very  ancient 
time,  the  similarity  of  these  customs  must  be  allowed  to 
be  very  remarkable  indeed. 

The  earliest  historical  references  to  Taunton  connect 
it  with  Sussex.  The  conquest  of  the  country  around  it 
was  effected  by  Ine,  King  of  Wessex,  in  alliance  with  his 
kinsman  Nunna.  This,  the  Anglo-Saxon  Chronicle  tells 
us,  took  place  in  the  year  710,  when  Ine  and  Nunna  fought 
against  Gerent,  King  of  the  Welsh.  In  a  charter  of  a  later 
date  Nunna  styles  himself  '  King  of  the  South  Saxons.' 

The  Chronicle  tells  us  also  that  in  the  year  722  Queen 
^Ethelburh,  wife  of  Ine,  destroyed  Taunton,  which  her 
husband  had  built.  It  was  probably  owing  to  disloyalty 
or  rebellion  by  the  colonists  from  Sussex  that  this  destruc- 
tion was  necessary.  This  event  agrees  exactly  in  date 
with  that  of  Ine's  war  against  his  former  allies  the 
South  Saxons.  It  is  difficult  to  see  why  it  became 

Settlements  in  the  South-  Western  Counties.     355 

necessary  to  destroy  Taunton  during  a  South  Saxon 
war  unless  there  had  been  a  South  Saxon  colony  in 
and  around  it.  On  the  very  probable  supposition  that 
the  people  in  and  around  that  town  took  part  against 
Wessex  in  the  South  Saxon  war  its  destruction  becomes 
intelligible.  It  is  difficult  to  see  how  the  remarkable 
similarity  in  the  customs  of  the  people  around  Lewes 
and  Taunton  can  be  explained  except  by  a  South  Saxon 
migration.  It  is  difficult  also  to  see  why  Taunton  should 
have  been  destroyed  in  722  except  as  part  of  the  military 
operations  of  a  South  Saxon  war. 

The  evidence  which  appears  to  connect  the  settlers 
around  Lewes  with  the  Wendish  Lutitzer  or  Wilte  tribe 
has  been  stated,  and  whether  a  coincidence  or  not,  we 
find  a  place  named  Wilton  was  an  old  suburb  of  Taunton.1 
The  Saxon  charters 2  also  tell  us  of  a  stream  named 
Willite  and  of  a  place  named  Ruganbeorh,  or  Ruwanborg, 
apparently  named  after  one  or  more  settlers  of  Rugian 
descent,  in  the  Vale  of  Taunton.  The  old  place-names 
of  Somerset  afford  traces  of  settlers  of  various  races  : 
Godeneie3  and  Gateneberghe 4  are  apparently  old  names 
denoting  Goths  or  Geats — i.e.,  Jutes.  Godeworth,5 
Godecumbe,  Guttona,6  and  Godele7  point  also  to  settlers 
of  the  same  name  and  probably  the  same  race. 

The  hundred  of  Winterstoke,  named  after  a  decayed 
village  so  called,  was  one  of  the  old  hundreds  of  the 
county  extending  along  the  coast  from  Clevedon  to 
Weston-super-Mare,  and  inland  to  Axbridge.  On  the 
north  this  hundred  adjoined  that  of  Portbury,  which 
contained  the  district  known  now  as  Gordano.  In  the 
north-east  of  Somerset  a  range  of  hills  extending  generally 
from  east  to  west  finds  its  western  termination  near 
Clevedon.  From  this  place  another  hilly  ridge  stretches 

1  Collinson,  J.,  '  History  of  Somersetshire,' iii.  294. 

2  Codex  Dipl.,  Nos.  1052,  1083. 

3  Ibid.,  Nos.  73  and  567, 

4  Collinson,  J.,  loc.  cit.,  iii.  61.       5  Taxatio  Eccl.  P.  Nich.,  179. 
*  Testa  de  Nevill,  416.  7  Domesday  Book. 


356  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

along  the  coast  in  a  north-easterly  direction  and  ends  at 
Portishead.  The  intermediate  country  between  these 
ranges  has  been  known  for  many  centuries  as  Gardinu'  or 
Gordano.  The  name  appears  in  the  records  in  the  thir- 
teenth century,  where  it  is  stated  that  certain  land  in 
Gardinu'  was  held  at  a  quarter  of  a  knight's  fee.1  Later 
on  we  find  a  record  of  Edmund  Mortimer,  Earl  of  March, 
holding  the  manor  of  Easton  in  Gordon  in  the  time  of 
Henry  VI.,2  and  others  stating  that  Emma  Neuton  held 
the  manor  of  Walton  in  Gordano,  and  that  Richard 
Percy  vale  held  Weston  in  Gordano,  both  in  the  time  of 
Edward  IV.3  This  district  is  separated  by  the  river 
Avon  from  Gloucestershire,  and  among  the  thirteenth- 
century  list  of  land-holders  in  that  county  was  Thomas 
de  Gardino,  who  held  a  knight's  fee  in  Side  and  Gardino.4 

As  we  stand  on  the  hills  near  Weston  in  Gordano  the 
Steep  Holme  and  Flat  Holme  may  be  seen  rising  above 
the  water  of  the  Bristol  Channel,  and  on  the  coast  near 
by  are  places  called  Blacknore  and  Capenore.  All  these 
are  certainly  Danish  place-names.  When  we  consider 
the  strong  evidence  which  exists  of  Scandinavian  settle- 
ments on  the  Somerset  coast  and  up  the  Wye  and  Severn,  it 
does  not  appear  unreasonable  to  connect  this  Gordano  dis- 
trict with  the  Danes,  and  more  particularly  with  that  tribe 
of  them  known  as  the  Gardene  or  Gardanes  mentioned 
in  Beowulf.  Four  places  at  the  present  time — viz., 
Easton,  Weston,  Walton,  and  Clapton — have  '  in  Gor- 
dano '  attached  to  their  names,  the  district  name  being 
evidently  an  old  territorial  one. 

The  name  Winterstoke  may  have  been  connected  with 
this  Danish  settlement,  and  derived  from  Winthr  or 
Windr  settlers,  or  Wends,  who  were  allies  of  the  Danes. 
In  such  a  settlement  some  dialect  of  the  Old  Danish 
tongue,  in  which  Wends  were  called  Windr,  would  cer- 
tainly be  spoken. 

1  Testa  de  Nevill,  1 59&.  2  Cal.  Inq.  Post-mortem,  iv.  85. 

3  Ibid.,  iv.  311,  374.  *  Testa  de  Nevill,  82 

Settlements  in  the  South-Western  Counties.     357 

The  country  around  Glastonbury  was  not  added  to  the 

West  Saxon  kingdom  until  the  time  of  Cenwealh,  who 
in  658  extended  his  frontier  as  far  as  the  Parret.  He, 
a  Christian  King  of  the  Gewissas,  began  to  build  at 
Winchester  the  old  church  of  St.  Peter  on  the  site  prob- 
ably of  the  present  cathedral.  His  successor,  Centwine, 
drove  the  Welsh  to  the  sea  in  682,  and  added  the  Quan- 
tock  district  to  his  kingdom.  Thus,  before  the  end  of 
the  seventh  century  Saxon  Christians  were  settled  in 
parts  of  Somerset.  We  cannot  doubt  that  the  profession 
of  a  religion  common  to  both  races  must  have  had  a 
great  influence  in  preventing  a  war  of  extermination  in 
this  county.  Then,  no  doubt,  began  that  blending  of  the 
two  races  which  can  be  traced  by  ethnological  observa- 
tion in  the  county  at  the  present  day.  Fair  and  dark 
haired  people  may  be  observed  among  the  natives  in 
almost  every  village. 

The  dialect  of  Somerset,  and  particularly  that  of  the 
western  part  of  the  county,  points  to  a  commingling  of 
different  tribal  people  among  the  original  settlers.  In 
the  west,  Elworthy  has  found  eight  forms  of  plural 
terminations,  and  in  a  small  district  containing  two  or 
three  villages,  among  which  is  Kingsbury,  the  word 
utch  for  /  is  still  used.1  The  use  of  this  word  utch  or 
itch  as  a  survival  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  ic  for  /  was  for- 
merly common  in  the  dialect  of  various  parts  of  the 
county.  The  dialect  of  west  Somerset  thus  clearly 
points  to  colonists  of  various  origins. 

The  ancient  ports  of  Somerset  were  Watchet  and 
Portlock,  and  through  them  we  may  trace  the  immigra- 
tion of  early  settlers,  among  whom  probably  came  the 
colony  from  Sussex.  One  of  the  peculiarities  of  the 
settlement  of  the  south-western  counties  is  the  evidence 
pointing  to  the  establishment  of  colonies  on  the  coasts 
before  the  occupation  of  the  interior  of  these  counties 

1  Elworthy,  F.  T.,  '  Grammar  of  the  Dialect  of  West  Somerset,' 

358  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

or  the  subjugation  of  the  whole  British  population  within 
them.  Beddoe's  researches  have  shown  that  a  popula- 
tion much  fairer  than  that  in  the  interior  exists  along 
the  Devonshire  coast.1 

At  Exeter  the  custom  of  partible  inheritance  prevailed, 
the  estate  of  the  father  being  divided  among  both  sons 
and  daughters.  This  might  well  have  been  brought 
there  by  a  colony  of  Goths  and  Frisians,  as  the  custom 
can  be  traced  among  both  these  ancient  races.  This 
could  not  have  been  a  British  survival,  for  in  Wales 
daughters  had  no  share  in  the  paternal  estate. 

There  are  in  Cornwall  traces  of  Norwegian  settlements 
in  the  survival  on  some  manors  of  the  custom  by  which  in 
default  of  sons  the  eldest  daughter  succeeded  to  the  whole 
estate.  In  Cornwall,  also,  the  ancient  divisions  were  called 
shires  instead  of  hundreds,  corresponding  to  the  names 
used  in  those  parts  of  the  northern  counties  where  Scandi- 
navians settled,  and  to  the  names  of  ancient  divisions  in 
Norway  itself,  which  were  also  called  shires. 

The  settlements  that  were  formed  on  the  south-western 
coasts  of  England  resembled  on  the  one  hand  those  early 
colonies  of  Teutonic  people  on  the  southern  and  eastern 
coasts  in  the  earliest  Anglo-Saxon  period,  and  on  the 
other  the  later  settlements  of  maritime  people,  including 
Danes  and  Northmen,  on  the  coasts  of  Wales.  The 
existence  of  colonies  of  Saxons  on  the  eastern  coasts 
before  the  end  of  the  Roman  rule  can  scarcely  be  open  to 
doubt,  from  the  historical  mention  of  the  Saxon  shore 
and  the  ethnological  evidence  afforded  by  the  people  of 
the  maritime  parts  of  north-eastern  France  at  the 
present  time,  the  coast  of  which  had  a  similar  name. 
Similarly,  some  of  the  coast  settlements  of  the  south- 
western parts  of  England  were  probably  of  the  nature  of 
migrations  from  Kent  and  Sussex,  in  association  with 
people  of  the  same  racial  descent  from  Northern  Europe. 
It  must  be  remembered  that  the  maritime  skill  of  the 
1  Beddoe,  J.,  loc.  cit.,  p.  258. 

Settlements  in  the  South- We  stern  Counties.     359 

people  of  the  east  coast  of  Kent  and  East  Sussex  appears 

always  to  have  been  great.  They  were  the  ancestors  of 
the  people  of  the  Cinque  Ports,  and  by  them  communica- 
tions with  the  Continent  during  the  Saxon  period  must 
have  been  largely  maintained.  When  a  migration  be- 
came necessary  for  such  a  population,  a  maritime  colony 
would  naturally  suggest  itself,  in  which  people  of  the 
same  races  would  also  probably  take  part.  At  the  time 
of  the  Domesday  Survey  the  burgesses  of  Dover  by  old 
custom  supplied  the  King  with  twenty  ships  for  fifteen 
days  in  the  year,  each  with  twenty-one  men,  and  they  did 
this  because  he  had  released  to  them  his  sake  and  soke.1 
The  maritime  facilities  of  the  Kent  and  Sussex  ports 
must  have  been  formerly  relatively  great. 

In  the  west  of  England  we  can  trace  the  probability 
of  Kentish  settlers  by  the  survival  here  and  there  of  the 
custom  of  dividing  the  lands  among  all  the  sons,  although 
the  divided  parts  were  taxed  collectively,  and  by  the 
survival  here  and  there  of  the  name  Kent.  Kent  is 
written  in  Domesday  Book  as  Ghent,  and  in  the  same 
record  we  find  Ghent,  now  Kenn,  Chentone,now  Kenton, 
and  Chentesbere,  now  Kentisbear  in  Devonshire.  In 
the  Exon  Domesday,  Kenn  on  the  Somerset  coast,  is 
also  written  Ghent,2  and  Kentisbere  is  written  Chentes- 
beria.  Caninganmaersces  is  mentioned  as  an  old  name  for 
the  Kentish  marshes,  and  Caninganmaersces  in  Somerset 
as  an  old  name  for  Cannington  Marshes.3 

It  is  difficult  to  see  how  these  coincidences  can  be 
explained  except  on  the  supposition  of  Kentish  settle- 
ments. Among  other  Kent  names  in  Devon  are  those  of 
Kent's  Cave  at  Torquay,  and  Kentsmoor,  near  Honiton. 
The  place-name  Hengestecote,  in  the  parish  of  Brad- 
ford,4 Devon,  occurs  in  Domesday  Book,  and  Kentish 

1  Maitland,  F.  W.,  '  Domesday  Book  and  Beyond,'  p.  209. 

2  Exon  Domesday,  p.  132. 

3  Camden,  '  Britannia,'  edited  by  Gough,  i.  ex. 
*  Cal.  Close  Rolls,  1323-1327,  p.  597. 

360          Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

people,  or  Jutes  and  Frisians,  are  the  only  races  whose 
history  and  traditions  tell  us  of  Hengist,  or  among  whom 
the  personal  name  of  the  hero  would  be  likely  to  survive. 
There  was  probably  an  early  settlement  at  Crediton,  as 
shown  by  the  birth  of  Winfrith,  the  missionary  Bishop 
of  Germany,  better  known  as  Boniface,  at  that  place  in 
the  seventh  century. 

That  the  early  colonies  of  Teutonic  people  on  the  south 
Devon  coast  appear  to  have  been  either  migrations  from 
Kent  or  settlements  of  people  of  the  same  race  as  the 
Jutes — i.e.,  Goths  and  Frisians — is  supported  by 'the 
survival  of  the  custom  of  gavelkind  in  Exeter  and 
Totnes,1  by  the  names  of  settlers  in  the  district  around 
Honiton,  of  the  Hunni  tribe  of  Frisians,  mentioned  by 
Bede  as  among  the  ancestors  of  the  English  race,  and  by 
the  survival  of  the  Kentish  name  in  certain  places  along 
the  Devon  coast.  As  regards  the  custom  of  partible 
inheritance  at  Exeter,  it  was  the  Kentish  custom,  under 
which  daughters  divided  the  patrimony  if  there  were  no 
sons,  and  not  the  Welsh,  under  which  they  had  no  inherit- 
ance. This  is  a  remarkable  fact,  and  the  prevalence  of 
the  gavelkind  custom  also  at  Totnes  adds  to  its  signifi- 
cance. The  custom  of  the  Goths  and  Frisians  in  respect 
to  inheritance  extended  the  shares  to  daughters  as  well 
as  to  sons,  as  previously  mentioned. 

In  a  grant  by  King  ^Ethelstan  in  A.D.  9382  to  Earl 
yEthelstan  of  land  at  Lyme  Regis,  which  is  not  far  from 
Honiton,  the  name  Huneford  occurs  as  one  of  the  boun- 
daries. The  Saxon  names  Hunespil,  Honelanda,  Hone- 
chercha,  and  Honessam,  also,  are  met  with  in  the  Exon 
Domesday  record.  The  Domesday  name  Hunitone  for 
Honiton  can  scarcely  have  come  from  any  other  source 
than  the  head  of  a  family  named  Huni,  of  the  Hunni  tribe, 
or  from  a  kindred  of  Hunni  or  Frisian  Hunsings.  Another 
Domesday  name  in  Devon  is  Friseha,  or  Friseham,  which 
appears  to  have  been  derived  from  the  home  of  an  original 

1  Devonshire  Association,  Report  and  Trans.,  vol.  xii.,  193, 
quoting  Hoker's  MS.  2  Cart.  Sax.,  ii.  438. 

Settlements  in  the  South- Western  Coiinties.     361 

Frisian  settler.  Similarly,  the  names  Brocheland  and 
Godescote  probably  denote  a  family  of  the  Brocmen  or 
Boructers  and  of  Goths.  Galmentone  points  to  British 
people,  Danescome  to  Danes,  and  Essemundehord1  possibly 
to  one  or  more  Eastmen.  There  are  also  names  in  the  Exon 
Domesday  which  point  to  the  settlement  in  Devonshire 
of  other  Danish  allies  from  some  of  the  tribal  people  of 
the  Baltic.  Weringehorda  and  Wereingeurda  appear  to 
be  named  after  one  or  more  families  of  Warings,  and  the 
place-name  Wedreriga,  which  is  found  in  the  same  record, 
similarly  denotes  people  from  the  Wedermark — i.e., 
Ostrogoths  from  the  east  of  Lake  Wetter  in  Sweden. 
The  Anglo-Saxon  Curi  names  in  Somerset — Curi  and 
Curesrigt,  and  Curylond,  and  Curymele,  as  well  as  others 
of  the  same  kind  in  Cornwall,  derived,  apparently,  from 
settlers'  names,  are  peculiar  among  English  place-names, 
and  may  reasonably  be  connected  with  the  Curones  or 
Curlanders,  who  were  allies  of  Danes  and  Northmen2 
in  some  of  their  wars,  and  may  have  had  representa- 
tives among  Danish  settlers  in  England. 

The  earliest  settlements  of  Devonshire  and  Cornwall 
were  probably  all  formed  from  the  sea.  In  this  they  dif- 
fered from  Somerset,  where  the  parts  adjoining  to  Wilts 
and  Dorset  most  likely  received  their  earliest  permanent 
colonists  from  the  Wilsaetas  and  Thornsaetas  of  Wilts 
and  Dorset.  The  Devonshire  settlements  began  on  the 
coast  like  the  earlier  ones  of  Kent,  Sussex,  and  Wessex. 
It  is  no  doubt  owing  to  this  that  the  Devon  people  along 
the  south  coast  and  banks  of  the  navig'able  rivers  are  of 
fairer  complexion  at  the  present  time  than  the  people  of 
the  interior.3 

Of  all  the  south-western  counties,  Devonshire  and  Corn- 
wall afford  perhaps  the  best  example  of  the  blending  of 
the  Teutonic  and  Celtic  races.  Herefordshire  and  Shrop- 
shire afford  similar  examples  on  the  border  of  Wales. 
The  old  Cornish  people  differed  from  the  Welsh  in  being 

1   Dom.  Bk.,  Index.  2  Saxo  Grammaticus. 

3  Beddoe,  J.,  loc.  cit.,  p.  49. 

362  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

probably  of  a  darker  complexion,  owing  to  their  descent 
more  largely  from  an  ancient  darker  stock.  The  same 
process  that  went  on  in  Devon  and  Cornwall  went  on, 
apparently,  in  South  Wales,  but  with  a  difference.  In  the 
south-western  counties  the  Teutonic  element  absorbed 
the  Celtic  to  a  great  extent.  In  South  Wales  the  Teutonic 
element  was  to  some  extent  absorbed  in  the  Celtic.  There 
is  a  considerable  percentage  of  people  in  Cornwall  who 
have  red  hair,  and  among  the  country  people  of  South 
Wales  there  are  some  with  red  hair.  It  is  certain  that 
this  is  not  a  common  characteristic  of  either  the  Cornish 
or  the  Welsh.  It  probably  came  in  through  settlers  of 
another  race  in  each  case. 

The  custom  of  junior  right  prevailed  on  the  three 
manors  of  Braunton,  near  Barnstaple.  The  place  was  no 
doubt  originally  one  settlement,  and  the  Domesday  name 
Brungarstone  may  refer  to  it.  In  the  mediaeval  period  it 
became  parcelled  out,  apparently,  into  three  manors,  all 
having  the  same  custom  of  inheritance.  The  widow  of  a 
tenant  had  her  customary  dower  of  the  whole  of  her 
husband's  land  for  her  life,  if  she  remained  chaste  and 
single,  and  the  youngest  son  succeeded.  If  there  were  no 
sons,  the  daughters  shared  equally.1  This  custom  was  not 
Welsh  ;  it  was  not  Saxon  or  Jutish  ;  it  was  not  Anglian. 
Unless  the  settlers  at  Braunton  invented  it — a  most  un- 
likely proceeding — they  must  have  brought  it  with  them, 
and  as  it  did  not  prevail  among  the  Britons  or  Scandi- 
navians, or  generally  among  the  Frisians,  it  must  have 
been  brought  into  Devonshire  by  Wendish  settlers,  or 
perhaps  in  this  instance  by  settlers  from  the  hinterland 
of  Frisia,  or  by  a  migration  from  the  vale  of  Taunton. 
The  common  name,  used  locally,  of  Barum  for  Barnstaple,2 
points,  in  reference  to  the  common  Frisian  termination 
-urn,  to  Frisian  settlers  in  this  neighbourhood. 

Of  all  the  counties  in  England  at  the  present  time, 
Cornwall  has  the  darkest  people.  Its  pre-Saxon  inhabi- 

1  Devonshire  Association,  Report  and  Transactions,  xx.  278,  255. 

2  Gribble,  J.  B.,  '  Memorials  of  Barnstaple,'  pp.  i,  2. 

Settlements  in  the  South-Western  Counties.     363 

w  •' 

tants  do  not  appear  to  have  been  all  of  one  race.  Some 
were  descendants  probably  of  the  Neolithic  or  old  Iberian 
stock,  and  some  of  the  people  of  the  Bronze  Age.  The 
former  were  long-headed  ;  the  latter  were  broad-headed. 
Beddoe  recognises  three  race  types  among  the  Cornish 
people  :  (i)  The  Neolithic  or  Iberian  ;  (2)  the  British  or 
bronze  broad-headed  ;  (3)  the  Saxon  or  other  Teutonic 
invaders.  The  physical  type  which  struck  his  eye  most 
in  Cornwall  was  the  first  crossed  by  the  second.1 
Topinard,  who  also  made  observations  in  Cornwall,  found 
there  many  people  of  a  fair,  tall  type,  with  blue  eyes, 
blonde  hair,  and  a  reddish  complexion.2  These  are  clearly 
descendants  from  Teutonic  or  other  settlers.  A  reddish 
complexion  of  some  kind  is,  according  to  Ripley,  one  of 
the  most  general  characters  of  the  Slavs  of  Russia.3 
Beddoe  says  also  of  the  blue  eyes  :  '  I  am  not  ready  to 
admit  that  pure  blue  eyes  are  more  common  in  the  Teu- 
tonic than  in  the  Slavonic  or  any  other  race.'4  There  is, 
however,  another  trace  of  this  racial  character  among  the 
Cornish  people,  which  is  locally  connected  with  a  settle- 
ment of  Danes,  and  survives  to  the  present  time.  In  all 
the  western  parishes  of  Cornwall  there  has  existed  time 
out  of  mind  a  great  antipathy  to  red-haired  families,  who 
are  popularly  supposed  to  be  descendants  of  Danes,  and, 
much  to  their  own  disgust,  are  often  called  Danes  or 
Deanes.  As  late  as  1870  this  local  prejudice  came  out 
in  a  magisterial  inquiry  at  Penzance.5 

The  possibility  that  the  Danes  and  Northmen  who 
settled  in  parts  of  Cornwall  had  some  Wendish  allies 
among  them  finds  support  in  the  folk-lore  of  the  county. 
Lach-Szyrma6  has  drawn  attention  to  the  remarkable 
resemblance  that  exists  between  Slavonic  and  Cornish 
folk-tales,  and  has  mentioned  instances  in  which  practi- 

1  Beddoe,  J.,  Journal  of  the  Anthropological  InsL,  New  Series, 
i.  328.  2  Ibid.,  i.  329,  quoted  by  Beddoe. 

3  Ripley,  W.  Z.,  '  Races  of  Europe,'  346,  361. 

4  Beddoe,  J.,  '  Races  of  Britain,'  p.  76. 

5  Bottrell,  W.,  '  Traditions  of  West  Cornwall,'  148. 

6  Lach-Szyrma,  W.  S.,  Folk-Lore  Record,  iv.  52. 

364          Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

cally  the  same  superstitions  and  omens  prevail.  Some  of 
these  relate  to  witches,  omens  connected  with  luck,  storm 
myths,  transfixing  the  fiend  in  mid  air,  the  enchained 
spirit  neither  saved  nor  lost,  the  mermaid  and  the  lady 
of  the  lake,  the  river  claiming  its  yearly  tribute  of  a  life, 
etc.  It  is  not  improbable  that  these  Cornish  tales  may 
have  been  introduced  when  the  Scandinavians,  who 
formed  settlements  on  the  coast,  were  in  alliance  with  the 
Wends,  as  they  were  both  before  and  during  the  time  of 
Cnut.  West  Cornwall  has  apparently  some  traces  of  the 
mythology  of  these  Wendish  allies  of  the  Danes.  The 
Wendish  word  for  Thursday  is  Periindan,  after  Perun,  the 
thunder  god,  corresponding  to  the  Norse  Thor,  and  the 
Cornish  place-name  Men  Perhen  and  others  may  be 
traces  of  him. 

Near  Penzance,  also,  the  Cornish  black  spirit  of  evil  omen 
called  Bucca,  Bugga,  or  Buccaboo,  is  still  remembered, 
and  he  may  probably  be  traced  to  the  old  Slavic  Boge, 
the  general  name  for  a  deity,  which  after  the  Christian 
conversion  became  degraded  to  that  of  a  hobgoblin.  The 
most  notable  of  the  folk-tales  common  to  Scandinavia 
and  Pomerania  on  the  one  hand  and  to  Cornwall  on  the 
other  is  probably  that  of  '  Jack  and  the  Beanstalk,' 
which  is  found  with  but  slight  variations,  and  does  not 
appear  to  have  been  a  native  folk-tale  in  intervening 
countries.  In  Norway,  the  Cornish  Jack  the  Giant- 
killer  is  also  known. 

The  common  personal  names  ending  in  -o  among  Cornish 
family  names,  such  as  Pasco,  Jago,  also  point,  apparently, 
to  Scandinavian  colonists. 

The  very  old  place-name  Ruan,  near  the  Lizard,  is,  of 
course,  commonly  derived  from  the  saint  so  called,  but, 
like  some  old  names  found  in  Anglo-Saxon  charters, 
it  is  identical  with  the  Latin  Ruani  used  in  old  German 
records  for  the  people  of  Riigen.  The  name  of  the  Scilly 
Isles  is  Scandinavian,  as  is  Grimsby,  one  of  the  places 
in  the  islands.  St.  Agnes,  also,  may  not  improbably 
be"  traced  to  Hagenes,  a  common  name  among  the 

Settlements  in  the  South-Western  Counties.     365 

Norsemen.1  The  Devonshire  names  ending  in  -beer,  such 
as  Rockbeer,  Houndsbeer,  Aylesbeer,  Lungabeer,  are 
perhaps  of  Norse  origin,  derived  from  the  Old  Norrsena 
word  byr,  corresponding  to  by,  the  ending  so  common  in 
the  Lincolnshire  place-names. 

Those  tenants  who  are  entitled  to  common  rights  .on 
Dartmoor  are  known  as  Venville  tenants.  The  ancient 
form  of  this  name  was  Wengefield  or  Vengefield,  and  it 
was  applied  to  those  free  settlers  in  the  villages  around 
Dartmoor  who  had  summer  pasture  rights  upon  it.  In 
Lincolnshire  there  are  many  fields  known  as  the  wong, 
the  older  form  of  which  was  wang,  such  as  Waring- wang 
and  Quenildewang.2  The  Old  Norse  word  '  vangr,'  or 
'  vengi,'  appears  to  denote  an  enclosure.3  The  word 
*  wang '  or  '  wong '  for  a  field  or  plain  may  not  improbably 
be  traced  to  an  old  Northern  dialect,  and  so  be  another 
trace  of  Scandinavian  settlers  in  Devon. 

The  settlement  of  Danes  and  Northmen,  probably  in 
alliance  with  Wends  or  Frisians,  in  parts  of  Cornwall  is 
shown  by  evidence  of  several  kinds  :  (i)  The  Scandinavian 
place-names  along  the  coast.  Among  these  are  Helston, 
which  may  have  had  some  connection  with  a  settler  from 
Helsingland.  All  the  chief  harbours  in  Cornwall  are  or 
were'  anciently  called  havens,  from  the  Danish  havn — 
viz.,  Falmouth  Haven, Helford  Haven  (leading  to  Helston), 
Bude  Haven,  and  Fowey  Haven.  (2)  The  survival  here 
and  there  in  Cornwall  of  certain  customs  of  inheritance 
which  are  not  Celtic.  On  the  manor  of  Blisland  the 
tenant's  land,  in  default  of  sons,  was  inherited  by  the 
eldest  daughter,  a  custom  pointing  to  Norwegian  settlers. 
On  the  other  hand,  at  Helston  the  tenant's  customary 
heir  was  the  youngest  son,  which  points  either  to  Wendish 
settlers  or  some  of  the  tribal  Frisians.  Frisic  is  an  old 
place-name  near  the  Lizard.  (3)  There  is  also  the  evidence 
of  the  remarkable  parallelism  between  some  of  the  folk- 
lore of  Cornwall  and  that  of  Pomerania,  which  points  to 

1  Streatfield,  G.  S.,  '  Lincolnshire  and  the  Danes,'  28. 

2  Ibid.,  152.  3  Ibid. 

366  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

Wendish  allies  among  the  Norse  settlers.  (4)  The  exist- 
ence of  fair  people  at  the  present  time  among  those  de- 
scended from  old  Cornish  families. 

The  ancient  circles  of  stone  in  Cornwall  have  no 
counterpart  in  the  purely  Celtic  districts  of  Wales,  but 
very  much  resemble  those  in  Scandinavia  and  the  parts 
of  Britain  occupied  by  the  Northern  race.  The  remains  of 
numerous  small  camps  or  earthworks  for  defensive  pur- 
poses along  the  coasts  of  Devon  and  Cornwall,  close  to  those 
rivers  which  might  afford  protection  to  the  ships  of  an 
invader,1  point  to  enemies  by  sea,  as  do  similar  earth- 
works on  the  coasts  further  eastward.  The  most  remark- 
able of  these  in  Devon  is  Grimspound,  in  the  parish  of 
Manaton,  which  is  a  curious  amphitheatre  having  within 
it  no  fewer  than  twenty  circles,  none  of  them  more  than 
5^  yards  in  diameter.  At  the  present  time  two  of  these 
circles  have  stones  set  up  as  pillars  on  their  circumfer- 
ences— thirty-five  in  one  and  twenty-seven  in  the  other.2 
All  the  circles  appear  to  have  originally  had  similar  erect 
stones.  The  area  of  the  whole  enclosure  is  only  4  acres. 
This  remarkable  monument  may  mark  the  site  of  a  Scan- 
dinavian battlefield.  A  battle  is  commemorated  by  a 
number  of  similar  stone  circles  on  Bravella  Heath  in 
Ostergothland  in  Sweden.3  At  Mortura  in  Ireland, 
also,  two  battles  in  which  Northmen,  called  in  the  Irish 
records  Tuatha  de  Dananns,  are  said  to  have  been  engaged, 
are  similarly  commemorated  by  stones  arranged  in  circles 
spread  over  a  large  area.4 

There  is  evidence  of  early  Scandinavians  in  Devon  and 
Cornwall  in  the  stones  which  have  been  discovered 
marked  with  ogham  characters.5  There  is  further 
evidence  of  these  settlements  in  Cornwall  in  inscriptions 
in  the  Northern  language  which  have  been  found.  The 
discovery  of  a  block  known  as  a  pig  of  tin,  now  in  the 

1  Polwhele,  R.,  '  History  of  Cornwall,'  iii.  20. 

2  Devonshire  Association,  Report  and  Trans.,  v.  41. 

3  Fergusson,  J.,  '  Rude  Stone  Monuments,'  281. 

4  Ibid.,  176-183.  5  Taylor,  I.,  '  Greeks  and  Goths,'  no. 

Sett  foments  in  the  South-Western  Counties.     367 

Truro  Museum,  with  a  runic  figure  stamped  on  it,  proves 
that  among  the  metal-workers  in  that  county  during  the 
Anglo-Saxon  period  there  must  have  been  some  to  whom 
the  runic  letters  were  known.  The  figure  on  this  block  is, 
Stephen  says,  a  well-known  character  of  the  English  type, 
and  has  the  equivalence  of  the  letters  s^.1  It  must  be 
remembered,  as  already  mentioned,  that  the  Goths  of 
Scandinavia,  who  first  wrote  in  runic  letters,  were  the 
most  skilled  metal-workers  in  Europe  during  the  centuries 
immediately  after  the  fall  of  the  Roman  Empire.  Runic 
letters  similar  to  those  on  the  block  of  tin  now  at  Truro 
have  lately  been  discovered  in  an  inscription  found  at 
Odemotland  in  Norway,  the  identification  of  which  was 
one  of  the  last  made  by  Stephens  before  his  death.2 
Another  discovery  pointing  to  Scandinavians  or  their 
descendants  in  Cornwall  is  that  of  the  inscribed  slab  found 
at  Lanteglos  between  Bodmin  and  Camelford,  and  now,  or 
lately,  in  the  rectory  grounds  at  Lanteglos.  It  is  not  in  runic 
letters,  but  in  an  old  dialect  resembling  a  Scandian  dialect, 
and  identified  by  Stephens  as  about  A.D.  noo  in  date.3 

There  can  therefore  be  no  doubt  that  people  speaking 
dialects  of  the  Old  Norraena  or  Danish  language  were 
settled  in  isolated  colonies  at  an  early  period  on  the 
coasts  of  the  south-western  counties,  or  that  in  the  tenth 
century,  when  King  Edgar  ordered  his  laws  '  to  be  common 
to  all  the  people,  whether  English,  Danes,  or  Britons,  on 
every  side  of  my  dominions,'  he  had  in  view  these 
maritime  settlements  in  the  south  as  well  as  the  great 
Danish  settlements  in  the  north  and  east. 

The  arrangement  of  the  homesteads  over  a  great  part 
of  the  south-western  counties,  more  particularly  in  the 
hilly  parts,  is  even  at  the  present  time  largely  that  of  iso- 
lated farms  and  hamlets.  This  is  probably  a  survival  of 
that  of  the  Celtic  tribesmen,4  who  had  both  permanent 
and  temporary  homesteads,  feeding  their  herds  in  summer 

1  Stephens,  G.,  Old  Northern  Runic  Monuments,"  i.  372, 

2  Ibid.,  iv.  25.  3  Ibid.,  iv.  102. 

4  Seebohm,  F.,  '  Tribal  Custom  in  Wales,'  46,  47. 

368  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

on  the  higher  ranges  of  the  hills  and  in  winter  in  the 
villages,  as  is  the  case  in  the  Highlands  of  Scotland  and 
in  Switzerland.  The  same  homestead  arrangement  pre- 
vails in  Scandinavia. 

The  settlement  of  the  south-western  counties  was 
accompanied  by  a  migration  of  some  British  people,  and 
perhaps  by  a  reflux  of  descendants  of  the  same  race.  As 
Wales  was  the  refuge  of  those  who  were  driven  from  the 
old  homes  in  the  midland  counties,  and  Cumberland  their 
refuge  in  the  north,  so  there  is  both  historical  and  archae- 
ological evidence  that  Brittany  received  Celtic  refugees 
from  probably  the  south-western  parts  of  Britain.  We 
are  told  that  '  Britons  who  dwelt  as  early  as  the  sixth 
century  beyond  the  sea  were  passing  over  into  Lesser 
Britain ' —  i.e.,  Brittany.1  At  that  time  Armorica, 
although  diminished  from  its  ancient  extent,  still  existed 
as  a  separate  State,  extending  as  far  south  as  Nantes.2 
There  is  evidence  in  relation  to  South  Wales,  as  will  be 
stated  in  the  next  chapter,  to  show  that  some  very  early 
Teutonic  settlements  were  established  in  Pembrokeshire, 
and  equally  early  colonies  may  have  been  formed  on  the 
south-west  coast  of  England.  Ermold,  a  French  monk 
who  wrote  in  the  early  part  of  the  ninth  century,  records 
the  arrival  in  Brittany  of  Britons  fleeing  from  their 
Teutonic  enemies,3  and  he  lived  sufficiently  near  to  the 
time  in  which  this  migration  is  said  to  have  occurred 
for  the  traditions  concerning  it  to  have  been  local  history 
when  he  visited  Armorica  in  824.  In  connection  with  this 
migration,  we  must  consider  also  the  interesting  contem- 
porary statement  of  Asser,  that  in  King  Alfred's  time 
Armoricans  were  among  those  people  of  foreign  birth 
who  voluntarily  placed  themselves  under  his  rule.  In 
Alfred's  time  some  of  the  descendants  of  the  former 
British  refugees  may  well  have  returned,  and  if  so,  the 
south-western  counties  probably  received  them. 

1  Boase,  W.  C.,  '  The  Age  of  the  Saints,'  165,  quoting  '  Chron. 
in  Morice,'  i.  3.  -  Ibid. 

3  Ermoldus,  Nigellus,  Monumenta  Germaniae,  ii.  490. 



AT  an  early  time  in  the  Saxon  period  the  district  which 
is  now  Gloucestershire  became  a  frontier  country. 
It  was  opened  to  settlement  on  the  east  of  the 
Severn  by  the  victory  of  Ceawlin,  King  of  Wessex,  at 
Deorham  in  577.  The  Severn  then  became  the  boundary 
between  the  Britons  and  Saxons,  and  the  county  was  down 
to  a  late  period  considered  to  be  within  the  Marches  of 
Wales.  The  Gloucestershire  country  east  of  the  Severn, 
which  was  originally  part  of  Wessex,  became  later  on 
separated  from  it  under  the  rule  of  Ceolric  of  the  West 
Saxon  royal  house,  and  was  subsequently  absorbed  by 
Mercia.  This  is  of  interest  in  pointing  to  the  direction 
from  which  this  county  probably  received  its  earliest 
Saxon  settlers.  The  early  administration  of  this  district 
appears  to  have  been  connected  with  Gloucester,  Berkeley, 
Tewkesbury,  and  Cirencester.  There  was  an  extensive 
administrative  area  attached  to  Tewkesbury  as  late  as 
the  Norman  survey.  The  Berkeley  administrative  area 
was  also  large,  and  was  known  for  many  centuries  as 
Berkeley-herness.  This  name  appears  to  be  Scandinavian, 
and,  like  those  of  Inverness  in  Scotland,  Agremundreness 
in  Lancashire,  and  Holderness,  the  Berkeley  district  as  a 
separate  area  may  have  had  a  Scandinavian  origin. 

In  Gloucestershire,  as  in  the  northern  counties,  the  evi- 
dence of  earlier  Scandinavian  settlers  is  much  mixed  with 

369  24 

370  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

that  of  the  later,   so  that  it  is  not  possible   in   some 
localities  to  distinguish  the  earlier  from  the  later. 

The  evidence  of  Northern  settlers,  whether  of  earlier 
or  later  date,  is  remarkable.  Near  Bristol  is  a  place 
called  Yate,  the  Geate  mentioned  in  several  Saxon 
charters.  Another  old  name,  probably  denoting  the 
settlement  of  a  Goth,  is  Mangotsfield  ;  Hacananhamme, 
or  Hacon's  ham,  the  old  name1  for  Hanham,  near 
Bristol,  is  clearly  Scandinavian.  In  Gloucestershire, 
and  close  to  it  along  the  Wye,  there  were  small  areas 
called  shires,  corresponding  to  hundreds  similar  to 
the  shires  in  the  northern  counties,  and  to  the  shires 
of  ancient  Norway.  There  are  old  records  relating  to 
Blakeborneshire  and  Pignocshire,  near  the  Severn  and 
the  Wye.  Huntishamshire  was  the  name  for  a  de- 
tached part  of  Monmouthshire,  near  Welsh  Bicknor. 
In  the  south  of  the  county,  also,  is  an  old  hamlet  called 
Kendalshire.  The  name  Scir-mere  occurs  in  a  Saxon 
charter,  and  the  modern  name  Shirehampton,  nee 
Bristol,  may  be  a  survival  of  one  of  these  old  names. 

The    name    Berkelai-erness,    as    already    mentionec 
clearly  corresponds  to  those  of  Holderness  and  Agremi 
dreness,  both  of  which  received  Northmen  among  thei 
colonists.     The    termination  -czrnes  is  common  among 
the  place-names  of  Scandinavia.     The  tidal  bore  in  the 
Severn  at  the  time  Camden  wrote  still  retained  its  Scan- 
dinavian name  Hygre,  derived  from  the  Norse  mytho- 
logical name  Oegre,  the  Neptune  of  Northern  tribes.    The 
Scandinavian  name  Brostorp  is  a  Domesday  name  neai 
Gloucester,  south  of  which  place  are  also  Brookthorp  anc 

The  dialect  of  the  vale  of  Berkeley  differs  both  ii 
words  and  pronunciation  from  that  of  the  vale  of  Glou 
cester,  higher  up  the  river.2  As  already  noted  in  relatioi 
to  Somersetshire,  the  Scandian  name  Holm  appears  ii 

1  Cart.  Sax.,  ii.  588. 

2  English  Diaelct  Society,  '  Glossary,'  by  D.  Robertson,  194. 

Settlements  on  the   Welsh  Border.          371 

the  names  Great  Holm  and  Flat  Holm  for.  islands  at  the 
mouth  of  the  Severn.  It  occurs  also  in  Holm  Lacy,  near 
Hereford.  Some  remarkable  Scandinavian  names  are 
found  along  the  lower  course  of  the  Severn.  Sanagar, 
anciently  written  Sevenhangar,  is  that  of  one  of  the  old 
tythings  of  Berkeley,  and  Saul,  also  near  the  river, 
reminds  us  of  the  Saul  district  and  the  Saulings,  whose 
name  is  mentioned  in  a  runic  inscription  at  Glavendrup 
in  Scandinavia.1  The  forest  district  of  Dean  between  the 
Severn  and  the  Wye  was,  apparently,  named  after  Dene, 
for  Dane,  and  not  den,  a  wood.  Giraldus  Cambrensis, 
writing  in  the  twelfth  century,  tells  us  that  the  Dean 
Forest  was  known  in  his  time  as  Danubia  and  Danica 
Sylvia,  or  Danes'  Wood.2  The  name  Danube  for  the 
country  of  the  Danes  is  an  old  one.  Asser,  in  his  '  Life  of 
Alfred,'  says  that  hi  the  year  866  a  large  fleet  of  pagans 
came  to  Britain  from  the  Danube.  The  old  name  Dene 
for  this  forest  district  appears  thus  to  be  that  of  Dene, 
the  Danish  name,  and  it  is  still  called  Dane  in  the  local 
pronunciation.  The  language  of  the  ancient  Northmen 
has  survived  to  the  present  day  in  the  name  Aust, 
anciently  Austrecliue,3  or  Aust  cliff,  on  the  east  side  of 
an  ancient  ferry  across  the  Severn,  near  Bristol,  austr 
being  the  Old  Northern  word  for  east.4  Mona  is  a 
variation  of  the  name  of  the  stream  called  Monow,  which 
joins  the  Wye  at  Monmouth,  and  Mona  is  the  latinised 
form  of  the  name  of  the  Danish  island  Moen,  or  Mon. 

Ethelweard  tells  us  in  his  Chronicle  that  in  877  the 
Danes  made  a  settlement  of  some  kind  in  Gloucester. 
The  custom  of  borough-English  still  survives  there,  as 
it  did  at  Stamford,  Nottingham,  Derby,  and  Leicester, 
all  of  which  were  Danish  towns,  and  we  may  reasonably 
connect  the  custom  at  Gloucester  with  some  of  the  so- 
called  Danes  who  may  have  settled  there.  The  custom 

1  Stephens,  G.,  '  Old  Northern  Runic  Monuments,'  ii.  1009. 

2  Archcsological  Journal,  xviii.  342. 

3  Domesday  Book.  *  Cleasby  and  Vigfusson,  Icel.  Diet. 

24 — 2 

372  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

was  probably  brought  by  some  allies  of  the  real  Danes, 
perhaps  people  of  the  Wendish  or  a  mixed  race.  The 
custom  of  the  real  Danes  of  Old  Denmark  was  that  of 
partible  inheritance. 

Gloucestershire  had  a  custom  that  resembled  one  of 
those  of  Kent — viz.,  that  under  which  the  lands  and 
tenements  of  condemned  felons  were  not  forfeited.  They 
were  only  held  by  the  Crown  for  a  year  and  a  day.  In 
this  we  may  see  a  resemblance  both  to  the  custom  of 
Kent  and  that  of  the  Archenfeld  part  of  Herefordshire. 

The  settlements  in  the  lower  parts  of  the  valleys  of  the 
Severn  and  the  Wye  appear  to  have  been  effected  by 
direct  maritime  migrations.  The  ships  of  the  period 
could  ascend  these  rivers  by  aid  of  the  strong  tide  which 
flows  up  them  to  the  neighbourhood  of  Gloucester  and 
Monmouth.  Goths  or  Kentish  colonists  on  the  Wye 
have  not  only  left  a  trace  of  their  name  in  that  of  Gode- 
rich,  now  Goodrich,  but  also  in  some  of  their  customs 
in  the  district  known  as  Ircingafeld1  or  Archenfeld.  It 
comprised  the  south  part  of  Herefordshire,  having  the 
Wye  on  the  east  and  Monmouthshire  on  the  south. 
Some  remarkable  old  Kentish  place-names  can  be  traced 
within  or  near  it,  such  as  Kentchurch,  Kenchester, 
Kentyshburcote,2  and  Kenthles.3  These  names,  together 
with  the  customs  which  prevailed,  show  that  the  Hereford- 
shire province  of  Archenfeld  must  have  received  Kentish 
people  among  its  Gothic  or  Jutish  settlers,  who  had  no 
doubt  inferior  Welsh  tenants  under  them.  The  local 
customs  of  Archenfeld  closely  resembled  those  of  Kent. 
That  of  partible  inheritance,  of  the  same  nature  as 
Kentish  gavelkind,  survived  in  the  district  until  it  was 
abolished  in  the  reign  of  Henry  VIII.  This  Kentish 
custom  differed  from  the  partible  custom  that  prevailed 
in  Wales  in  three  essential  particulars,  which  will  beai 
repetition  :  (i)  By  the  Kentish  custom  in  Archenfelc 

1  Anglo-Saxon  Chron.,  2  Testa  de  Nevill. 

3  Cal.  Inq.  p.m.,  ii.  34,  196. 

Settlements  on  the   Welsh  Border.          373 

only  legitimate  sons  inherited  the  paternal  'estate.  By 
:'the  Welsh  custom  all  sons,  legitimate  or  otherwise,  had 
their  shares,  or  in  early  centuries  fought  for  them. 
Giraldus,  writing  in  the  twelfth  century,  tells  us  of  the 
contention  of  legitimate  and  illegitimate  sons  for  shares 
of  the  paternal  estate.  (2)  By  the  custom  of  Archenfeld, 
like  that  of  Kent,  daughters  inherited  if  there  were  no 
sons.  Under  the  Welsh  custom  they  did  not.  (3)  By 
the  custom  of  Archenfeld,  like  that  of  Kent,  widows 
were  entitled  to  their  dower  of  half  their  husbands'  custom- 
ary estate.  Under  the  Welsh  custom  they  had  no  dower. 

The  resemblances  between  the  other  local  customs  are 
also  remarkable.  In  Kent,  if  a  tenant  in  gavelkind  was 
convicted  of  crime  and  executed,  his  land  was  not  for- 
feited, but  went  to  his  heirs.  This  was  known  as  '  the 
father  to  the  bough,  the  son  to  the  plough '  custom,1 
and  was  a  rare  privilege,2  which  the  people  of  Archenfeld 
also  had.  In  Kent,  a  tenant  in  gavelkind  had  the  power 
of  bequeathing  his  land  to  whom  he  pleased,  and  the 
people  of  Archenfeld  had  a  similar  privilege  in  respect 
to  land  they  acquired. 

The  most  remarkable  of  these  parallel  customs  is,  how- 
ever, that  under  which  the  men  of  Kent  claimed  as  their 
immemorial  right  the  privilege  in  war  of  being  marshalled 
in  front  of  the  King's  army,  a  claim  that  was  recognised.3 
The  men  of  Archenfeld  claimed  and  had  allowed  to  them 
the  same  honourable  distinction.4  These  remarkable 
coincidences  clearly  indicate  a  Kentish  colony. 

This  district  of  Herefordshire  appears  to  have  been  in 
any  case  occupied  by  Teutonic  settlers  at  an  early  period, 
and  to  have  become  an  outlying  part  of  Mercia  by  the 
end  of  the  seventh  century.  Ceolred,  King  of  Mercia^ 
dated  a  charter  '  in  loco  Arcencale,'  probably  only  a 
variation  of  the  name,  early  in  the  eighth  century. 

1  Elton,  C.  I.,  '  Gavelkind,'  p.  176.  2   Ibid.,  p.  192. 

3  Ibid.,  p.  229,  quoting  Camden  and  Gervase. 

4  Hazlitt's  ed.  of  Blount's  '  Tenures,'  p.  173. 

374  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

The  Scandinavian  evidence  already  mentioned  points 
to  a  later  settlement  between  the  Severn  and  the  Wye, 
and  also  in  the  north  of  Monmouthshire.  This  country 
and  that  near  the  west  of  Herefordshire  was  part  of  the 
district  of  the  Dunsetas,  where  English  settlers  of  some 
kind  lived  side  by  side  with  the  Wealas  or  Welsh.  In 
Ethelred's  ordinance  relating  to  the  Dunsetas x  provision 
is  made  for  diffusing  among  them  a  knowledge  of  the 
laws  they  were  required  to  obey,  and  it  is  expressly  stated 
that  twelve  lahmen  shall  explain  the  law  to  both  the 
Wealas  and  the  English,  of  whom  six  shall  be  English 
and  six  Welsh.  The  significance  of  this  ordinance  is 
in  the  legal  terms  used2 — lahcop,  Old  Norse  logkaup,  and 
witword,  Old  Norse  vitorth.  The  term  lahmen  is  also 
Danish,  and  is  mentioned  in  Domesday  Book  in  connec- 
tion with  the  administration  of  the  Danish  towns,  such 
as  Stamford.  The  names  lawrightmen  and  lawmen 
survived  in  Shetland  until  comparatively  modern  times.3 
There  is  also  a  reference  to  the  twelve  lahmen  in  the 
'  Senatus  consul  turn  de  Monticolis  Walliae,'4  who  were, 
apparently,  the  successors  of  those  appointed  for  the 
Dunsetas  a  century  earlier.  If  the  English  people  among 
the  Dunsetas  had  not  been  of  Danish  or  Northern  descent, 
Norrena  or  Danish  names  for  legal  officials  and  legal 
terms  would  not  have  been  used  in  this  ordinance. 
Sweden  and  Gothland  in  olden  time  were  the  land  of 
lagmen  or  lahmen,  for  the  whole  territory  was  a  con- 
federation of  commonwealths,  each  with  its  assembly 
of  freemen,  law-speaker  and  laws.5 

From  the  evidence  relating  to  Archenfeld  there  can  be 
little  doubt  of  an  early  settlement  of  Kentish  colonists 
or  Goths  in  that  district,  as  there  was,  perhaps,  in  other 
parts  of  the  same  county,  and  a  later  settlement  of 

1  Laws  of  Ethelred. 

2  Worsaae,  J.  J.,  '  Danes  and  Norwegians  in  England.' 

3  Proceedings  Soc.  Antiq.  Scot.,  xxvi.  189,  190. 

4  Domesday  Book,  General  Introduction,  by  Sir  H.  Ellis. 

5  Cleasby  and  Vigfusson,  '  Icelandic  Diet.,'  see  log-mathr. 

Settlements  on  the   Welsh  Border.          375 

Northmen.  The  only  record  of  any  political  connection 
between  Kent  and  Herefordshire  occurs  in  the  seventh 
century,  when  Merewald,  viceroy  of  the  Hecanas,  or 
tribal  people  of  that  county,  and  brother  of  Wulfhere, 
King  of  Mercia,  married  Eormenbeorh,  a  princess  of 
Kent.  She  was  a  granddaughter  of  King  ^Ethelbert, 
and  a  cousin  of  Eormengild,  who  married  King  Wulf- 
here. Between  the  royal  houses  of  Kent  and  Mercia 
there  was  by  these  marriages  a  double  alliance.  Mere- 
wald was  also  called  ealdorman  of  the  West  Angles.  In 
the  eighth  century  we  read  of  Arcencale  as  apparently 
part  of  Mercia,  and  by  that  time  it  had  perhaps  already 
received  its  Kentish  or  Gothic  settlement,  of  which 
Goderich  became  the  administrative  centre.  It  is  prob- 
able also  that  before  the  time  of  Ethelred  II.,  King  of 
Wessex,  there  had  been  a  further  settlement  of  Danes 
or  Northmen  along  this  Welsh  border,  seeing  that  officials 
with  old  Danish  titles  were  appointed  to  explain  the  laws 
to  the  Dunsetas. 

One  of  the  proofs  of  Scandinavian  settlements  in  the 
border  counties  is  the  hope  place-names.  Among  the 
names  on  the  coasts  of  Scotland  and  in  the  parts  occupied 
by  Scandinavians  in  that  country  are  a  large  number 
of  hope  names.  There  were  sea-shelters  so  named  by 
them,  such  as  Long  Hope,  Kirk  Hope,  Pan  Hope,  and 
St.  Margaret's  Hope,  in  the  Firth  of  Forth,  another  in 
the  Orkneys,  and  Gray  Hope  in  Aberdeen  Bay.  The 
Norse  settlers  in  the  south  of  Scotland  also  gave  the 
name  hope  to  inland  places  which  were  shelters  between 
hills.  There  are  sixty  hopes  in  the  counties  of  Peebles 
and  Selkirk  alone,  and  many  more  in  Roxburghshire  and 
the  Cheviot  country.1  The  derivation  from  h6p,  Ice- 
landic, an  inlet  of  water,  is  clear  for  the  sea  hopes,  and 
in  the  sense  of  land  havens  in  exposed  hilly  regions  for 
the  inland  places  so  named.  The  termination  -hope  is 

1  Christison,  D.,  '  Place-Names  in  Scotland,'  Proceedings 
Soc.  Antiq.  Scot.,  xxvii.  269. 

376  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

often  pronounced  -op  and  -up.  The  place-names  along 
the  Welsh  borderland  show  some  remarkable  examples 
of  this  kind — i.e.,  places  with  names  ending  in  -op  and 
-hope.  In  the  east  of  Radnorshire  we  find  old  places 
named  Cascop,  Augop,  and  Hope ;  in  Shropshire,  Hope 
Bagot,  Hope  Bowdler,  Hope  Hall,  and  Hope  Sey  ;  in 
Herefordshire  and  along  the  Gloucestershire  border, 
Hopend,  Faunhope,  Woolhope,  Hope,  Hope-Mansel, 
Longhope,  Arcop  or  Orcop,  Brinsop,  Seller's  Hope,  and 
the  Domesday  name  Gadreshope. 

Wigmore,  Wormsley,  and  Ross  appear  to  be  names  of 
Northern  origin.  The  old  district  shire  names  already 
referred  to  are  also  remarkable.  The  Scandian  termina- 
tion -ore  appears  in  the  names  of  English  and  Welsh 
Bicknor,  Yasor,  Eastnor,  and  Radnor. 

The  Herefordshire  Domesday  hundred  names  include 
those  of  Radelau,  Thornlau,  and  Wermlau,  which  appear 
to  be  of  Northern  origin,  and  at  Harden  in  this  county 
the  old  Norse  custom  survived  by  which  in  default  of  sons 
the  eldest  daughter  succeeded  to  the  whole  inheritance.1 

The  Teutonic  colonies  on  the  coast  of  South  Wales 
have  been  commonly  ascribed  to  the  Flemings  settling 
there  in  the  late  Norman  period.  The  dialect  of  Gower 
and  Pembrokeshire,  which  resembles  the  West  Saxon, 
shows,  however,  no  trace  of  Flemish  influence.  A.  J. 
Ellis,  who  investigated  this  subject,  says  that  at  most 
there  could  only  have  been  a  subordinate  Flemish 
element,  which  soon  lost  all  traces  of  its  original  but 
slightly  different  dialect,  while  the  principal  elements 
must  have  been  Saxon,  as  in  Gower  and  the  Irish  baronies 
of  Bargy  and  Forth,  in  the  south-east  corner  of  Ireland. 2 
A  Flemish  settlement  in  South  Wales  is  historical,  but 
the  loss  of  all  linguistic  traces  of  it  shows  that  the  descen- 
dants of  these  settlers  were  absorbed  among  the  much 
larger  population  of  Saxon  and  Scandinavian  descent 

1  Elton,  C.  I.,  '  Law  of  Copyholds,'  134. 

2  Rhys,  J.,  '  The  Welsh  People,'  p.  29. 

Settlements  on  the  Welsh  Border.          377 

previously  located  there.  This  view  is  supported,  first, 
by  the  place-names  which  are  of  the  West  Saxon  and 
Scandinavian  types  ;  and,  secondly,  by  the  customs  of 
a  large  number  of  manors  in  Glamorganshire,  which  are 
different  from  the  Welsh,  and  bear  a  close  resemblance 
to  those  in  west  Somerset,  to  which  locality  the  dialect 
also  points.  There  must  have  been  a  connection  between 
the  settlers  on  both  sides  of  the  Channel,  as  the  dialect, 
customs,  and  general  character  of  the  old  names  show. 

There  is  also  evidence  which  shows  that  the  coast  of 
Wales  and  its  border  near  the  sea  was  occupied  by 
Anglian  settlers  at  an  earlier  period  than  that  of  the  main 
settlements  by  Northmen,  and  this  may  be  summarised 
as  follows  :  The  topographical  name  Angle  survives  on 
the  coast,  and  can  be  traced  also  in  old  records  on  the 
north-east  border  of  Wales.  There  are  Anglesea  on  the 
north-west,  Angle  and  Angle  Bay  in  Pembroke  Harbour, 
and  Pen  Anglas,  a  promontory  west  of  Fishguard  Bay. 
In  the  Patent  Rolls  9  Edward  I.  and  other  documents  we 
read  of  the  cantred  of  Ross  and  Englefeld,  in  or  very  near 
the  county  of  Chester.  It  may  be  considered  certain 
that  these  Angle  place-names  were  not  given  to  the  dis- 
tricts to  which  they  refer  by  the  Welsh.  Their  name 
for  Angles,  Saxons,  and  Jutes  alike  was  Saxons,  similar 
to  the  popular  Irish  name  for  the  English  at  the  present 
time.  These  old  place-names  must  have  originated  at  a 
time  when  Angle  was  in  use  as  a  distinctive  name  for 
people  who  migrated  from  England  or  for  settlers  from 
the  North  of  Europe.  During  the  Viking  period  such 
settlers  would  be  known  as  Northmen  and  Danes.  It  is 
not  at  all  probable  that  the  Angles  of  Northumbria  or 
parts  of  Mercia  formed  new  settlements  on  the  Welsh 
coast  while  the  Danes  were  establishing  others  on  their 
own,  and  it  must  be  remembered  that  after  the  Danish 
period  the  name  Angle  or  Engle  passed  out  of  use,  and 
the  English  name  became  solely  used.  It  is  difficult, 
therefore,  to  avoid  the  conclusion  that  these  Angle 

378  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

names  on  the  Welsh  coast  must  have  arisen  some  time 
before  the  earliest  Danish  inroads. 

The  probable  Anglo-Saxon  occupation  of  parts  of  the 
coast  of  South  Wales  before  the  period  of  settlements 
by  the  Northmen  is  confirmed  by  the  prevailing  dialect. 
Ellis  says :  '  The  south-west  of  Pembrokeshire,  or 
two  peninsulas  at  the  south-west,  form  an  old  English 
colony.'1  He  points  out  that  the  character  of  the  dialect 
of  this  part  of  Pembrokeshire  is  decidedly  southern, 
having  such  examples  as  dr  for  thr  in  three,  through,  and 
threaten  ;  having  v  for  /  in  fair,  farm,  fast,  feel,  fiddle, 
fox,  flail,  from,  and  furrow  ;  having  z  for  s  in  say,  self, 
seven,  sick,  six,  soon,  and  Sunday  ;  while  s  remains  with 
less  regularity  in  sad,  sand,  saw,  so,  and  sweet.  He 
likewise  says  :  '  The  peninsula  of  Gower  is  also  a  very  old 
English  colony,  consisting  of  seventeen  English  parishes.' 
He  remarks  that  the  reverted  r  is  inferred  from  the  word 
drou  for  through,  and  that  there  is  an  occasional  use  of 
z  as  an  initial  sound  for  s,  and  un  as  an  unaccented  word 
for  him.  These  examples  are  distinctly  southern  English, 
but  the  dialect  in  Gower  seems  to  have  much  worn  out. 
With  this  evidence,  side  by  side  with  the  English  place- 
names,  and  the  prevalence  of  manorial  customs  in  the 
vale  of  Glamorgan  identical  with  those  in  the  vale  of 
Taunton,  the  supposition  that  the  English  characteristics 
of  the  people  in  these  parts  of  South  Wales  are  due  to  the 
Flemings  entirely  breaks  down. 

One  of  the  most  interesting  of  all  the  English  district 
names  is  that  anciently  given  to  Pembrokeshire,  Anglia 
Transwalliania,  or  '  England  beyond  Wales.'  That  it 
must  have  been  a  very  old  designation  is  probable  from 
the  surviving  Angle  place-names  in  this  county,  which 
clearly  point  to  early  settlements. 

Isaac  Taylor  says  :  '  The  existence  of  a  very  early 
Scandinavian  settlement  in  Pembrokeshire  is  indicated 
by  a  dense  cluster  of  local  names  of  the  Norse  type  which 
1  Ellis,  A.  J.,  '  English  Dialects,'  p.  23. 

Settlements  on  the   Welsh  Border.          379 

surrounds  and  radiates  from  the  fiords  of  Milford  and 
Haverford.'1  There  is  other  evidence  pointing  strongly 
in  the  same  direction,  which  the  same  author  has  men- 
tioned. This  refers  to  the  inscriptions  known  as  oghams. 
The  ogham  inscriptions  which  have  been  found  in  Wales 
are  about  20.  Of  these,  17  have  been  discovered  in  the 
counties  of  Pembroke,  Cardigan,  Carmarthen,  and 
Glamorgan,  9  out  of  the  17  having  been  found  in  Pem- 
brokeshire. In  Devon,  2  ogham  inscriptions  have  been 
discovered,  and  i  in  Cornwall.  In  Ireland  they  are 
much  more  numerous,  155  having  been  found,  but  of 
these,  148  belong  to  the  four  counties  of  Kilkenny,  Water- 
ford,  Cork,  and  Kerry — i.e.,  roughly  speaking,  they 
fringe  the  line  of  coast  which  stretches  between  the  two 
Scandinavian  kingdoms  of  Waterford  and  Limerick,2 
thus  clearly  showing  their  Scandinavian  origin.  Oghams 
are,  indeed,  a  variation  of  runic  writing. 

The  custom  of  borough-English  is  certainly  not  a  relic 
of  Welsh  law.3  In  parts  of  South  Wales  it  prevailed, 
with  similar  privileges  to  widows  as  in  the  vale  of  Taun- 
ton  and  on  so  many  manors  in  Sussex.  This  custom  of 
some  manors  in  Glamorganshire  and  Pembrokeshire,  by 
which  the  youngest  son  succeeded  to  the  whole  of  the 
father's  land,  must  have  been  introduced  by  settlers  of 
another  race.  It  prevailed  on  many  lands  in  Gower  ;4 
it  was  the  custom  of  the  manors  of  Llanbethan,5  Merthyr 
Mawr,6  Coity  Anglia,?  and  others.  It  was  also  the  custom 
on  some  of  the  manors  of  the  Bishop  of  St.  David's.8 
The  resemblance  between  this  custom  as  it  prevailed  at 
Coity  Anglia  and  the  many  manors  of  Taunton  Dean  in 
Somersetshire  is  very  close — practically  identical.  The 
name  Anglia  attached  to  this  manorial  name  is  of  special 

1  Taylor,  Isaac,  '  Greeks  and  Goths,'  no.         2  Ibid.,  in. 

3  Cobbett,  J.  A.,  Journal  Cambrian  Arch.  Assoc.,  vi.  76. 

4  Ibid.,  Fifth  Series,  x.  5.  5  Ibid.,  vi.  76. 

6  Ibid.,  Fourth  Series,  ix.  20. 

7  Ibid.,  Fourth  Series,  viii.  13,  14. 

8  Ibid.,  Fifth  Series,  ii.  70. 

380  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

significance,  for  here  we  find  a  name  with  a  special  Old 
English  designation,  having  an  Old  English  custom.  The 
custom  points  to  Somersetshire,  the  dialect  of  Pembroke- 
shire and  Gower  point  to  the  same  part  of  southern 
England,  and  there  are  traditions  which  indicate  this 
locality  as  the  district  whence  the  Old  English  colonists 
of  South  Wales  largely  came.  Gower  is  visible  in  clear 
weather  from  the  West  Somersetshire  coast  looming  in 
the  distance  across  the  Severn  Sea.  Rhys  has  drawn 
attention  to  a  tradition1  in  connection  with  the  Welsh 
Arthurian  legends,  which  makes  Melwas  king  or  lord  of 
a  winterless  glass  island.  This  he  identifies  with  Glaston- 
bury  in  the  JEstivo  regio,  or  summer  region — i.e.,  Somer- 
setshire. Another  and  a  different  tradition  makes  Melwas 
king  of  Goire,  or  the  peninsula  of  Gower  seen  from  the 
Somerset  coast.  Thus,  by  mixing  the  two  versions  of  the 
myth,  the  writers  of  romances  came  to  speak  of  the  king- 
dom of  Melwas  as  Goire,  and  of  his  capital  as  Bade  or 
Bath.  The  curious  aspect  of  these  traditions  is  that 
there  may  have  been  a  basis  for  connecting  Gower  with 
Somerset;  and,  as  Max  Miiller  says  on  the  growth  of 
myths,  there  may  have  been  circumstances  or  words, 
'  understood,  perhaps,  by  the  grandfather,  familiar  to 
the  father,  but  strange  to  the  son,  and  misunderstood  by 
the  grandson.' 

As  regards  the  settlement  of  north-east  Gloucester- 
shire, Beddoe  has  observed  the  blonde  character  of  the 
population  in  the  country  around  Moreton-in-the-Marsh, 
and  considers  it  evidence  of  West  Saxon  colonisation 
northwards. 2  He  notes  that  the  distribution  of  colour 
of  hair  and  eyes  in  this  district  resembles  that  found  in 
other  Saxon  districts  in  England,  and  also  in  parts  of 
Flanders,  Holland,  Friesland,  and  Westphalia,  with  the 
same  tendency  to  the  conjunction  of  hazel  and  dark  eyes 
with  lightish  hair,  rather  than  of  light  eyes  with  dark  hair. 

1  Rhys,  J.,  '  Studies  in  the  Arthurian  Legend,'  330,  346. 

2  Beddoe,  J.,  Journal  of  the  Anthropological  Inst.,  xxv.  19. 

Settlements  on  the   Welsh  Border.          381 

The  head  form  also  he  judges  to  be  mostly  of  the  two  types 
found  at  Bremen,  which  are  also  those  commonly  found  in 
Anglo-Saxon  graves.  He  says  that  the  West  Saxons 
appear  to  have  settled  numerously  in  the  Upper  Thames 
districts  before  they  began  to  interfere  with  the  inhabi- 
tants of  the  valley  of  the  Bristol  Avon — i.e.,  they 
pushed  their  settlement  northwards  at  first  rather  than 

In  the  same  district,  near  Bourton,  in  north-east 
Gloucestershire,  the  Anglo-Saxon  place-names  Cwentan1 
and  Cwenena-broc  2  occur,  referring  to  Quinton  and  to 
a  stream  which  is  named  as  a  boundary. 

The  name  Cwenena-broc  brings  us  to  a  curious  diffi- 
culty— viz.,  to  determine  whether  Cwenena  is  the  genitive 
plural  of  Cwen,  a  Fin,  or  Cwen,  a  woman.  It  has  been 
explained  as  the  women's  brook,3  but  the  name  Cwentan, 
now  Quinton,  mentioned  in  a  Saxon  charter,  is  in  the 
same  locality.  There  is  a  well-known  story  of  Adam  of 
Bremen  being  present  at  a  conversation  during  which 
one  of  the  old  Scandinavian  kings  spoke  of  Quenland,  or 
Quena,-land,  the  country  of  the  Quens  or  Quains.  As 
the  stranger's  knowledge  of  Old  Danish  was  very  im- 
perfect, he  supposed  the  king  had  said  Quinna-land, 
the  country  of  women  or  amazons.  Hence  arose  the 
absurd  story  of  the  terra  feminarum,  or  amazons' 
country,  which  spread  through  the  whole  of  Europe, 
'  through  mistaking  the  name  for  that  of  a  woman.'4 
The  name  Cwenena-broc  must  mean  either  the  brook  of 
the  Quens  or  Fins,  as  allies  of  Scandinavia  and  their 
descendants,  or  that  of  a  community  of  women.  Which 
is  the  more  probable  ?  It  is  a  boundary  name,  apparently 
a  boundary  of  Cwentan,  and  we  must  either  recognise 
a  settlement  of  Fins  or  a  settlement  of  women.  During 
the  period  when  the  dialects  of  many  tribal  people  were 

1  Codex  Dipl.,  No.  244.  2  Ibid.,  Nos.  426,  1359,  1365. 

3  Bosworth  and  Toller,  '  Anglo-Saxon  Diet.' 

4  Ibid.,  and  Latham,  '  Ger mania  of  Tacitus,'  174,  179. 

382  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

being  assimilated  into  one  form  of  speech  it  is  not  difficult 
to  suppose  that  Cwenena  may  have  been  written  for  Cwena, 
the  usual  form  of  the  genitive  plural  of  Cwen,  a  Fin. 

In   east  Gloucestershire  there  were  also  two  distinct 
places  called  Quenintune  at  the  time  of  the  Domesday 
Survey — one  near  Fairford,  the  Domesday  Fareford,  and 
the  other  in  the  north-east,  apparently  the  Cwentan  of 
the  Anglo-Saxon  period,  of  which  Cwenena-broc  was  a 
boundary.     It   thus  appears  probable   that  there  were 
two  settlements  of  Quens.     That  there  were  Scandinavian 
settlers  with  whom  they  probably  came  as  allies,  and  in 
whose  language  Fins  were  called  Quens,  also  located  on 
this  borderland  of  Gloucestershire   and   Oxfordshire,  is 
certain  from  the  old  place-names  of  the  district.  There  are, 
or  were,  not  less  than  nine  places  with  the  characteristic 
-thorp  or  -throp  names  in  this  locality.     In  Domesday 
Book,  Dunetorp,  Duchitorp,  and  Edrope,  now  Heythrop, 
are  mentioned  on  the  Oxfordshire  side.  In  Gloucestershire 
there  are  Addlestrop,  Hatherop,  Southrop,  and  Wiiiiams- 
trop.     Tadilsthorpe,  the  Domesday  Tedestrop,  and  Bur- 
drop,  are  also  old  place-names.     Among  others  of  Scandi- 
navian origin  in  the  district  are  Wickenford  or  Wickham- 
ford ;  Meon,  the  Domesday  Mene,  which  may  be  compared 
with  the  Jutish  places  called  Meon  in  Hampshire ;  Fare- 
ford,  Wormington,  Guiting,  and  Sclostre,  now  Slaughter. 
Rollright,  the  Domesday  Rollendri,  also  occurs  on  the 
Oxfordshire  side  of  the  border,  and  at  this  place  there  is 
a  rude  circle  of  stones  of  the  Scandinavian  type.     These 
names,   together  with  that  of  the  Domesday  hundred 
name    Salemanesberie,    apparently    derived    from    the 
Salemen  or  Salings  of  one  of  the  Danish  islands,  in  which 
hundred     Bourton,     Broadwell,     and     Slaughter    were 
situated,  are  evidence  that  there  must  have  been  in  this 
district  of  north-east  Gloucestershire  many  settlers  who 
spoke  the  old  Danish  or  Norrena  language,  in  which 
Quen  is  the  name  for  Fins.     Moreover,  at  Sclostre,  now 
Slaughter,   at   the  iimc    of  the   Domesday   Survey,   the 

Settlements  on  the   Welsh  Border.          383 

rents  of  two  mills  were  paid  in  Danish  money  compu- 
tation. When  King  Eadgar  promulgated  his  laws  in 
these  words,  '  Let  this  ordinance  be  common  to  all  the 
people,  whether  English,  Danes,  or  Britons,  on  every  side 
of  my  dominions,'  he  must  have  had  in  mind  settlements 
of  Danish-speaking  people  in  the  south  and  west  of 
England,  such  as  this  in  Gloucestershire,  as  well  as  the 
greater  Danish  settlement  in  the  northern  and  eastern 

There  is  evidence,  in  addition  to  that  of  existing  place- 
names,  which  points  to  the  settlement  of  some  Hunni 
or  Hunsings  in  the  valley  of  the  Worcestershire  Avon. 
There  are  two  Saxon  charters  relating  to  grant  of  land 
at  Hampton,  close  to  Evesham,  which  in  the  eighth  century 
bore  the  name  of  Huntena-tun,  the  -tun  of  the  Hunte  or 
Hunsi,  the  name  being  mentioned  in  the  genitive  plural 
in  both  charters — one  a  grant  by  Aldred  with  leave  of 
King  Offa,  dated  757-775  x ;  the  other  a  grant  by  King 
Acgfrid,  dated  790.2  In  a  charter  of  Eadgar,  dated 
969,  relating  to  land  at  Witney,3  there  is  a  reference 
to  the  same  settlement  in  the  boundaries,  the  name 
*  huntena  weg '  being  mentioned — i.e.,  a  road  that  led 
to  the  Huntena  district,  or  Huntena-tun.  A  few  miles 
east  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Huntena-tun  is  Church  Honey- 
bourne,  with  its  hamlets  Cow  Honeybourne  and  Honey- 
bourne  Leasows.  These  surviving  names  and  the  refer- 
ence to  the  Huntena  show  that  there  was  a  settlement  of 
people  who  bore  that  name  in  this  district,  and  it  should 
be  remembered  that  in  the  old  country  of  the  Hunsings  and 
Frisians  there  is  a  river  called  Hunte,  as  well  as  the  Hunse. 

Reference  has  already  been  made  to  the  fair  aspect  of 
the  people  of  east  Gloucestershire  at  the  present  time. 
The  circumstantial  evidence  of  the  place-names  points  to 
the  settlement  of  tribal  people  of  various  blonde  races 
in  this  district.  Among  such  races  are  the  Fins,  con- 
cerning whose  aspect  the  proverbial  expression  '  as 

1  Cart.  Sax.,  i.  306.  2   Ibid.,  i.  369.  3  Ibid.,  iii.  520. 

384  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

blonde  as  a  Fin  '  is  in  use  among  the  Russians  of  the 
parts  adjoining  Finland  at  the  present  day.1  The  Fins 
that  settled  in  England  must  have  come  as  allies  of  the 
Danes,  and  it  is  interesting  to  note  that  by  the  Roman 
road  east  Gloucestershire  was  in  direct  communication 
with  Lincolnshire. 

One  of  the  peculiarities  of  the  topography  of  Shropshire 
and  Worcestershire  is  the  considerable  number  of  old 
names  we  can  trace  that  apparently  denote  tribal  settle- 
ments, as  if  a  number  of  different  people  were  settled 
on  this  borderland  in  large  communities  for  defensive 
purposes.  Among  these,  the  following  are  mentioned  in 
the  Anglo-Saxon  charters  2 :  Wrocensetna  and  Scrobsetan 
in  Shropshire,  and  the  Tonsetan  or  Temsetan  somewhere 
west  of  the  Severn.  The  latter  may  be  the  settlers  on 
the  river  Teme,  whose  name  can  still  be  traced  in  that 
of  the  ancient  manor  of  Tempsiter,  which  included 
twenty- three  townships  of  the  Honour  of  Clun,  and 
through  which  Off  as  Dyke  passes.3  The  river  Clun  is 
the  longest  tributary  of  the  Teme,  the  latter  name  being 
now  applied  to  the  stream  only  after  its  junction  with 
the  Onny  near  Ludlow.  The  Tonsetan  or  Temsetan 
appear  to  have  been  the  settlers  on  the  Welsh  border 
near  Clun.  Another  Worcestershire  settlement  which  is 
described  as  a  province  was  that  of  the  Usmere  people,4 
whose  name  appears  to  have  been  lost.  In  Herefordshire 
and  a  part  of  north  Gloucestershire  the  tribe  known  as 
the  Magesaetas  were  located.  We  read  of  a  grant  of 
land  at  Hay  '  in  pago  Magesaetna '  as  late  as  A.D.  958. 5 
This  tribe  must  have  been  a  large  one,  and  Maisemore 
near  Gloucester  may  have  been  its  eastern  limit.  May 
Hill  near  Ross,  and  another  May  Hill  near  Monmouth, 
are  probably  places  where  the  name  survives. 

1  Reclus,  E.,  '  Nouvelle  Geographic  Universelle,'  v.  334. 

2  Codex  Dipl.,  Index. 

3  Shropshire  Archaological  and  Nat.  Hist.  Soc.  Trans.,  xi.  244.. 

4  Codex  Dipl.,  Nos.  127,  143,  1251.  5  Cart.  Sax.,  Hi.  242. 

Settlements  on  the   Welsh  Border.          385 

•  • 

The  settlements  of  Gewissas,by  the  victories  of  Ceawlin 
in  the  Severn  Valley,  extended  not  only  over  parts  of 
East  Gloucestershire,  but  probably  further  northwards. 
Ceawlin's  victories  opened  the  country  more  or  less  as 
far  as  Shropshire.  The  earliest  colonists  into  this  part 
of  England  must  have  come  either  up  the  river  or  along 
the  Roman  roads,  the  Fosse  way  from  the  north-east, 
the  Watling  Street  from  the  south-east,  or  from  Wessex 
by  the  road  from  Winchester  to  Cirencester,  and  thence 
by  the  Fosse  way  to  the  north-east  of  Gloucestershire, 
and  northwards  by  the  Ryknield  Street.  It  was  probably 
about  A.D.  583  that  the  Roman  city  of  Uriconium  was 
destroyed.  It  was  situated  where  Wroxeter  now  is, 
close  to  the  lowest  ford  across  the  Severn,  south  of  Shrews- 
bury, where  Watling  Street  crossed  the  river.  Its 
remains  show  its  importance,  and  probably  many  build- 
ings of  the  Saxon  time  in  its  neighbourhood  were  con- 
structed from  its  ruins.  In  the  Severn  Valley  there  is 
historical  evidence  of  the  settlement  of  West  Saxons, 
and  that  about  590  an  independent  State  of  Gewissas 
was  formed  in  Gloucestershire  under  Ceolric,  a  nephew 
of  Ceawlin.1  The  dialect  also  points  to  its  settlers  having 
largely  come  from  Wessex.  Ellis  groups  it  with  Wilts, 
Berks,  and  parts  of  Hants  and  Dorset,  as  districts  having 
much  in  common.2 

Anglian  settlers  from  Mercia  or  others  who  had  a  know- 
ledge of  runic  letters  appear  to  have  reached  the  south- 
east of  Shropshire  by  the  end  of  the  sixth  century,  for  a 
runic  inscription  discovered  at  Cleobury  Mortimer  has 
been  assigned  by  Stephens  to  that  period.3 

It  may  have  been  from  the  circumstance  of  the  ruined 
condition  of  the  Roman  city  Uriconium  that  the  Saxon 
colonists  near  it  got  their  name  of  Wrocensetna,  as 
Camden  suggested.  It  may,  perhaps,  have  arisen  partly 

1  Anglo-Saxon  Chronicle. 

2  Ellis,  A.  J.,  '  English  Dialects,'  24. 

3  Stephens,  G.,  loc.  cit.,  iii.  160. 


386  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

from  the  settlers  having  made  a  quarry  of  the  ruins. 
Almost  all  the  stones  in  the  walls  of  Roman  Uriconium 
were  removed,  as  well  as  the  ruins  of  its  buildings,  and 
from  the  wrecked  city  there  can  be  no  doubt  many  a 
house,  or  even  in  later  centuries  a  church,  was  partly 
built,  as  may  be  traced  around  Silchester,  where  the 
destruction  was  less  complete.  The  Wrocensetna  have 
either  left  their  name  in  that  of  Wroxeter,  the  village 
on  the  site  of  Uriconium,  or  derived  their  name  from  it, 
the  wrecked  ceaster.  The  name  survives  also  in  those 
of  Wrockwardine  and  the  Wrekin.  The  pagus  or  pro- 
vince of  the  Wrocensetna  is  mentioned  in  a  charter  of 
Burgred,  King  of  Mercia  in  855, 1  and  in  one  of  Eadgar, 
dated  963.2  The  survival  of  the  word  '  wrocen '  or 
*  wrekin,'  as  probably  a  reference  in  Saxon  nomenclature 
to  the  ruins  of  a  Roman  city,  is  unique  among  English 
topographical  names. 

The  ancient  name  Ombersley  in  Worcestershire,  whose 
early  settlers  are  called  the  Ombersetena,  is  as  old  as 
the  Saxon  period.3  These  people,  whose  name  has  come 
down  to  us  in  the  genitive  plural,  are  probably  the  same 
as  the  Ymbras  or  Ambrones — i.e.,  the  tribe  of  Old 
Saxons  south  of  the  Humber.  This  colony  of  them  in 
Worcestershire  was  probably  a  migration  from  their 
district  on  the  Amber  River  in  Derbyshire,  from  Notting- 
hamshire or  Lincolnshire,  along  the  Roman  roads  that 
passed  from  Chesterfield  through  Lichfield  into  Worcester- 
shire. They  apparently  gave  their  new  settlement  the 
same  name,  which  some  of  the  tribe  had  brought  from 
the  Ambra  River  in  Old  Saxony. 

In  Shropshire  an  interesting  peculiarity  has  been  ob- 
served in  the  country  dialect.  This,  according  to  Prince 
L.  L.  Bonaparte,  is  the  verb  plural  ending  in  n,  as  '  we 
aren '  for  '  we  are,'  and  also  the  form  '  we  bin '  for  '  we 
are.'  This  he  points  out  as  an  interesting  instance  of  the 

1   Codex  Dipl.,  No.  277.  2   Ibid.,  No.  1246. 

3  Ibid.,  Nos.  637,  1366. 

Settlements  on  the   Welsh  Border.          387 

shading  of  the  southern  dialects,  in  which  '  I  be '  and 
'  thou  bist '  are  common,  into  the  north-western.1  That 
some  settlers  in  Shropshire  came  up  the  river  is  probable 
from  the  dialect  and  from  some  of  the  customs.  Borough- 
English,  which  still  survives  at  Gloucester,  prevailed  in  the 
English  part  of  Shrewsbury.2  In  this  county  also  there 
were,  at  the  close  of  the  Saxon  period,  tenants  called 
coscets,  few  in  number  ;  but  as  coscets  are  peculiar  to 
Wiltshire,  these  may  have  been  descendants  of  Gewissas 
who  had  migrated. 

Along  the  border  counties  of  Wales  there  was  necessarily 
going  on  during  the  Anglo-Saxon  period  some  racial 
fusion  between  the  tribal  people  respectively  of  the 
Teutonic  and  Welsh  races.  As  the  Welsh  were  driven 
westward  from  the  Midland  counties,  their  agricultural 
system  of  isolated  homesteads  appears  to  have  been 
commonly  adopted.  Villages  of  collected  homesteads, 
like  those  between  the  Elbe  and  the  Weser,  or  east  of  the 
Elbe,  and  such  as  are  found  in  Northamptonshire  and 
the  adjacent  counties,  are  comparatively  rare  along  the 
Welsh  border.  Giraldus  tells  us  that  in  the  twelfth 
century  the  houses  of  the  Welsh  tribesmen  were  not  built 
either  in  towns  or  villages.  Like  other  pastoral  people, 
they  had  two  sets  of  homesteads,  feeding  their  herds  in 
summer  on  the  higher  ranges  of  the  hills  and  in  winter  in 
the  valleys.  The  Old  English  settlers  along  the  border 
counties  adopted  this  system,  or  brought  it  with  them> 
and  many  of  the  isolated  hamlets  on  the  higher  slopes 
of  the  hills  were  probably  in  their  origin  only  summer 

The  original  settlement  of  Cheshire  must  have  been, 
at  least  in  part,  a  direct  one,  and  not  wholly  an  extension 
of  local  colonies  from  the  Staffordshire  side.  A  similarity 
has  been  noted  between  the  Cheshire  dialect  in  some 
respects  and  that  of  Norfolk,  while  the  intervening 

1  Transactions  Philological  Soc.,  1875-1876,  p.  576. 

2  Bateson,  M.,  English  Hist.  Review,  1901,  p.  109. 


388  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

counties  differ.1  This  may  have  arisen  from  Danish 
influence,  and  be  a  result  of  direct  settlements  on  the 
coast.  The  maritime  parts  of  North  Wales  have  many 
old  place-names  to  attest  their  settlements,  and  Chester 
appears  to  have  been  largely  a  Danish  town  during  the 
later  Saxon  period.  It  was  governed  by  twelve  judges 
or  lahmen,  who  were  chosen  from  among  the  vassals  of 
the  King,  the  Bishop,  and  the  Earl.2  As  the  institution  of 
lahmen  is  Scandinavian,  it  is  clear  that  there  must  have 
been  a  population  of  that  race  at  Chester.  Other  circum- 
stances that  point  to  Northmen  are  the  prevalence  of 
family  names  ending  in  -son,  corresponding  to  the  Norse 
-sen,  which  survive  in  Cheshire,  and  the  mention  in 
Domesday  Book  of  certain  fines  in  the  city  of  Chester 
being  paid  in  orae  or  by  Danish  money  computation. 
The  place-names  of  the  Wirral  district  between  the 
Mersey  and  the  Dee  show  that  it  was  occupied  by  the 
later  Northmen.  The  discovery,  however,  of  a  runic 
inscription,  which  Stephens  assigned  to  the  seventh  cen- 
tury,3 at  Overchurch  in  the  Wirral,  proves  that  Anglians 
advanced  into  this  district  soon  after  the  Battle  of  Chester 
in  613.  Among  the  Domesday  place-names  that  were 
apparently  derived  from  those  of  early  tribal  settlers  in 
Cheshire  are  Englefeld,  Englelei,  Inglecrost,  Wareneberie, 
Leche,  and  Cocheshalle. 

The  Cheshire  dialect,  as  spoken  in  different  parts,  shows 
certain  well-marked  differences  in  respect  to  vocabulary, 
pronunciation,  and  grammar.4  In  the  formation  of  place- 
names  in  the  south  of  the  county  there  was  apparently 
little  or  no  Danish  influence.  The  speech  in  this  part  is 
broad  and  rough,  differing  in  pronunciation  from  that  of 
the  northern  part,  and  approaching  more  to  that  of  north 
Staffordshire  and  Derbyshire.  These  are  the  counties  in 

1  Beddoe,  J.,  '  Races  of  Britain,'  p.  70. 

2  Lappenberg,  J.  M.,  '  History  of  England  under  the  Anglo- 
Saxon  Kings,'  ii.  354;  and  Domesday  Book. 

3  Stephens,  G.,  loc.  cit.,  iv.  53. 

*  Darlington,  T.,  '  Folk-Speech  of  South  Cheshire.' 

Settlements  on  the   Welsh  Border.          389 

which  the  descendants  of  the  early  Anglian  settlers  were 

least  disturbed  by  subsequent  Danish  inroads,  and  south 
Cheshire  appears  somewhat  to  resemble  them.  On  the 
other  hand,  there  is  a  clear  line  of  difference  between  the 
local  talk  in  south  Cheshire  and  Shropshire,  where  the 
highly-pitched  tone,  the  habit  of  raising  the  voice  at  the 
end  of  a  sentence,  the  sharp  and  clearly-defined  pronuncia- 
tion, probably  marks  a  Welsh  element  among  the  Shrop- 
shire people  which  is  absent  in  south  Cheshire. 

As  the  settlement  proceeded  from  east  to  west  in  the 
Mercian  States,  some  of  the  Welsh  people  must  have 
been  allowed  to  exist  among  the  newcomers.  As  far 
east  as  Buckinghamshire  there  was  in  the  Anglo-Saxon 
period  a  place  called  Wealabroc,  and  in  the  south-west  of 
'  Northamptonshire  there  exists  still  an  old  way  called  the 
Welsh  Road.  These  names  probably  imply  old  frontier 
lines.  As  the  advance  was  continued  towards  the  present 
Welsh  border,  it  is  certain  that  here  and  there  small  areas 
inhabited  by  Welsh  people  in  the  midst  of  Old  English 
settlements  were  left.  Beyond  the  present  border,  as 
around  Radnor,  settlements  of  Old  English  or  Scandian 
folk  surrounded  by  Welsh  people  were  formed.  Offa's 
Dyke,  thrown  up  in  the  eighth  century  to  divide  the  Welsh 
from  the  English,  was  not  a  strict  ethnological  frontier. 
There  were  some  English  to  the  west  of  it  at  the  time  it 
was  made,  or  soon  afterwards,  and  some  Welsh  to  the 
east  of  it,  as  at  Clun,  Oswestry,  and  Cherbury,  at  which 
places  early  Welcheries  existed,  which  were  not  governed 
by  English  customs. 

It  was  along  this  border  that  the  customs  of  the  Old 
English  settlers  were  brought  into  contact  with  the  tribal 
customs  of  the  Welsh.  The  various  English  customs  of 
inheritance  derived  from  tribal  settlers  have  been  de- 
scribed. In  some  important  respects  the  Welsh  differed 
from  all  of  these.  The  land  of  the  Welsh  tribesmen  was 
held  by  families  and  allotted  to  members  of  the  family. 
On  the  death  of  the  head  of  the  family,  it  was  first  divided 

39O  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

among  all  the  sons.  This,  however,  was  not  a  final 
division.  On  the  death  of  the  last  of  these  brothers,  the 
land  was  again  divided  among  all  their  sons  'per  capita, 
each  first-cousin  taking  an  equal  share.  On  the  death  of 
the  last  of  these  first-cousins,  the  land  was  again  divided 
as  before,  each  second-cousin  taking  an  equal  share. 
Land  could  be  inherited,  consequently,  only  by  direct 
descent.1  There  was  no  inheritance  by  daughters. 
There  was  no  widow's  dower.  No  man  was  his  brother's 
heir.  If  a  man  left  sons,  they  inherited  ;  if  he  left  none, 
the  land  was  shared  according  to  the  tribal  custom.  This 
is  of  interest  in  reference  to  the  custom  of  Dymock  in 
west  Gloucestershire,  which  was  apparently  left  as  an 
ethnological  island  of  Welsh  people.  Its  name  is  Welsh, 
and  its  custom  was  Welsh,  for  the  land  at  Dymock 
passed  on  the  death  of  the  holder  to  the  heirs  of  the  body 
only  ;  otherwise  it  reverted  to  the  community  or  the  lord.2 
The  place-names  Welsh  Hampton,  east  of  Ellesmere, 
and  Welsh  Bicknor  and  Welsh  Newton,  near  Monmouth, 
tell  the  same  story  of  mixed  settlements.  There  was  both 
an  Englecheria  and  a  Walecheria,  of  ancient  origin,  at  Clun 
and  at  Cherbury  in  west  Shropshire.3  There  were  English 
landholders  and  Welsh  subtenants  of  ancient  date  in 
the  great  district  of  Archenfeld,  west  of  the  river  Wye.  It 
was  owing  to  such  conditions  as  these  that  the  blending 
of  race  between  the  Old  English  and  Old  Welsh  people 
went  on.  Then,  as  generations  passed,  English  folk 
arose  along  the  Welsh  border  who  were  partly  of  Welsh 
descent,  having  complexions  somewhat  darker  than  their 
forefathers — a  physical  characteristic  they  have  trans- 
mitted to  their  descendants  at  the  present  day. 

1  Rhys,  J.,  and  Jones,  D.  B.,  '  The  Welsh  People,'  221,  222. 

2  Pollock  and  Maitland,  '  History  of  English  Law,'  ii.  272. 

3  Plac.  de  quo  warr.,  68 1. 



ONE  of  the  conclusions  to  which  the  evidence  that 
has  been  brought  forward  leads  us  is  that  the  Old 
English  or  Anglo-Saxon  race  was  formed  on 
English  soil  out  of  many  tribal  elements,  and  that  the 
settlers  who  came  here  were  known  among  themselves  by 
tribal  names,  many  of  which  still  survive  in  those  of  some 
of  the  oldest  settlements,  where  they  lived  under  cus- 
tomary family  and  kindred  law.  Under  the  general  names 
Jutes,  Angles,  Saxons,  Danes,  and  Northmen,  came 
numerous  allies.  It  appears  certain  that  Frisians  of 
various  tribes  were,  in  regard  to  number,  as  important  as 
any  settlers,  and  that  they  came  among  the  Angles  as 
well  as  among  the  Jutes  and  Saxons.  Under  the  Saxon 
name  there  can  be  very  little  doubt  that  colonists  were 
settled  on  the  east  coast  of  England  before  the  withdrawal 
of  the  Romans. 

In  reference  to  Danes  and  Scandinavians,  it  appears 
from  the  evidence  adduced  that  they  brought  with  them 
many  allies  from  various  countries  on  the  Baltic  coasts 
on  which  they  had  previously  formed  settlements,  or 
which  they  had  brought  under  subjection.  The  evidence 
appears  conclusive  that  there  was  a  Wendish,  and  con- 
sequently a  Slavonic,  element  among  the  earlier  tribal 
immigrants  as  well  as  among  the  later.  It  has  also  been 
shown  that  some  Celtic  people  must  have  been  absorbed 
into  the  Anglo-Saxon  stock. 

392  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Race. 

The  Old  English  race  grew  by  the  absorption  into  it 
of  tribal  people  descended  from  various  ancient  races. 
It  assimilated  to  a  great  extent  their  dialects,  and  the 
Old  English  speech,  as  it  prevailed  in  various  parts  of 
England,  was  formed  by  this  process.  No  example  of 
an  Anglo-Saxon  language  has  even  been  found  out  of 
Britain  itself.1  It  arose  here,  like  the  race  itself,  by  the 
blending  of  tribal  dialects,  of  which  those  of  northern 
origin  are  important.  From  the  traces  we  find  of  Danish 
or  Scandian  settlements  in  nearly  all  parts  of  England  it 
appears  that  the  Scandinavian  influence  in  the  origin 
of  the  Anglo-Saxon  race  has  been  underestimated. 

In  tracing  the  assimilation  of  the  dialects,  as  far  as  it 
is  possible  to  do  so,  we  trace  the  formation  of  the  race. 
As  regards  those  of  Scandinavian  origin,  Stephens  says : 
'  Manifold  dialects  were  in  continual  growth  and  change 
through  the  Northern  lands,  though  in  the  oldest  time 
they  all  agreed  in  their  bolder  features.  But  local 
developments  and  fluctuation  of  population  and  settle- 
ment went  on  unceasingly  both  on  the  Scandian  main 
and  in  the  English  colony.  ...  In  Scandinavia  itself, 
as  in  England,  the  languages  and  dialects  differ.  The 
spoken  dialects  are  many  in  each  Scandian  land,  and 
the  folk  of  one  district  often  cannot  understand  the 
natives  of  another.  But  the  Scandian  talks  in  general, 
especially  the  Danish,  greatly  liken  the  English  (especi- 
ally the  North  English),  and  a  farm  labourer  from 
Jutland,  for  instance,  can  after  a  couple  of  days  be  hob-a- 
nob  with  the  peasantry  of  northern  England  and  southern 
Scotland.  In  the  Old  Northern  Runic  Age  all  these 
folkships  could  get  on  very  well  together,  while  they  were 
also  very  closely  allied  in  speech  and  blood  with  the 
Frisic  and  Saxon  clans,  some  of  which  took  part  in  the 
settlement  of  England.'2  In  the  Old  English  speech,  as 

1  Marsh,   G.   P.,   '  Lectures  on  the  English  Language,'   First 
Series,  p.  43. 
3  Stephens,  G.,  '  Old  Northern  Runic  Monuments,'  iii.  396. 

Conclusion.  393 

it  has  come  down  to  us,  there  are  as  many  as  ten  words, 
more  or  less  synonymous,  for  the  word  man,  and  as  many 
for  woman.1  The  language  abounds  in  synonymous 
words,  thus  showing  a  commingling  of  elements  from 
many  sources.  Its  obscure  etymology,  its  confused  and 
imperfect  inflections,  and  its  anomalous  and  irregular 
syntax,  point  to  the  same  conclusion,  and  indicate  a 
diversity  of  origin. 

It  does  not  appear  that  the  Old  English,  as  the  speech 
of  a  nation,  existed  until  towards  the  later  Anglo-Saxon 
period.  '  We  are  all  weary,'  says  the  distinguished 
author  of  the  great  work  on  the  Old  Northern  Runic 
Monuments,  '  of  an  Anglo-Saxon  language  that  never 
existed.  The  Old  English  in  its  many  dialects  we  know, 
and  if  we  know  anything  we  are  aware  that  it  is  of  a 
distinctly  Northern  character,  whenever  Northern  writ' 
ings  as  old  as  the  Old  English  can  be  found  to  be  com- 
pared with  it.'2  The  oldest  remains  of  Old  Saxon,  says 
Marsh,  '  are  not  Anglo-Saxon,  and  I  think  it  must  be 
regarded,  not  as  a  language  which  the  colonists  or  any  of 
them  brought  with  them  from  the  Continent,  but  as  a 
new  speech  resulting  from  the  fusion  of  many  separate 
elements.'3  There  is,  says  the  same  American  philo- 
logist, '  linguistic  evidence  of  a  great  commingling  of 
nations  in  the  body  of  the  intruders.' 

All  the  available  evidence,  the  dialects  of  the  period, 
the  surviving  customs,  or  those  known  to  have  existed, 
and  the  comparison  of  place-names  with  those  of  ancient 
Germany  and  Scandinavia,  point  to  the  same  conclu- 
sion, that  the  English  race  had  its  origin  in  many  parent 
sources,  and  arose  on  English  soil,  not  from  some  great 
national  immigration,  but  from  the  commingling  here 
of  settlers  from  many  tribes. 

The  many  traces  that  remain  of  the  mythology  of  the 

1  Turner,  Sharon,  '  History  of  the  Anglo-Saxons,'  ii.  379. 

2  Stephens,  G.,  loc.  cit.,  ii.  516. 

3  Marsh,  G.  P.,  loc.  cit.,  pp.  42,  43. 

394  Origin  of  the  Anglo-Saron  Race. 

early  settlers  in  England  point  in  the  same  direction.  As 
York  Powell  has  said,1  '  There  is  one  fact  about  Teutonic 
mythology  as  we  have  it  which  has  never  been  brought 
out  quite  clearly.  The  mass  of  legend  in  more  or  less 
simple  condition  that  has  come  down  to  us  is  not  the 
remains  of  one  uniform  regular  religion  .  .  .  but  it  is 
the  remains  of  the  separate  faiths,  more  or  less  parallel, 
of  course,  of  many  different  tribes  and  confederacies, 
each  of  which  had  its  own  several  name  for  each  several 
mythic  being,  and  its  own  particular  version  of  his  or 
her  adventures  and  affinities.'  The  old  German  world, 
with  its  secrets  and  wonders,  and  the  views  of  its  ancient 
people  regarding  their  gods  and  heroes,  were,  as  Wagner 
says,  formerly  lost  in  the  darkness  of  the  past,  and  are 
now  visible  in  the  light  of  the  present.2  The  same  may 
be  said  of  the  old  Scandinavian  world,  and  the  modern 
light  in  which  we  may  view  their  mythology  is  due  to  the 
long  labour  of  German  and  Scandinavian  scholars.  The 
results  of  their  researches  point  to  the  existence  of  many 
tribes  having  differences  in  their  mythological  names, 
beliefs,  and  practices. 

It  is  to  the  Old  English  race  more  than  any  other 
that  we  must  look  for  the  most  remarkable  examples  of 
the  absorption  within  it  of  people  of  many  various  tribes 
and  nations.  It  is  probably  largely  owing  to  this  absorp- 
tion within  itself  of  people  of  other  descent  that  the  race 
owes  much  of  its  vigour.  In  all  ages  of  the  world  and 
in  all  countries  it  is  and  has  been  the  strongest  and 
ablest  of  a  tribe  or  nation  that  has  been  selected  by 
natural  circumstances  or  political  considerations  for 
conquest  and  colonization.  Those  who  have  gone  to 
the  wars,  or  have  become  successful  colonists,  have  been 
among  the  ablest  of  the  race.  England,  during  the 
centuries  in  which  her  settlement  went  on,  received  and 

1  Saxo    Grammaticus,  translated    by  Elton,  introduction    by 
York  Powell,  cxv. 

2  Wagner,  W.,  '  Asgard  and  the  Gods,'  p.  2. 

Conclusion.  395 

absorbed  into  the  Anglo-Saxon  stock  immigrants  from 
probably  almost  all  the  tribes  of  Northern  Europe.  As 
the  newer  and  greater  Anglo-Saxon  stock  in  Britain, 
America,  and  the  British  colonies  is  at  the  present  time 
constantly  absorbing  into  itself  people  of  all  European 
races,  so  during  the  centuries  of  its  growth  tribal  elements 
were  constantly  becoming  blended  and  assimilated  in 
the  old  English  nation. 

As  it  was  in  the  Old  English  time,  so  it  has  been  more 
or  less  continuously  throughout  the  course  of  our  national 
life ;  streams  of  immigrants,  now  many,  now  few,  have 
found  in  England  a  refuge  from  oppression,  or  homes 
when  driven  from  their  own  lands.  They  have  been 
absorbed  among  the  people  of  England.  Streams  of 
colonists  for  more  than  three  hundred  years  have 
gone  out  from  our  shores,  and  have  formed  new  nations 
in  the  Western  and  Southern  hemispheres,  and  these, 
repeating  the  old  story,  have  absorbed  and  are  absorbing 
into  the  newer  and  greater  Anglo-Saxon  race  immigrants 
from  all  European  countries. 


ABTHORP,  340 

Acklam,  324 

Acton,  256 

Addlestrop,  382 

jEdulfness,  district,  279,  280 

jSiduves-nasa,  district,  279 

^Ethelwulfmgland,  4 

Agremundreness,  369,  370 

Ainsty,  woodland,  246 

Airsome,  324 

Aldborough,  285,  289 

Alesbi,  hundred,  300 

Aletorp,  303 

Amber,  river,  348,  386 

Amberdon,  281 

Ambergate,  348 

Ambresbur',  348 

Andover,  hundred,  219 

Angemare,  198 

Angermanland,  198 

Angermer,  151,  200 

Angersholm,  331 

Angle  Bay,  377 

Anglesea,  377 

Angleton,  203 

Anglia  Trans walliania,  378 

Angmering,  203 

Angre,  hundred,  174 

Angrices-burne,  281 

Appleton,  195 

Archenfeld,  district,  372  et  seq. 

Arcop,  376 

Arreton,  219 

Arrow,  stream,  230 
Astrop,  340 
Augop,  376 
Aust,  371 
|  Avon,  river,  243 
Aylesbeer,  365 
Aynho,  340 

Badby,  340 

Bakewell,  350 

Barby,  340 

Barnes,  256,  257 

Barnetone,  304 

Barnetorp,  304 

Barnstaple,  362 

Barrington,  14 

Basing,  172 

Batrices-ege,  260 

Battersea,  256,  257,  260 

Beacon  Hill,  180 

Beaumond,  152,  259 

Bercheha,  304 

Berchetorp,  304 

Berkelej',  vale  of,  369,  370 

Berkeley-herness,  Berkelai-erness, 

3<5Q.  370 
Berwicktye,  205 
Bexelei,  hundred,  174,  207 
Bexley,  198 

Bexwarena-land,  198,  207 
Bicknor,  376 
Billing,  143 
Billockby,  290 



Index  of  Place-Names. 

Binsey,  276 

Blacanden,  in 

Blacandon,  in 

Blachemanestone,  in 

Blachemene,  in 

Blachemenestone,  in,  113.  192 

Blachene,  1 1 1 

Blachenhale,  1 1 1 

Blacheshale,  in 

Blachingelei,  in 

Blackemanstone,  6 

Blacknore,  356 

Blacmannebergh,  1 1 1 ,  113 

Blakeborneshire,  370 

Blakemere,  112 

Blakeney,  112 

Blakenham,  112 

Blakesware,  112 

Bleccingdenn,  142 

Blechingley,  206 

Blechington,  203 

Blechworth,  205 

Blenkinsop,  332 

Blewbury,  hundred,  274,  275 

Blidinga,  174 

Blisland,  365 

Blitberie,  274,  275 

Boddingc-weg,  93 

Bodebi,  93 

Bodeha,  93 

Bodele,  93 

Bodesha,  93 

Bodeskesham,  93 

Bodeslege,  93 

Bodetone,  93 

Bodiam,  208 

Bodrica,  93 

Bodrog,  93 

Boggele,  241 

Bognor,  198 

Bokerly  dyke,  241 

Bonby,  304 

Bormer,  151 

Bosgrave,  203 

Bosham,  93,  203 

Bourton,  382 

Bowhope,  332 

Brachinges,  hundred,  174 

Braintree,  282 

Brambletye,  205 

Braunton,  362 

Bray,  153,  266,  267 
Bredon  Forest,  242 
Bridport,  227 
Brighthampton,  273 
Bright-well,  211 
Brinsop,  376 
Broad  well,  382 
Broad  Windsor,  229 
Broccesborne,  345 
Brocheland,  361 
Brochelesbi,  302 
Brochesbi,  349 
Brockford,  289 
Brockhall,  345 
Brockmans,  345 
Brocton,  hundred,  219 
Brookthorp,  370 
Brostorp,  370 
Broxbourn,  river,  230 
Broxbourne,  345 
Broxholm,  302 
Brune,  302 
Brunebi,  302 
Brunesford,  108 
Brunesham,  107,  108 
Bruneswald,  295 
Brunetorp,  302 
Brungarstone,  362 
Bruningafeld,  107 
Buccham,  283 
Bucchesteda,  283 
Buccinga-ham,  343 
Bucham  Regis,  283 
Buchebi,  23 
Buchenham,  23,  284 
Buchenho,  23 
Bucheside,  23 
Buchestuna,  23,  283 
Buchesworth,  23 
Buchetone,  23 
Buckingham,  23,  103,  198 
Bucktorp,  23 
Bude  Haven,  365 
Burbage,  228 
Burdorp,  228,  382 
Burfield,  276 
Burgemere,  151 
Burghclere,  180 
Burnham,  hundred,  268 
Burnley,  317 
Buttermere,  228 

Index  of  Place-Names. 


Butterwike,  227 
Byfield,  340 
Byrport,  227 

Cale,  stream,  231 
Calthorp,  370 
Camelford,  13 
Candel,  227 

Candleshoe  Wapentake,  227 
Caninga,  hundred,  174 
Caninganmaersces,  359 
Canington,  Somerset,  359 
Canonbury,  251 
Capenmore,  356 
Carlisle,  310 
Cartmel,  315,  316,  320 
Cascop,  376 
Cashiobury,  153 
Castlerigg,  310 
Catesby,  340 
Celvedune,  235 
Ceokan-ege,  260,  268 
Cerney,  276 
Cetendone,  134 
Charing,  173 
Ghent,  359 
Chentesbere,  359 
Chentesberia,  359 
Cherbury,  389 
Chertsey,  152,  259 
Cherwell,  river,  269 
Cheshunt,  1 16,  345 
Chessell  Down,  214 
Chesterfield,  289 
Chillingham,  324 
Chipshire,  177 
Cholsey,  274 

Christchurch,  hundred,  219 
Church  Honeybourne,  383 
Cirencester,  277 
Clapton-in-Gordano,  356 
Clauelinga,  hundred,  174 
Cleobury  Mortimer,  350 
Clipsby,  290 
Clun,  river,  384 
Coatham,  324 
Coccetley  Croft,  272 
Coccham,  268 
Cocheham,  26$ 
Cochehamsted,  345 
Cocheshale,  388 

Cocheha,  201 

Cockernoe,  345 

Cockhais,  201 

Cocking,  20 1 

Cockshut,  stream,  201 

Cocrinton,  302 

Cocrintone,  302 

Cocuneda  civitas,  326 

Coggeshall,  281 

Cogham,  hundred,  268 

Coity  Anglia,  379 

Cokeham,  201 

Cokethorpe,  272 

Cokkefeld,  201 

Collingbourn,  stream,  230 

Compton-Westbury,  205 

Cookham,  268,  274 

Cooksbridge,  201 

Coquet,  river,  230,  326 

Cotenore,  204 

Cow  Honeybourne,  hamlet,  383 

Coxwell,  268,  272 

Cranborne,  234 

Crane,  stream,  234 

Cranley,  205 

Creodan  hylle,  241 

Crondal,  hundred,  153 

Crondall,  224,  225 

Croydon,  205,  256,  257 

Crowmarsh,  276 

Cuceshamm,  272 

Cuchenai,  349 

Cuckfield,  20 1 

Cuckmere,  151,  201 

Culham,  265 

Curesrigt,  361 

Curi,  361 

Curylond,  361 

Curymele,  361 

Cuxham,  268,  272 

Cwenena-broc,  381 

Cwentan,  381 

Cwuenstane,  131,  198 

Cymenore,  204 

Danais,  hundred,  121,  173,  344 

Danebi,  330 

Danescome,  361 

Danesey,  282 

Daneskoven,  122 

Daneslai,  344 


Index  of  Place-Names. 

Danes  pad,  331 

Danestorp,  330 

Danica  sylvia,  371 

Danubia,  371 

Dean  Forest,  122,  371 

Debenham,  293 

Denceswyrth,  121 

Dene,  North,  South,  East,  West, 


Denesig,  121 
Denetun,  121 
Dengey,  121,  282 
Denisesburne,  121 
Denton,  121,  203 
Dentuninga,  121 
Deorham,  242 
Derby,  337 
Derwentwater,  310 
Derwinston,  235 
Devizes,  242 
Dochinga,  hundred,  174 
Dorchester,  228 
Dorking,  205,  258 
Dover,  143 
Dray  ton,  263 
Droxford,  179 
Duchitorp,  382 
Duddenhoe,  282 
Dumfries,  322 
Dunebi,  302 
Dunesbi,  302 
Dunestune,  302 
Dunetorp,  302,  382 
Dunsford,  206 
Dunstable,  9 

Ealing,  256,  257 
Bashing,  259 
East  Holm,  227 
Eastmanton,  5 
Eastnor,  376 
Easton-in-Gordano,  356 
Eastry,  hundred,  132 
East  Thorp,  228 
Edrope,  382 
Eldsberga,  143 
Elga,  288 
Elmanstede,  8 
Elmenham,  6,  8,  287 
Elmet,  319 
Elmham,  8 

Elmstead,  8 

Elmswell,  289 

Ems,  river,  215 

Emsworth,  215 

Endreby,  304 

Endretorp,  304 

Enfield,  263 
i   Englecheria,  390 
|   Englebi,  327,  330 
j  Englefeld,  388 
|   Englelei,  388 

Eoccen,  river,  268,  269 

Eoccen-ford,  268,  269,  274 

Eskham,  331 

Essemundehord,  361 

Essete,  199 

Estmere,  55 

Estrei,  hundred,  174 

Etchingham,  208 

Evesham,  383 

Exeter,  358,  360 

Eye,  286 

Eynesbury,  346 

Falmer,  151,  200 
Falmouth  Haven,  365 
Fareford,  382 
Farendone,  340 
Farnham,  227,  259,  282 
Farthingho,  340 
Faunhope,  376 
Felesmere,  200 
Fenbi,  hundred,  ^00 
Ferring,  199 
Finbeorh,  132 
Finborough,  132 
Finningham,  132 
Finset,  132 
Fintune,  198 

Flamindic,  hundred,  290,  291 
Flat  Holm,  island,  356,  371 
Flegg,  hundred,  293 
Fordingbricige,  219 
Fowey  Haven,  365 
Framfield,  201,  202 
Fressingfield,  286,  289 
Freswick,  323 
Frisby,  336 
Frisebi,  349 
Friseha,  360 
Friseham,  360 

Index  of  P lace-Names. 


Frisetorp,  301,  304 
Frisic,  365 
Frismarsk,  323 
Friston,  201,  287 
Fristone,  323 
Fristune,  301 
Fulham,  263 
Furtho,  340 
Fylde,  district,  331 

Gaddesby,  336 
Gadreshope,  376 
Galmentone,  6,  361 
Gamensfeld,  274 
Gardinu',  356 
Garford,  276 
Garinges,  199 
Gateneberghe,  355 
Geate,  370 
Geatescumbe,  265 
Gedding,  262 
Geslingham,  289 
Ghestelinges,  207 
Gilling,  143,  329 
Gillingham,  227,  231,  242 
Gillingshire,  329 
Gippeswich,  288 
Glastonbury,  352,  357,  380 
Gloucester,  146,  371 
Godalming,  259 
Godan  pearruc,  265 
Goddards  tything,  265 
Godecumbe,  355 
Godefordes  Eyt,  265 
Godele,  355 
Godelei,  hundred,  174 
Godeneie,  355 
Goderiston,  227 
Goderthorn,  hundred,  227 
Godescote,  361 
Godeslave,  265 
Godeworth,  355 
Godington,  195 
Godliman,  259 
Godmanchester,  346 
Godmaneston,  227 
Godmanston,  6 
Godstone,  206 
Godstow,  265 
Goduic,  287 
Goldentone,  174 

Goring,  173 

Great  Holm,  island,  371 
Greenford,  263 
Grimsbaer,  328 
Grimsbury,  340 
Grimsby,  328 
Grimsby,  Scilly  Isles,  364 
Grimsditch,  227,  241 
Grimstede,  228 
Grinsted,  143 
Guiting,  382 
Gumecester,  346 
Guttona,  355 

Hacananhamme,  370 
Hackney,  251 
Hadham,  116 
Haiscote,  343 
Hafeltone,  234 
Hallamshire,  329 
Hallun,  329 
Halton,  317 
Hame,  235 
Hamescle,  343 
Hanham,  370 
Hanwell,  263 
Hapinga,  hundred,  174 
Hardicote,  228 
Harlinges,  203 
Harmondsworth,  263 
Harrow,  260,  261 
Haslemere,  200 
Haslingefeld,  291 
Hatford,  276 
Hatherop,  382 
Hauelingas,  92,  283 
Hauksfljot,  328 
Haverill,  282 
Hawhope,  332 
Hawkswell,  272 
Hawkflot,  328 
Hazebi,  hundred,  300 
Hearge,  261 
Helford  Haven,  365 
Helsington,  140,  315 
Helston,  365 
Hengestecote,  359 
Hengestes-geat,  215 
Hengestesrig,  215 
Hengesteston,  291 
Hengesthescumb,  266 



Index  of  Place-Names. 

Hengistesege,  266 

Heortha',  240 

Hertha',  240 

Hertham,  240 

Hertford,  103 

Hesleyside,  332 

Heslitesford,  274 

Hevaford,  276 

Heysham,  317 

Heythrop,  382 

Hexham,  333 

Highbury,  251 

Hinksey,  266 

Hinxton,  291 

Hocan-edisce,  272 

Hocceneretune,  273 

Hocheslau,  hundred,  174,  341 

Hocheston,  268 

Hochtune,  302 

Hochylle,  272 

Hockeril,  345 

Hockeswell,  272 

Hockington,  291 

Hocsaga,  273 

Hocslew,  272 

Hoctun,  302 

Hokemere,  272 

Holderness,  323,  369 

Holm  Lacy,  371 

Honechercha,  360 

Honelanda,  360 

Honesberie,  173 

Honesdon,  345 

Honeslau,  hundred,  174 

Honessam,  360 

Honeybourne  Leasows,  383 

Honeyburn,  river.  230 

Honinberg,  hundred,  190 

Honiton,  360 

Hook  Norton,  273,  274,  276 

Hope,  376 

Hope  Bagot,  376 

Hope  Bowdler,  376 

Hope  Hall,  376 

Hope  Mansell,  376 

Hopend,  376 

Hope  Sey,  376 

Horcerde,  235 

Hornsey,  251 

Horntye,  205 

Horsey  Island,  280 

Horsham,  201 
Horton,  233 
Houndsbeer,  365 
Hoxne,  286,  289 
Hoxton,  268 
Humber,  river,  323 
Humbresfelda,  288 
Hunbia,  302 
Hundintone,  302 
Hunecote,  349 
Huneford,  360 
Hunesberge,  hundred,  174 
Hunesbiorge,  190 
Hunespil,  360 
Hunitone,  360 
Hunmanby,  15 
Hunmanbie,  6 
Hunmannebi,  318 
Hunno,  326 
Hunnum,  326 
Hunsdon,  345 
Hunstanton,  285 
Hunstan worth,  326 
Huntandune,  345 
Huntena-ton,  383 
Huntingdon,  345 
Huntishamshire,  370 
Hunwyk,  326 
Hursley,  151 
Hurstbourn,  220 
Hurstbourn  Tarrant,  220 
Hwitanwylles  geat,  331 

Ibthorpe,  174 
Icenore,  204 
Ingelbourn,  river.^o 
Inglecrost,  388 
Inverness,  369 
Ipswich,  255,  288,  290 
Isleworth,  256,  257 
Islington,  251,  263 

Jerchesfont,  240 
Jonsmer,  151,  200 

Keadby,  305 
Kempton,  265 
Kenchester,  372 
Kendal,  315  et  seq. 
Kendalshire,  370 

Index  of  P lace-Names. 


Kenn,  359 
Kennington,  256 
Kentchurch,  372 
Rentes,  265 
Kenthles,  372 
Kentisbere,  359 
Kentish  Town,  253,  263 
Kentmere,  315 
Kenton,  261,  265,  359 
Kent's  Cave,  359 
Kent's  Hill,  259 
Kentsmoor,  359 
Kentswood,  265 
Ken  twines  treow,  265 
Kentyshburcote,  372 
Kcston,  4 
Keymer,  151,  200 
Killhope,  332 
Kilsby,  340 
Kimbolton,  347 
Kingsthorp,  340 
Kirby-le-Soken,  279 
Kirkby  Irleth,  316 
Kirkliston,  326 
Kirkshire,  177 
Kirton-in-Lindsey,  305 
Kynnore,  204 

Lambeth,  256,  257 
Lancaster,  317 
Lanteglos,  367 
Lauendene,  343 
Launditch,  hundred,  287 
Launston,  234 
Lavendon,  343 
Lawingham,  287 
Lealholm,  324 
Leccesham,  287 
Lecchestorp,  330 
Leccheton,  330 
Leche,  388